HistoryThe monarchy in Spain has its roots in the Visigothic Kingdom and its Christian successor states of Kingdom of Navarre, Navarre, Kingdom of Asturias, Asturias (later kingdom of Leon, Leon and Kingdom of Castille, Castille) and Kingdom of Aragon, Aragon, which fought the ''Reconquista'' or Reconquest of the Iberian peninsula following the Umayyad invasion of Hispania in the 8th century. One of the earliest influential dynasties was the Jiménez dynasty, House of Jiménez which united much of Christian Iberia under its leadership in the 11th century. From Sancho III of Navarre (r. 1000–1035) until Urraca of León and Castile (r.1106–1125), members of the Jiménez family claimed the historic Visigothic title ''Imperator totius Hispaniae'' or ''Imperator totius Hispaniae, Emperor of All Spain''. The Jiménez rulers sought to bring their kingdoms into the European mainstream and often engaged in cross-Pyrenees alliances and marriages, and became patrons to Cluniac Reforms (c. 950–c.1130). Urraca's son and heir Alfonso VII of León and Castile, the first of the Spanish branch of the Anscarids, Burgundy Family, was the last to claim the imperial title ''of Spain'', but divided his empire among his sons. The Castilian Civil War (1366 to 1369) ended with the death of Peter of Castile, King Peter (r. 1334–1369) at the hands of his illegitimate half-brother Henry II of Castile, Henry, 1st Count of Trastámara who ruled as Henry II (r. 1369–1379). Henry II became the first of the House of Trastámara to rule over a Spanish kingdom. King Peter's heiress, his granddaughter Catherine of Lancaster, married Henry III of Castile, Henry III, reuniting the dynasties in the person of their son, John II of Castile, King John II.
Marital union of the Catholic MonarchsIn the 15th century, the marriage between and , both members of the House of Trastámara, known as the Catholic Monarchs, united two important kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula. Each kingdom retained its basic structure. In 1492 the Catholic Monarchs conquered the Kingdom of Granada in southern Spain, the last Muslim territory in the Iberian peninsula. The unification of Spain is marked from this date, though the Spanish kingdoms continued past that date. The territories of the Spanish empire overseas were dependencies of the crown of Castile, and Castile had an outsize influence there. Following the Spanish explorations and settlement in the Caribbean, Spanish conquest of Mexico and the Spanish conquest of Peru, the crown established high courts (Audiencias) in important regions and viceroyalties (Mexico, 1535; Peru, 1542) with the viceroy (vice-king) and the Audiencias the effective administrators of royal policy.
Habsburg monarchyIn the early 16th century, the Spanish monarchy passed to the House of Habsburg under King Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Charles I (also Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V), son of Queen Joanna of Castile. The reign of Philip II of Spain marked the peak of the Spanish Golden Age (1492–1659), a period of great Spanish Empire, colonial expansion and trade. In 1700, Charles II of Spain, Charles II was the last of the Spanish Habsburgs and his death triggered the War of the Spanish succession.
Bourbon MonarchyWith the death of the childless Charles II, the succession to the throne was disputed. Charles II had designated his sister Maria Theresa of Spain, Maria Theresa's grandson, Philip V of Spain, Philip of France, Duke of Anjou, as his heir. The possible unification of Spain with France, the two big European powers at the time, sparked the Spanish War of Succession in the 18th century, culminating in the treaties of Treaty of Utrecht (1713), Utrecht (1713) and First Congress of Rastatt, Rastatt (1714), which preserved the European Balance of power in international relations, balance of power. In the mid-eighteenth century, particularly under Charles III of Spain, the Spanish crown embarked on an ambitious and far-reaching project to implement major reforms in the administration of Spain and the Spanish empire. These changes, collectively known as the Bourbon Reforms, attempted to rationalize administration and produce more revenue from the overseas empire. Philip V of Spain, Philip V was the first member of the House of Bourbon#Bourbons of Spain and Italy, House of Bourbon (Spanish: ''Borbón'') to rule Spain. That dynasty still rules today under Felipe VI. During the Napoleonic Wars, the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte forced Ferdinand VII of Spain, Ferdinand VII to abdicate in 1808, and the Bourbons became a focus of popular resistance against French rule. However, Ferdinand's rejection of the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812, as well as his ministerial appointments, particularly the exclusion of liberals, gradually eroded popular support for the Spanish monarchy. With the Pragmatic Sanction of 1830, Ferdinand set aside the Salic Law of Succession, Salic Law, introduced by Philip V, that prohibited women from becoming sovereigns of Spain. Thereby, as had been customary before the arrival of the Bourbons, Ferdinand VII's eldest daughter Isabella II of Spain, Isabella became his heiress presumptive. Opponents of the Pragmatic Sanction argued that it was never officially promulgated, claiming Ferdinand VII's younger brother, Infante Carlos, Count of Molina, Prince Carlos, the rightful heir to the crown according to the Salic Law.
First Spanish RepublicIn September 1873, the First Spanish Republic was founded. A coup d'état restored the Bourbon dynasty to the throne in 1874.
Second Spanish Republic and Regime of Francisco FrancoIn 1931 local and municipal elections produced victories (particularly in urban areas) for candidates favoring an end to the monarchy and the establishment of a republic. Faced with unrest in the cities, Alfonso XIII of Spain, Alfonso XIII went into exile, but did not abdicate. The ensuing provisional government evolved into the relatively short-lived Second Spanish Republic. The Spanish Civil War began in 1936 and ended on 1 April 1939 with the victory of General Francisco Franco and his coalition of allied organizations commonly referred to as the Nationalists. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany aided Franco in the Spanish Civil War. A British MI6 Operative flew Franco from the Canary Islands to Spanish North Africa to take over the Spanish Legion. The Soviet Union backed the Republican Government as did Mexico under the government of Lazaro Cardenas. After sixteen years without monarchy or kingdom, in 1947, Spain was made a Kingdom again by General Franco, who claimed to rule Spain as ''Head of state of the Kingdom of Spain'' through the Law of Succession to the Headship of the State, Law of Succession. However, without a king on the throne, he ruled through a coalition of allied organizations from the Spanish Civil War including, but not limited to, the FET y de las JONS, Falange political party, the supporters of the Bourbon royal family, and the Carlism, Carlists, until his death in 1975.
Re-establishment of the MonarchyDespite Franco's alliance with the Carlists, Franco appointed Juan Carlos I of Spain, Juan Carlos I de Borbón as his successor, who is credited with presiding over Spain's transition to democracy, Spain's transition from dictatorship to democracy by fully endorsing political reforms. Impatient with the pace of democratic reforms, the new king, known for his formidable personality, dismissed Carlos Arias Navarro and appointed the reformer Adolfo Suárez as President of the Government in 1977.John Hooper, ''The New Spaniards'', 2001, ''From Dictatorship to Democracy'' The next year the king signed into law the new liberal democratic Spanish Constitution of 1978, Constitution of Spain, which was approved by 88% of voters. Juan Carlos' "quick wit and steady nerve" cut short the 23-F, attempted military coup in 1981 when the king used a specially designed command communications center in the Zarzuela Palace to denounce the coup and command the military's eleven captains general to stand down. Following the events of 1981, Juan Carlos led a less eventful life, according to author John Hooper. Juan Carlos did not preside over ceremonies such as the opening of hospitals and bridges as often as monarchs in other nations. Instead, he worked towards establishing reliable political customs when transitioning one government administration to another, emphasizing constitutional law and protocol, and representing the Spanish State domestically and internationally, all the while aiming to maintain a professionally non-partisan yet independent monarchy.John Hooper, ''The New Spaniards'', 2001, ''An Engaging Monarchy''
Crown, constitution, and royal prerogativesThe Crown of Spain (''la Corona de España''), with its roots in the Visigothic kingdom from the 5th century and subsequent successor states, is recognized in Title II ''The Crown'', Articles 56 through 65 of the . Constitutionally the monarch embodies and personifies the "indissoluble" unity and permanence of the Spain, Spanish State, and represents the legal personality of the State and by extension fulfills the role of "Father of the Nation". As a unifying figure for the nation, in 2010 King Juan Carlos worked towards "bridging the gap" between Spain's rival polarized political parties to develop a unified strategy in response to the country's on-going 2008–2009 Spanish financial crisis, late-2000s economic crisis. According to the Spanish Constitution voted in 1978 Spanish constitutional referendum, referendum, the sovereignty power emanates from the people, so it is the very same people who give the king the power to reign: The monarch "Reserve power, arbitrates and moderates the regular functioning of the institutions" and assumes the highest representation of the Spanish State in international relations. The monarch exercises the functions expressly conferred on him by the constitution and the laws. Upon accession to the crown and being proclaimed before the Cortes Generales, the king swears an oath of office, oath to faithfully carry out his constitutional duties and to abide by the constitution and laws of the state. Additionally, the constitution gives the king the added responsibility to ensure that the constitution is obeyed. Lastly, the king swears to respect the rights of Spanish citizens and of the self-governing communities. The Prince of Asturias, upon reaching the age of majority, in addition to any regent(s) upon assuming the office, swears the same oath as that of the king along with a further oath of loyalty to the monarch. The oath reads as follows: The 1978 Constitution, Title II ''The Crown'', Article 62, delineates the powers of the king, while Title IV ''Government and Administration'', Article 99, defines the king's role in the appointment of the prime minister and the formation of the council of ministers/government.Part IV Government and Administration
Styles, titles, and the Fount of HonourThe 1978 constitution confirms the title of the monarch is the ''King of Spain'', but that he may also use other titles historically associated with the Crown.The King of Spain may also use the formal address of Catholic Majesty, His Catholic Majesty, according to Almanach de Gotha page 336 (2000). However, according to Royal Decree published in 1987, the formal addressed used is''His Majesty''. According to Royal Decree 1368/1987, regulating the titles, treatments and honours of the royal family and the regents, the king and his wife, the queen consort, will formally be addressed as "His Majesty and Her Majesty" (''Their Majesties'', Spanish: ''Su Majestad'', ''Su'' represents ''His or Her'') rather than the traditional "Catholic Majesty" (''Su Católica Majestad''). A prince consort, the husband of a queen regnant, will have the style "His Royal Highness" (''Su Alteza Real'').Real Decreto 1368/1987, de 6 de noviembre, sobre régimen de títulos, tratamientos y honores de la Familia Real y de los Regentes
Inviolability and lèse majestéThe Spanish monarch is personally immune from prosecution for acts committed by government ministers in the king's name. Although he is nominally chief executive, his acts are not valid unless countersigned by a minister, who then assumes political responsibility for the act in question. This legal convention mirrors the concept of sovereign immunity which evolved in similar constitutional monarchies. The legal concept of sovereign immunity evolved into other aspects of immunity law in similar liberal democracies, such as parliamentary immunity, judicial immunity, and qualified immunity in the United States. As the reigning monarch the king of Spain has absolute sovereign immunity, he cannot be charged in any court of law in the Spanish state. This immunity applies to both civil and criminal cases. Sovereign immunity is reserved exclusively for the current holder of the Office of King. It does not apply to any other member of the royal family. When Juan Carlos I abdicated the throne to his successor Felipe VI he automatically forfeited his constitutional sovereign immunity and can be charged in a court of law. However, special legislation was passed by parliament prior to his abdication that states he may only be tried by Spain's Supreme Court and no other. The concept of lèse majesté (''lesa majestad'') exists in Spanish jurisprudence, which is the crime or offense violating the dignity of the head-of-state or the State itself. According to Article 56 of the 1978 Constitution the monarch and the dignity of the Spanish State are one and the same: "The King is Head of State, the symbol of its unity and permanence". Breaching Spain's ''lèse majesté'' laws may carry fines and up to two years in prison. The concept is within the same legal sphere as legislation prohibiting flag desecration in other democratic countries. Additionally, ''lèse majesté'' extends to any foreign heads-of-state visiting Spain, and other members of the royal family, and to the Spanish Prime Minister of Spain, President of the Government as the king's appointed officer. The Spain, Spanish satirical magazine ''El Jueves'' was fined for violation of Spain's ''lèse majesté'' laws after publishing an issue with a caricature of the Felipe, Prince of Asturias, Prince and Letizia, Princess of Asturias, Princess of Asturias engaging in sexual intercourse on their cover in 2007. In 2008, 400 Catalonia separatists burned images of the king and queen in Madrid, and in 2009 two Galician separatists were fined for burning effigies of the king.
Succession and regencyAccording to Article 57 the Crown of Spain is inherited by the successors of King Juan Carlos I de Borbón through ''male preference primogeniture''. Article 57 is also significant in that it omits entirely the Franconist era designation of Juan Carlos as Franco's successor. While drafting the new constitution, lawyer and liberal congressman Joaquín Satrústegui (1909–1992) insisted that the phrase "the legitimate heir of the historic dynasty" be included in the text to underscore that the monarchy was an historic institution predating the constitution or the prior regime. Additionally, Satrústegui was "anxious to remove" notions that the constitutional monarchy had any Francoist origins, according to author Charles Powell. Male-preference cognatic primogeniture has been practiced in Spain since the 11th century in the various Visigothic successor states and codified in the ''Siete Partidas'', with women able to inherit in certain circumstances.Klapisch-Zuber, Christine (1992). ''A History of Women'': Book II: "Silences of the Middle Ages". Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 1992, 2000 (5th printing). Chapter 6, "Women in the Fifth to the Tenth Century" by Suzanne Fonay Wemple, p. 74. According to Wemple, Visigothic women of Spain and Aquitaine could inherit land and title and manage it independently of their husbands, and dispose of it as they saw fit if they had no heirs, and represent themselves in court, appear as witnesses (over the age of 14), and arrange their own marriages over the age of twenty. However, with the succession of Philip V in 1700, the first of the Spanish Bourbons, women were barred from succession until Ferdinand VII reintroduced the right and designated his elder daughter Isabella II of Spain, Isabella as his heir presumptive by 1833. The debate on amending the Crown's succession law came to the forefront on 31 October 2005, when Infanta Leonor was born to the current King and Queen of Spain. Amending the law to absolute primogeniture would allow the first-born to inherit the throne, whether the heir be male or female. The Zapatero administration of the day proclaimed its intention to amend the succession law; however, with the birth of the king's second daughter the issue was postponed. Paving the way, in 2006 King Juan Carlos issued a decree reforming the succession to noble titles from male preference primogeniture to absolute primogeniture. Since the order of succession to the Crown is codified in the Constitution, its reform mandates a complicated process that involves a dissolution of parliament, a constitutional election, and a referendum. If all lines designated by law become extinct, the constitution reserves the right for the Cortes Generales to provide for the succession "in the manner most suitable for Spain". The 1978 constitution disinherits members of the royal family (as well as their descendants) from succession if they marry against the expressed prohibition of the monarch and the Cortes Generales. Lastly, Article 57 further provides that "Abdications and renunciations and any doubt in fact or in law that may arise in connection with the succession to the Crown shall be settled by an organic act". Constitutionally, the current heirs of Felipe VI are: # Leonor, Princess of Asturias, The Princess of Asturias, elder daughter of the King # Infanta Sofía of Spain, The Infanta Sofía, younger daughter of the King # Infanta Elena of Spain, The Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo, elder daughter of King Juan Carlos I. # Felipe Juan Froilán de Marichalar y de Borbón, son of Infanta Elena. # Victoria Federica de Marichalar y de Borbón, daughter of Infanta Elena. # Infanta Cristina of Spain, The Infanta Cristina, younger daughter of King Juan Carlos I. # Juan Valentín Urdangarín y de Borbón, Juan Urdangarín y de Borbón, eldest son of Infanta Cristina. # Pablo Nicolás Sebastián Urdangarin y de Borbón, Pablo Urdangarín y de Borbón, middle son of Infanta Cristina. # Miguel Urdangarín y de Borbón, youngest son of Infanta Cristina. # Irene Urdangarín y de Borbón, daughter of Infanta Cristina. The constitution outlines the Regent, regency of the monarchy and guardianship of the person of the monarch in the event of his minority or incapacitation. The office of Regent(s) and the Guardianship of the monarch (whether the monarch is in his minority or incapacitated) may not necessarily be the same person. In the event of the minority of the monarch, the surviving mother or father, or oldest relative of legal age who is nearest in line to the throne, would immediately assume the office of Regent, who in any case must be Spanish. If a monarch becomes incapacitated, and that incapacitation is recognized by the Cortes Generales, then the Prince of Asturias (the heir apparent), shall immediately become Regent, if he is of age. If the Prince of Asturias is himself a minor, then the Cortes Generales shall appoint a Regency which may be composed of one, three, or five persons. The person of the king in his minority shall fall under the guardianship of the person designated in the will of the deceased monarch, provided that he or she be of age and of Spanish nationality. If no guardian has been appointed in the will, then the father or mother will then assume the guardianship, as long as they remain widowed. Otherwise, the Cortes Generales shall appoint both the Regent(s) and the guardian, who in this case may not be held by the same person, except by the father or mother of direct relation of the king.
King, the government, and the Cortes GeneralesThe constitution defines the government's responsibilities. The government consists of the Council of Ministers of Spain, President of the Government and ministers of state. The government conducts domestic and Foreign relations of Spain, foreign policy, civil and military administration, and the Spanish Armed Forces, defense of the nation all in the name of the king. Additionally, the government exercises executive authority and statutory regulations. The most direct prerogative the monarch exercises in the formation of Spanish governments is in the nomination and appointment process of the Prime Minister of Spain, President of the Government (''Presidente del Gobierno de España''). Following the Elections in Spain, General Election of the Cortes Generales (''Cortes''), and other circumstances provided for in the constitution, the king meets with and interviews the List of political parties in Spain, political party leaders represented in the Cortes, and then consults with the Congress of Deputies (Spain), Speaker of the Congress (who, in this instance, represents the ''whole'' of the Cortes Generales). Constitutionally, the monarch may nominate anyone he sees fit as is his prerogative. However, it remains pragmatic for him to nominate the person most likely to enjoy the confidence of the Cortes and Government of Spain, form a government, usually the political leader whose party commands the most seats in the Cortes. For the Crown to nominate the political leader whose party controls the Cortes can be seen as a royal endorsement of the democratic process, a fundamental concept enshrined in the 1978 constitution. By Constitutional convention (political custom), political custom, the king's nominees have all been from parties who hold the most seats in the Cortes. The king is normally able to announce his nominee the day following a General Election. The king's nominee is presented before the Cortes by the Speaker where the nominee and his political agenda are debated and submitted for a Vote of Confidence (''Cuestión de confianza'') by the Cortes. A simple majority confirms the nominee and his program. After the nominee is deemed confirmed by the Speaker of the Congress of Deputies, the king appoints him as the new President of the Government in a ceremony performed at the ''Salón de Audiencias'' in the Palacio de la Zarzuela, la Zarzuela Palace, the official residence of the king. During the inauguration ceremony, the President of the Government takes an oath of office over an open Constitution next to the Bible. The oath as taken by President Zapatero on his second term in office on 17 April 2004 was: Video
Royal assent, judiciary, and promulgation of the lawsThe constitution vests the sanction (Royal Assent) and promulgation (publication) of the laws with the king, while Title III ''The Cortes Generals'', Chapter 2 ''Drafting of Bills'' outlines the method with which bills are passed. According to Article 91, within fifteen days that a bill has been passed by the Cortes Generales, the king shall give his assent and Boletín Oficial del Estado, publish the new law. Article 92 invests the king with the right to call for referendum on the advice of the president and the previous authorization of Congress. No provision within the constitution invests the king with the ability to veto legislation directly; however, no provision prohibits the king from withholding royal assent, effectively a veto. When the media asked King Juan Carlos I of Spain, Juan Carlos if he would endorse the 2005 bill legalizing Same-sex marriage in Spain, gay marriages (the implication being that he may not endorse the bill), he answered ("I am the King of Spain, not of Belgium") – a reference to King Baudouin I of Belgium who had refused to sign the Belgian law legalising abortion in Belgium. According to Title VI of the constitution, Justice in Spain "emanates from the people and is administered on behalf of the King by judges and magistrates members of the Judicial Power". It remains a royal prerogative for the king to appoint the twenty members to the General Council of the Judicial Power of Spain (Spain's Supreme Court), and then appoint the President of the Supreme Court (Spain), President of the Supreme Court nominated by the General Council, according to Article 122, Subsection 3, of the constitution. However, by convention the king's nominations have been with the advice of the government of the day. Additionally, the king appoints the State Public Prosecutor on the advice of the government, according to Article 124. The king may grant clemency in accordance with the law, however the king may not authorize a general pardon of government ministers who have been found criminally liable or guilty of treason by the Criminal Article of the Supreme Court, according to Articles 62 and 102.
King and international diplomacyConstitutionally the king accredits Spanish ambassadors to international states and governments, and foreign representatives to Spain are accredited before him. However, the government of the day manages diplomatic policy on behalf of the monarch. Additionally, it remains the responsibility for the monarch to express the state's assent to international commitments and treaties, which must be in conformity with the Spanish constitution. During his reign, Juan Carlos followed a foreign policy during the first decade of his kingship coined ''Reencounter and Reconciliation'', which greatly improved Spain's standing on the world stage. The king reconciled long standing historic tensions with the Netherlands and cultivated relationships with France and Germany which led directly to Spain's entry into the European Community and into NATO. Following the tensions between Franco and the Papacy over the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, Juan Carlos' personal relations with successive popes greatly improved diplomatic relations between the Holy See and Spain, and with Pope Paul VI blessing Juan Carlos' democratic reforms. According to historian Charles Powell, it was the king's goal to win Spain's full acceptance by other European powers. The king, a self-described ''Pan-European identity, Europeanist'', was awarded the prestigious Charlemagne Award in 1982 for his steadfast work towards democracy and for supporting European unity. The constitution gives the monarch special responsibility in promoting Spanish relations with members of its historic community, the nations formerly part of the Spanish Empire and also relations with Portugal and Brazil. Fulfilling this responsibility, the King of Spain serves as president of the twenty-four member Ibero-American States Organization. With his support of democracy, various elements within Ibero-America political society have sought the king's advice on how to transition from a dictatorship to a democracy. For his efforts, by 2008 the king was voted the most popular leader in all of the Ibero-American community. The monarch is assisted in his diplomatic missions by the Minister of Foreign Affairs (Spain), Foreign Ministry, and high-ranking members of the Foreign Ministry are made available to the king when he is abroad representing Spain. The royal household coordinates with the Foreign Ministry to ensure successful diplomatic engagements. Additionally, other members of the royal family, most notably the Prince of Asturias, may represent the Spanish State internationally. Though the Spanish monarchy is independent of the government, it is important that royal speeches are compatible with government foreign policy to project a unified diplomatic effort. To achieve balance, royal household speechwriters confer with the Foreign Ministry to ensure that the official speeches strike the desired diplomatic tone between the king's views and government policy. When necessary and appropriate, the king and his government may focus on two different aspects in a diplomatic engagement. The king may emphasize one aspect, such as the promotion of democracy and historic relations; while the government focuses on the details of strategic planning and bilateral coordination. The king and members of the royal family have represented Spain in Europe, Latin America, in the United States and in Canada, nations in the Middle East and North Africa, in China, Japan, the Philippines, Australia, New Zealand and many countries in sub-Sahara Africa. The king and Prince of Asturias have addressed many international organizations which include the United Nations, the institutions of the European Union, the Council of Europe, the Organization of American States, UNESCO, the International Labour Organization, and the Arab League. Since 2000, Felipe has represented Spain in half of all diplomatic engagements.
King as Commander-in-ChiefThe role of the Crown in the Spanish Armed Forces is rooted in tradition and patriotism as demonstrated in the symbols and the history of the military. The role of the Spanish monarch in the chain of command of the forces is established by the constitution of 1978, and other statutory law – Acts of Parliament, Royal Decrees etc. However, Title IV of the constitution vests the administration of the armed forces and formulation of national defense policy with the President of the Government of Spain, President of the Government, a civil officer who is nominated and appointed by the king, confirmed by the elected Congress of Deputies and, as such, is representative of the Spanish people. Royal Decree 1310 of 5 October 2007 requires the National Defence Council to report to the monarch, and that the king is to be the Chairman of the Council when he attends its sessions. The National Defence Council is Spain's highest advisory body on security and defense matters and performs the same basic function as the U.S. National Security Council. King Juan Carlos chaired the first full meeting of the council on 10 November 2007, at which the newly proposed National Defence Directive was reviewed along with the ongoing war missions in Afghanistan, Kosovo, Bosnia and Lebanon. As Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces, the king holds the highest-ranking office in the military chain of command. The king's ranks include Captain General of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. The king is the only officer in the military to hold this 5-star General rank. The king takes a keen interest in all aspects of military policy as evidenced by "his direct participation in the life of the Spanish Armed Forces". The king's participation in Spanish military life stems from his constitutional duty to "arbitrate and moderate" the regular working of state institutions. Serving in the armed forces is considered an expectation of the heir apparent, Juan Carlos and Felipe VI served in the various branches of the armed forces before they became kings. The monarch has made his desire for a strong rapport with the armed forces clear in speeches to his officer corps:
Popularity and criticismPrior to the 2008–2012 Spanish financial crisis, Spanish financial crisis from 2008, the monarchy traditionally enjoyed wide support and popularity by Spanish citizens since its constitutional restoration in 1978, according to Fernando Villespin, president of the ''Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas'' (CIS, ''English: Sociological Research Center'') in 2008. According to Villespin, the king's traditional approval rating of over 70% through the years consistently out-performed those of elected political leaders, with a similar percentage of respondents considering that the king played an important role in maintaining Spanish democracy. Public trust in Juan Carlos’ kingship "comes only behind that of the Ombudsman, National Ombudsman", Villespin continued. Members of the royal family were routinely voted among the most respected public figures in Spain, and in 2010 as many as 75% of Spanish citizens ranked the monarchy as "above any other public institution in the country", according to Dr Juan Díez-Nicolás, a former president of the CIS and founder of the private consulting firm ASEP (''Análisis Sociológicos Económicos y Políticos''). The CIS, a non-partisan government funded independent research institution, has been researching public opinion of the monarchy since 1984 and tracks three basic lines of inquiry; ''what is public confidence in the monarchy, what is the role of the monarchy in a democratic system, and to what degree has the king contributed to the democratic process.'' The king was routinely considered one of the top ten most popular figures in Spain, with as many as 80% of Spanish believing Spain's transition to democracy would not have been made possible without the king's personal intervention. Historian and royal biographer Charles Powell told BBC News in 2008 that "There's a deep-rooted feeling of gratitude for the king's role in the transition to democracy [and] Polls show that he is the individual to whom democratisation is most closely attributed, and the sense of gratitude cuts across class and ideological lines." Prior to the economic crisis, part of the monarchy's appeal may lay in the personal characteristics of Juan Carlos, whose philosophy on his family, on personal integrity, and on a selfless work ethic were revealed in intimate private letters of fatherly advice to his son Felipe, Prince of Asturias, between 1984 and 1985, when Felipe was then attending university in Canada. According to Juan Carlos a monarch must not take his position for granted but work for the people's welfare, be kind, attentive and helpful, and "appear animated even when you are tired; kind even when you don't feel like it; attentive even when you are not interested; helpful even when it takes an effort [...] You need to appear natural, but not vulgar; cultivated and aware of problems, but not pedantic or conceited". Juan Carlos continued; "I have had to stand snubs and contempt, incomprehension and annoyances that you, thank God, have not known", reminded the king to his son in one letter. The private letters from father to son remain within the royal household, but were copied and released into the public domain without any approval or foreknowledge, according to a Zarzuela palace official who confirmed the letter's authenticity. However, the monarchy became the focus of acute criticism from part of the left and right of the Spanish Politics of Spain, political spectrum, and by Politics of Spain#The nationality debate, regional separatists. As many as 22% of Spanish citizens feel that a republic would be the better form of government for Spain, while separatists and independence supporters in the Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque Country and Catalonia routinely protest the monarchy as the living symbol of a ''united'' Spain. Part of the left criticize the institution of monarchy as Anachronism, anachronistic, while the far right criticize King Juan Carlos personally because he has given his royal assent and tacit approval to what they perceive to be a Spanish society after the democratic transition, liberal agenda in Spain and a secularism of Culture of Spain, Spanish life. The monarchy became subject to sharpened criticism during the 2008–2012 Spanish financial crisis, financial crisis, particularly 2012 which became a kind of "annus horribilis" for the monarchy,"Chastened King Seeks Redemption, for Spain and His Monarchy"
Charitable, cultural, and religious patronageMembers of the Spanish Royal Family, royal family are often invited by non-profit charities, charitable, cultural, or religious organizations within Spain or internationally to become their Patronage, patrons, a role the Spanish constitution recognizes. Royal patronage conveys a sense of official credibility as the organization is vetted for suitability. A royal presence often greatly raises the profile of the organization and attracts public interest and media coverage that the organization may not have otherwise garnered, aiding in the charitable cause or cultural event. Royals use their considerable celebrity to assist the organization to raise funds or to affect or promote government policy. Members of the royal family also pursue charitable and cultural causes of special interest to themselves. As prince, King Felipe chaired the Prince of Asturias Foundation (''Fundación Príncipe de Asturias''), which aims to promote "scientific, cultural and Humanism, humanistic values that form part of mankind's universal heritage." The Prince of Asturias Foundation holds annual Prince of Asturias Awards, awards ceremonies acknowledging the contributions of individuals, entities, and organizations which make notable achievements in the sciences, humanities, or public affairs. Felipe serves as president of the Codespa Foundation, which finances specific economic and social development activities in Ibero-America and other countries, and serves as president of the Spanish branch of the Association of European Journalists, which is composed of achieving communications professionals. Felipe also serves as honorary chair of the Ministry of Culture National Awards Ceremonies. Queen Sofía devotes much of her time to the Queen Sofía Foundation (''Fundación Reina Sofía'').Queen Sofía Foundation
Household of the KingThe royal household organization, constitutionally ''La Casa de Su Majestad el Rey'',Literal translation is House of H.M. the King, often translated into English as 'royal house' or 'royal household'. supports and facilitates the monarch and members of the royal family in fulfilling their constitutionally hereditary responsibilities and obligations.Royal Household
Residences and royal sitesThe king and queen preside over many official functions at the Royal Palace of Madrid, Oriente Palace in Madrid.National Heritage Official Website
Annual budget and taxationConstitutionally the monarch is entitled to compensation from the annual state budget for the maintenance of his family and household administration, and freely distributes these funds in accordance with the laws. According to the Royal Household, "[T]he purpose of these resources is to ensure that the Head of State may carry out his tasks with the independence which is inherent to his constitutional functions, as well as with due effectiveness and dignity". The annual budget pays the remunerations for senior management staff, management staff and career civil servants, other minor staffing positions, and for general office expenses. The Head of Household, Secretary General, and other management staff salaries must be comparable to other administration ministers within the government, though in no way do they form part of the government or administration. As such, the management staff experience increases, decreases, or freezes to their pay in accordance with the fluctuations of government minister salaries. Additionally, the annual budget pays for the maintenance and expenses of senior members of the royal family who undertake royal duties; which includes grocery, clothing, and toiletries allotments. The budget approved by the Cortes for 2010 was just under 7.4 million euros, a budget only slightly larger than that spent on the Monarchy of Luxembourg, Luxembourg monarchy. In 2011 the king addressed the perennial critique of the monarchy; that of how the annual budget awarded to the monarchy and royal household is spent. The report revealed that only 9.6% of the 8.4 million euros budgeted that year for the monarchy are paid to royal family members as 'salaries and representative duties', with the difference marked for royal household operational expenses such as household staff salaries, various insurance premiums and liabilities, services, and 'supplementals' such as overhead. In 2012, the monarchy volunteered an additional 7% pay-cut in solidarity with government officials. Not included in the annual budget is the maintenance and upkeep of Spanish royal sites, which are owned by the state and made available to the king as the head-of-state, but administered by Patrimonio Nacional on behalf of the government of the day. Spanish royal sites are open to the public when members of the royal family are not in residence. Maintenance and upkeep includes groundskeeping, Domestic worker, domestic staffing and catering. The budget is administered with professional Public Administration accounting procedures, and is audited by government auditors. All members of the royal family are subject to taxation and annually submit Income Tax and Wealth Tax returns and effect the relevant payments.
See also*Monarch *List of Spanish monarchs *Monarchs of Spain family tree *List of Spanish consorts *List of titles and honours of the Spanish Crown *Line of succession to the Spanish throne *Politics of Spain *Abolition of monarchy *Carlism
Bibliography* * *
Spanish government websites
News articles*BBC News