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The Kangxi Emperor (Xuanye; 4 May 1654– 20 December 1722) was the third Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over
China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu people, Manchu-led Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China. There is no fixed extent for China pr ...

China proper
, reigning from 1661 to 1722. The Kangxi Emperor's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning emperor in
Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty that ruled in the middle and ...
(although his grandson, the
Qianlong Emperor The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western write ...

Qianlong Emperor
, had the longest period of ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
'' power) and one of the longest-reigning rulers in history. However, since he ascended the throne at the age of seven, actual power was held for six years by four
regent A regent (from the Latin : ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state ''pro tempore'' (Latin Language, Latin: 'for the time being') because the regnant monarch is a minor, is absent, abdicated the throne, is incapacitated or dea ...
s and his grandmother, the
Grand Grand may refer to: People with the name * Grand (surname)Grand * Cedric Grand (born 1976), Swiss bobsledder * Gil Grand (born 1968), Canadian country music singer * Jean-Pierre Grand (born 1950), French politician * Pascale Grand (born 1967), C ...
Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang Bumbutai (; 28 March 1613 – 27 January 1688), of the Khorchin Mongol The Khorchin (Хорчин, ''Horçin''; ''Qorčin''; ) are a subgroup of the Mongols that speak the Khorchin Mongolian, Khorchin dialect of Mongolian language, Mongolian ...
. The Kangxi Emperor is considered one of China's greatest emperors. He suppressed the
Revolt of the Three Feudatories The Revolt of the Three Feudatories, () also known as the Rebellion of Wu Sangui, was a rebellion in China lasting from 1673 to 1681, during the early reign of the Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (5 February 1654– 20 December 1722), per ...
, forced the
Kingdom of Tungning The Kingdom of Tungning () or Kingdom of Formosa was a government that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, Peopl ...

Kingdom of Tungning
in
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
and assorted Mongol rebels in the North and Northwest to submit to Qing rule, and blocked
Tsarist RussiaTsarist Russia may refer to: *Tsardom of Russia (1547–1721) *Russian Empire (1721–1917) {{disambiguation ...
on the
Amur River The Amur (russian: река́ Аму́р, ), or Heilong Jiang (, "Black Dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary considerably th ...

Amur River
, retaining
Outer Manchuria Outer Manchuria (russian: Приаму́рье, translit=Priamurye; zh, t=外東北, p=Wài Dōngběi, l=Outer Northeast) or Russian Manchuria is a term for a territory in Northeast Asia that is part of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, ...
and Outer Northwest China. The Kangxi Emperor's reign brought about long-term stability and relative wealth after years of war and chaos. He initiated the period known as the "Prosperous Era of Kangxi and Qianlong" or "High Qing", which lasted for several generations after his death. His court also accomplished such literary feats as the compilation of the
Kangxi Dictionary#REDIRECT Kangxi Dictionary The ''Kangxi Dictionary'' () is the standard Chinese dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries. The Kangxi Emperor of Qing Dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of Chin ...
.


Early reign

Born on 4 May 1654 to the
Shunzhi Emperor The Shunzhi Emperor (Fulin; 15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661) was List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, Emperor of the Qing dynasty from 1644 to 1661, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper. A Deliberative Council of Princes and ...
and
Empress Xiaokangzhang Empress Xiaokangzhang (1640 – 20 March 1663), of the Manchu people, Manchu Eight Banners, Bordered Yellow Banner Tunggiya clan, was a posthumous name bestowed to the consort of Shunzhi Emperor, Fulin, the Shunzhi Emperor, and mother of Kangxi ...
in Jingren Palace, the
Forbidden City The Forbidden City () is a Chinese palace, palace complex in Dongcheng District, Beijing, Dongcheng District, Beijing, China, at the center of the Imperial City, Beijing, Imperial City of Beijing. It is surrounded by numerous opulent imperial g ...

Forbidden City
,
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
, the Kangxi Emperor was originally given the
personal name 300px, First/given, middle and last/family/surname with John Fitzgerald Kennedy as example. This shows a structure typical for the Anglosphere, among others. Other cultures use other structures for full names. A personal name, or full name, i ...
Xuanye (; Manchu transliteration: ''hiowan yei''). He was
enthroned Enthroned is a Belgian black metal band formed in Charleroi, Belgium. It is one of the premier acts of the Belgian black metal scene. History The band was founded in 1993 by drummer Cernunnos. He soon recruited guitarist Tsebaoth and a vocalist ...
at the age of seven (or eight by
East Asian age reckoning East Asian age reckoning refers to methods of counting personal age which have been used in East Asia for thousands of years. In China, where the system originated, people are born at one ''sui'' 嵗/岁, marking the first year of their lifetime, ...
), on 7 February 1661. However, his
era name A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French ''souverain'', which is ultimately derived from the Latin word ''super ...
"Kangxi", only started to be used on 18February 1662, the first day of the following lunar year. Sinologist
Herbert Giles Herbert Allen Giles (, 8 December 184513 February 1935) was a British diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. I ...

Herbert Giles
, drawing on contemporary sources, described the Kangxi Emperor as "fairly tall and well proportioned, he loved all manly exercises, and devoted three months annually to hunting. Large bright eyes lighted up his face, which was pitted with smallpox." Before the Kangxi Emperor came to the throne, Grand Empress Dowager Xiaozhuang (in the name of
Shunzhi Emperor The Shunzhi Emperor (Fulin; 15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661) was List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, Emperor of the Qing dynasty from 1644 to 1661, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper. A Deliberative Council of Princes and ...
) had appointed the powerful men
SoninSonin may refer to: People * Sonin (regent) (1601–1667), regent in China during the Qing Dynasty * Aleksandr Sonin (born 1983), Russian professional football player * David Sonin (1935–2008), music critic and arts journalist * Konstantin Sonin ( ...
,
Suksaha Suksaha ( Manchu: 23px; ; died 1667) was a Manchu official of the early Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of China#Imperial China, imperial Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty of China. It ...
,
Ebilun Ebilun ( Manchu:, Mölendroff: ebilun; ; died 1673) was a Manchu noble and warrior of the Niohuru clan, most famous for being one of the Four Regents assisting the young Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (5 February 1654– 20 December 17 ...

Ebilun
, and
Oboi Oboi ( Manchu: , Mölendorff: Oboi; ) (c. 1610–1669) was a prominent Manchu military commander and courtier who served in various military and administrative posts under three successive emperors of the early Qing dynasty The Qing ...

Oboi
as
regent A regent (from the Latin : ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state ''pro tempore'' (Latin Language, Latin: 'for the time being') because the regnant monarch is a minor, is absent, abdicated the throne, is incapacitated or dea ...
s. Sonin died after his granddaughter became
Empress Xiaochengren Empress Xiaochengren (3 February 1654 – 6 June 1674), of the Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historic ...
, leaving Suksaha at odds with Oboi in politics. In a fierce power struggle, Oboi had Suksaha put to death and seized absolute power as sole regent. The Kangxi Emperor and the rest of the imperial court acquiesced to this arrangement. In the spring of 1662, the regents ordered a
Great Clearance The Great Clearance (), also translated as the Great Evacuation or Great Frontier Shift, refers to the edicts issued in 1661, 1664, and 1679, which required the evacuation of the coastal areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangnan, and Shandong, ...
in southern China that evacuated the entire population from the seacoast to counter a resistance movement started by
Ming#REDIRECT Ming dynasty#REDIRECT Ming dynasty {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation ...

Ming
loyalists under the leadership of Taiwan-based Ming general
Zheng Chenggong Zheng Chenggong, Prince of Yanping (27 August 1624 – 23 June 1662), better known internationally by his Dutch-Romanised Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-T ...

Zheng Chenggong
, also titled
Koxinga Zheng Chenggong, Prince of Yanping (27 August 1624 – 23 June 1662), better known internationally by his Dutch-Romanised Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-T ...
. In 1669, the Kangxi Emperor had Oboi arrested with the help of his grandmother Grand Dowager Empress Xiaozhuang, who had raised him. and began taking personal control of the empire. He listed three issues of concern: flood control of the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin Chinese, Jin: uə xɔ Standard Beijing Mandarin, Mandarin: ''Huáng hé'' ) is the second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the List of rivers by length, sixth-longest river system in ...
; repair of the
Grand CanalGrand Canal can refer to multiple waterways: * Grand Canal (China) in eastern China * Grand Canal (Ireland), between the River Shannon and Dublin in Ireland * Grand Canal (Venice) in Venice, Italy * Grand Canal d'Alsace in eastern France *Grand Cana ...
; the
Revolt of the Three Feudatories The Revolt of the Three Feudatories, () also known as the Rebellion of Wu Sangui, was a rebellion in China lasting from 1673 to 1681, during the early reign of the Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (5 February 1654– 20 December 1722), per ...
in south China. The Grand Empress Dowager influenced him greatly and he took care of her himself in the months leading up to her death in 1688. Kangxi's relatives from the Han Chinese Banner Tong 佟 clan of
Fushun Fushun (, formerly romanised as ''Fouchouen'', using French spelling, also as Fuxi ()) is a prefecture level city in Liaoning province, China, about east of Shenyang, with a population of 2,138,090 inhabitants (2010 census) and a total area of , ...

Fushun
in
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country ...
falsely claimed to be related to the
JurchenJurchen may refer to: * Jurchen people, Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century ** Haixi Jurchens, a grouping of the Jurchens as identified by the Chinese of the Ming Dynasty ** Jianzhou Jurchens, a grouping of t ...
Manchu Tunggiya 佟佳 clan of
Jilin Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

Jilin
, using this false claim to get themselves transferred to a Manchu banner in the reign of Kangxi emperor.


Military achievements


Army

The main army of the Qing Empire, the
Eight Banners The Eight Banners (in Manchu: ''jakūn gūsa'', ) were administrative and military divisions under the Later Jin and the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty ...
Army, was in decline under the Kangxi Emperor. It was smaller than it had been at its peak under
Hong Taiji Hong Taiji (28 November 1592 – 21 September 1643), sometimes written as Huang Taiji and sometimes referred to as Abahai in Western literature, was the second khan of the Later Jin (reigned from 1626 to 1636) and the founding emperor of t ...

Hong Taiji
and in the early reign of the
Shunzhi Emperor The Shunzhi Emperor (Fulin; 15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661) was List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, Emperor of the Qing dynasty from 1644 to 1661, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper. A Deliberative Council of Princes and ...
; however, it was larger than in the Yongzheng and
Qianlong The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writ ...

Qianlong
emperors' reigns. In addition, the
Green Standard Army The Green Standard Army (; Manchu: ''niowanggiyan turun i kūwaran'') was the name of a category of military units under the control of Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of China#Imperial China ...

Green Standard Army
was still powerful with generals such as Tuhai, Fei Yanggu, Zhang Yong, Zhou Peigong,
Shi Lang Shi Lang (1621–1696), Marquis Jinghai, also known as Secoe or Sego, was a Chinese admiral who served under the Ming and Qing dynasties in the 17th century. He was the commander-in-chief of the Qing fleets which destroyed the power of Zheng Ch ...
, Mu Zhan, Shun Shike and Wang Jingbao. The main reason for this decline was a change in system between the Kangxi and Qianlong emperors' reigns. The Kangxi Emperor continued using the traditional military system implemented by his predecessors, which was more efficient and stricter. According to the system, a commander who returned from a battle alone (with all his men dead) would be put to death, and likewise for a foot soldier. This was meant to motivate both commanders and soldiers alike to fight valiantly in war because there was no benefit for the sole survivor in a battle. By the Qianlong Emperor's reign, military commanders had become lax and the training of the army was deemed less important as compared to during the previous emperors' reigns.


Revolt of the Three Feudatories

After the Qing takeover of China in 1644, large parts of the south and west were given as
fiefs A fief (; la, feudum) was the central element of feudalism Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the histor ...

fiefs
to three Ming generals who aided the Qing; in 1673 the three feudatories were controlled by
Wu Sangui Wu Sangui (), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere The East Asian cultur ...

Wu Sangui
,
Geng Jingzhong Geng Jingzhong (; died 1682) was a powerful military commander of the early Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperia ...

Geng Jingzhong
, and
Shang Zhixin Shang Zhixin (; 1636 – 1680) was a major figure in the early Qing Dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of China#Imperial China, imperial Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty of China. It was estab ...

Shang Zhixin
. Going against the advice of most of his advisors, Kangxi attempted to force the feudal princes to give up their lands and retire to Manchuria, sparking a rebellion that lasted eight years. For years afterwards Kangxi ruminated on his mistakes and blamed himself in part for the loss of life during the revolt. Wu Sangui's forces overran most of southwest China and he tried to ally himself with local generals such as Wang Fuchen. The Kangxi Emperor employed generals including Zhou Peigong and Tuhai to suppress the rebellion, and also granted clemency to common people caught up in the war. He intended to personally lead the armies to crush the rebels but his subjects advised him against it. The Kangxi Emperor used mainly Han Chinese
Green Standard Army The Green Standard Army (; Manchu: ''niowanggiyan turun i kūwaran'') was the name of a category of military units under the control of Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of China#Imperial China ...

Green Standard Army
soldiers to crush the rebels while the Manchu Banners took a backseat. The revolt ended with victory for Qing forces in 1681.


Taiwan

In 1683, the naval forces of the Ming loyalists on
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...
—organized under the Zheng dynasty as the
Kingdom of Tungning The Kingdom of Tungning () or Kingdom of Formosa was a government that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, Peopl ...

Kingdom of Tungning
—were defeated off Penghu by 300-odd ships under the Qing admiral
Shi Lang Shi Lang (1621–1696), Marquis Jinghai, also known as Secoe or Sego, was a Chinese admiral who served under the Ming and Qing dynasties in the 17th century. He was the commander-in-chief of the Qing fleets which destroyed the power of Zheng Ch ...
.
Koxinga Zheng Chenggong, Prince of Yanping (27 August 1624 – 23 June 1662), better known internationally by his Dutch-Romanised Hokkien Hokkien (; , Pe̍h-ōe-jī: ''Hok-kiàn-ōe'', ) or Minnan (閩南語/闽南语), known as Quanzhang or Tsuan-T ...
's grandson
Zheng Keshuang Zheng Keshuang, Prince of Yanping ( zh, 鄭克塽; 13 August 1670 – 22 September 1707), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is ...
surrendered Tungning a few days later and Taiwan became part of the Qing Empire. Zheng Keshuang moved to Beijing, joined the Qing nobility as the "Duke Haicheng" (), and was inducted into the
Eight Banners The Eight Banners (in Manchu: ''jakūn gūsa'', ) were administrative and military divisions under the Later Jin and the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty ...
as a member of the
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
Plain Red Banner
Plain Red Banner
. His soldiers—including the rattan-shield troops (, ''tengpaiying'')—were similarly entered into the Eight Banners, notably serving against Russian Cossacks at Albazin. A score of Ming princes had joined the Zheng dynasty on Taiwan, including Prince
Zhu Shugui Zhu Shugui (1617 – 21 July 1683), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere ...
of Ningjing and Prince Honghuan ( 朱弘桓), the son of
Zhu Yihai The Gengyin Emperor (; 1618–1662), personal name Zhu Yihai (), was an emperor of the Southern Ming Dynasty, reigning from 1645 to 1655. He has no temple name. Biography Zhu Yihai was born in 1618, during the 46th year of the reign of the Wanl ...
. The Qing sent most of the 17 Ming princes still living on Taiwan back to mainland China, where they spent the rest of their lives. The Prince of Ningjing and his five concubines, however, committed suicide rather than submit to capture. Their palace was used as Shi Lang's headquarters in 1683, but he memorialized the emperor to convert it into a
Mazu templeThis is a list of Mazu temples, dedicated to Mazu (媽祖) also known as Tian Shang Sheng Mu (天上圣母) or Tian Hou (天后) Chinese Goddess of Sea and Patron Deity of fishermen, sailors and any occupations related to sea/ocean, also regarded as ...

Mazu temple
as a propaganda measure in quieting remaining resistance on Taiwan. The emperor approved its dedication as the
Grand Matsu Temple The Grand Matsu Temple,. & also known as the Datianhou or ,. is a Chinese temple, temple to the Chinese folk religion, Chinese sea goddess Mazu, the apotheosis, deified form of the medieval Fujianese shamaness Lin Moniang, located in the West Cent ...
the next year and, honoring the goddess
Mazu Mazu is a Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populo ...
for her supposed assistance during the Qing invasion, promoted her to "Empress of Heaven" ( ''Tianhou'') from her previous status as a "heavenly consort" ( ''Tianfei'')... Belief in Mazu remains so widespread on Taiwan that her annual celebrations can gather hundreds of thousands of people; she is sometimes even syncretized with
Guanyin Guanyin, Guan Yin or Kuan Yin () () is the Buddhist bodhisattva associated with compassion. She is the East Asian equivalent of Avalokiteśvara, and has been adopted by other Eastern religions including Chinese folk religion. She was first giv ...

Guanyin
and the
Virgin Mary According to the gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out; in this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrat ...

Virgin Mary
. The end of the rebel stronghold and capture of the Ming princes allowed the Kangxi Emperor to relax the Sea Ban and permit resettlement of the
Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, sub ...

Fujian
and
Guangdong Guangdong (, ), alternately romanized as Canton Province or Kwangtung, is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admin ...

Guangdong
coasts. The financial and other incentives to new settlers particularly drew the
Hakka The Hakka (), sometimes also referred to as Hakka Han, or Hakka Chinese, are a Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The fou ...
, who would have
continuous low-level conflict
continuous low-level conflict
with the returning Punti people for the next few centuries.


Russia

In the 1650s, the Qing Empire engaged the
Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' (russian: Русское царство, translit=Russkoye tsarstvo, later changed to: ), also externally referenced as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the ...
in a series of border conflicts along the
Amur River The Amur (russian: река́ Аму́р, ), or Heilong Jiang (, "Black Dragon A dragon is a large, snake, serpentine, legendary creature that appears in the folklore of many cultures worldwide. Beliefs about dragons vary considerably th ...

Amur River
region, which concluded with the Qing gaining control of the area after the Siege of Albazin. The Russians invaded the northern frontier again in the 1680s. A series of battles and negotiations culminated in the
Treaty of Nerchinsk The Treaty of Nerchinsk () of 1689 was the first treaty between the Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' (russian: Русское царство, ''Russkoye tsarstvo''; later changed to: , ''Rossiyskoye tsarstvo''), also c ...
of 1689, by which a border was agreed between Russia and China.


Mongolia

The Inner Mongolian
Chahar
Chahar
leader
Ligdan Khan Khutugtu Khan ( mn, Хутагт Хаан; ), born Ligdan ( mn, Лигдэн; ), was a khagan of the Northern Yuan dynasty, reigning from 1604 to 1634. His unpopular reign generated violent opposition due to his harsh restrictions over the Mongol ...
, a descendant of Genghis Khan, opposed and fought against the Qing until he died of
smallpox Smallpox was an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the infectious ...

smallpox
in 1634. Thereafter, the Inner Mongols under his son
Ejei Khan Erke Khongghor ( mn, Эрх Хонгор; ), alternatively known as Ejei ( mn, Эжэй; ; "Ejei" means "lord" in the Mongolian language), was the last khagan of the Northern Yuan dynasty The Northern Yuan () was a dynastic regime ruled by the ...
surrendered to the Qing and he was given the title of Prince (Qin Wang, 親王). The Inner Mongolian nobility now became closely tied to the Qing royal family and intermarried with them extensively. Ejei Khan died in 1661 and was succeeded by his brother Abunai. After Abunai showed disaffection with Manchu Qing rule, he was placed under house arrest in 1669 in
Shenyang Shenyang (, ; ; Mandarin pronunciation: ), formerly known as Fengtian () or by its Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, ...

Shenyang
and the Kangxi Emperor gave his title to his son Borni. Abunai bided his time then, with his brother Lubuzung, revolted against the Qing in 1675 during the
Revolt of the Three Feudatories The Revolt of the Three Feudatories, () also known as the Rebellion of Wu Sangui, was a rebellion in China lasting from 1673 to 1681, during the early reign of the Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (5 February 1654– 20 December 1722), per ...
, with 3,000 Chahar Mongol followers joining in on the revolt. The revolt was put down within two months, the Qing defeating the rebels in battle on 20 April 1675, killing Abunai and all his followers. Their title was abolished, all Chahar Mongol royal males were executed even if they were born to Manchu Qing princesses, and all Chahar Mongol royal females were sold into slavery except the Manchu Qing princesses. The Chahar Mongols were then put under the direct control of the Qing Emperor unlike the other Inner Mongol leagues which maintained their autonomy. The Outer
Khalkha Mongols The Khalkha ( mn, Халх, ''Halh'', ) is the largest subgroup of Mongol people The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian people, East Asian ethnic group indigenous peoples, ...
had preserved their independence, and only paid tribute to the Qing Empire. However, a conflict between the houses of Tümen Jasagtu Khan and Tösheetü Khan led to a dispute between the Khalkha and the
Dzungars The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally ''züüngar'', from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirats, Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries. Historicall ...
over the influence of
Tibetan Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism (also referred to as Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, Himalayan Buddhism, and Northern Buddhism) is the form of Buddhism practiced in Tibet and Bhutan, where it is the dominant religion. It also has adherents in the regions surrounding ...
. In 1688, the Dzungar chief,
Galdan Boshugtu Khan Choros Erdeniin Galdan (1644–1697, mn, Галдан Бошигт хаан, , in Mongolian script: ''Galdan bošoɣtu qaɣan''; ) was a Dzungar people, Dzungar-Oirats, Oirat Khan of the Dzungar Khanate. As fourth son of Erdeni Batur, founder ...
, attacked the Khalkha from the west and invaded their territory. The Khalkha royal families and the first
Jebtsundamba Khutuktu The Jebtsundamba Khutuktu ( mn, Жавзандамба хутагт, ''Jawzan Damba Khutagt'' ; zh, 哲布尊丹巴呼圖克圖; , THL ''Jetsün Dampa Hutuktu'' "Venerable Excellent tulku, incarnate lama") are the spiritual heads of the Gelug linea ...
crossed the
Gobi Desert The Gobi Desert () is a large desert upright=1.5, alt=see caption, Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab Emirates">Rub'_al_Khali.html" ;"title="Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali">Sand dunes in the Rub' al ...

Gobi Desert
and sought help from the Qing Empire in return for submission to Qing authority. In 1690, the Dzungars and Qing forces clashed at the Battle of Ulan Butung in
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnati ...

Inner Mongolia
, in which the Qing eventually emerged as the victor. In 1696 and 1697 the Kangxi Emperor personally led campaigns against the Dzungars in the early Dzungar–Qing War. The western section of the Qing army defeated Galdan's forces at the Battle of Jao Modo and Galdan died in the following year.


Manchu Hoifan and Ula rebellion against the Qing

In 1700, some 20,000 Qiqihar Xibe were resettled in Guisui, modern
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnati ...

Inner Mongolia
, and 36,000 Songyuan Xibe were resettled in
Shenyang Shenyang (, ; ; Mandarin pronunciation: ), formerly known as Fengtian () or by its Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, ...

Shenyang
,
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province in Northeast China Northeast China, is a geographical region of China. It usually corresponds specifically to the three province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country ...
. The relocation of the Xibe from Qiqihar is believed by Liliya M. Gorelova to be linked to the Qing's annihilation of the Manchu clan Hoifan (Hoifa) in 1697 and the Manchu tribe Ula in 1703 after they rebelled against the Qing; both Hoifan and Ula were wiped out.


Tibet

In 1701, the Kangxi Emperor ordered the reconquest of
Kangding Kangding (), also called Tachienlu and Dartsedo (; ), is a county-level city and the seat of Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan province of Southwest China. Kangding is on the bank of the Dadu River and has been considered the histor ...

Kangding
and other border towns in western
Sichuan Sichuan (; , ; alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admini ...

Sichuan
that had been taken by the Tibetans. The Manchu forces stormed Dartsedo and secured the border with Tibet and the lucrative tea-horse trade. The Tibetan ''desi'' (regent)
Sangye Gyatso Desi Sangye Gyatso (1653–1705) was the sixth regent (''desi'') of the 5th Dalai Lama Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso (; ; 1617–1682) was the 5th Dalai Lama and the first Dalai Lama to wield effective temporal and spiritual power over all Tibet. He is o ...

Sangye Gyatso
concealed the death of the
5th Dalai Lama Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso (; ; 1617–1682) was the 5th Dalai Lama , coatofarms = , coatofarms_article = , coatofarms_link = , incumbent = Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama The 14th Dalai Lama (spiritual name Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsan ...

5th Dalai Lama
in 1682, and only informed the emperor in 1697. He moreover kept relations with Dzungar enemies of the Qing. All this evoked the great displeasure of the Kangxi Emperor. Eventually Sangye Gyatso was toppled and killed by the
Khoshut The Khoshut (Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * ...
ruler
Lha-bzang Khan Lha-bzang Khan, the last Khoshut King of Tibet Lha-bzang Khan (; Mongolian: ''Lazang Haan''; alternatively, Lhazang or Lapsangn or Lajang; d.1717) was the ruler of the Khoshut The Khoshut ( Mongolian: Хошууд,, qoşūd, ; literally " banner ...
in 1705. As a reward for ridding him of his old enemy the
Dalai Lama , coatofarms = , coatofarms_article = , coatofarms_link = , incumbent = Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama The 14th Dalai Lama (spiritual name Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso, known as Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Dhondup), ...

Dalai Lama
, the Kangxi Emperor appointed Lha-bzang Khan Regent of Tibet (). The
Dzungar Khanate The Dzungar Khanate, also written as the Zunghar Khanate, was an Inner Asia Inner Asia refers to landlocked regions within East Asia and North Asia that are part of today's Western China, Mongolia Mongolia (, Mongolian language, M ...
, a confederation of Oirat tribes based in parts of what is now
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
, continued to threaten the Qing Empire and invaded
Tibet Tibet (; ; ) is a region in East Asia covering much of the Tibetan Plateau spanning about . It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa people, Monpa, Tamang people, Tamang, Qia ...

Tibet
in 1717. They took control of
Lhasa Lhasa (; Lhasa dialect: ; bo, text=ལྷ་ས, translation=Place of Gods) is the urban center of the prefecture-level city, prefecture-level Lhasa (prefecture-level city), Lhasa City and the administrative capital of Tibet. The inner urban ...

Lhasa
with a 6,000 strong army and killed Lha-bzang Khan. The Dzungars held on to the city for three years and at the Battle of the Salween River defeated a Qing army sent to the region in 1718. The Qing did not take control of Lhasa until 1720, when the Kangxi Emperor sent a larger expedition force there to defeat the Dzungars.


Muslims

Manchu emperor Kangxi incited anti-Muslim sentiment among the Mongols of Qinghai (Kokonor) in order to gain support against the Dzungar Oirat Mongol leader
Galdan Choros Choros or Tsoros ( mn, Цорос, ; ) was the ruling clan of the Dzungar people, Dzungars and Dörbet Oirat and once ruled the whole Four Oirat. They founded the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th century. Their chiefs reckoned their descen ...
. Kangxi claimed that Chinese Muslims inside China such as Turkic Muslims in Qinghai (Kokonor) were plotting with
Galdan Choros Choros or Tsoros ( mn, Цорос, ; ) was the ruling clan of the Dzungar people, Dzungars and Dörbet Oirat and once ruled the whole Four Oirat. They founded the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th century. Their chiefs reckoned their descen ...
, who he falsely claimed converted to Islam. Kangxi falsely claimed that Galdan had spurned and turned his back on Buddhism and the Dalai Lama and that he was plotting to install a Muslim as ruler of China after invading it in a conspiracy with Chinese Muslims. Kangxi also distrusted Muslims of Turfan and Hami.


Chinese nobility

The Kangxi Emperor granted the title of Wujing Boshi ( 五經博士; ''Wǔjīng Bóshì'') to the descendants of
Shao YongImage:Shao Yong.jpg, 200px, Shao Yong Shao Yong (; 1011–1077), courtesy name Yaofu (堯夫), named Shào Kāngjié (邵康節) was a Chinese cosmologist, historian, philosopher, and poet who greatly influenced the development of Neo-Confucianism ...

Shao Yong
,
Zhu Xi Zhu Xi (; ; October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), Wade-Giles, W-G Chu Hsi, also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese Confucianism, Confucian scholar philosopher and government official of Son ...

Zhu Xi
,
Zhuansun Shi Zhuansun Shi (b. 503BC), commonly known by his courtesy name Zizhang, was a prominent disciple of Confucius, who accompanied Confucius in his travels abroad, and later started his own sect of Confucianism. Life Zhuansun Shi (Zizhang) was born i ...
, Ran family (Ran Qiu, Ran Geng, Ran Yong), Bu Shang, Yan Yan (disciple of Confucius), and the Duke of Zhou's offspring.


Economic achievements

The contents of the national treasury during the Kangxi Emperor's reign were: :1668 (7th year of Kangxi): 14,930,000 taels :1692: 27,385,631 taels :1702–1709: approximately 50,000,000 taels with little variation during this period :1710: 45,880,000 taels :1718: 44,319,033 taels :1720: 39,317,103 taels :1721 (60th year of Kangxi, second last of his reign): 32,622,421 taels The reasons for the declining trend in the later years of the Kangxi Emperor's reign were a huge expenditure on military campaigns and an increase in corruption. To fix the problem, the Kangxi Emperor gave Prince Yong (the future Yongzheng Emperor) advice on how to make the economy more efficient.


Cultural achievements

During his reign, the Kangxi Emperor ordered the compilation of a dictionary of Chinese characters, which became known as the
Kangxi Dictionary#REDIRECT Kangxi Dictionary The ''Kangxi Dictionary'' () is the standard Chinese dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries. The Kangxi Emperor of Qing Dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of Chin ...
. This was seen as an attempt by the emperor to gain support from the Han Chinese scholar-bureaucrats, as many of them initially refused to serve him and remained loyal to the Ming dynasty. However, by persuading the scholars to work on the dictionary without asking them to formally serve the Qing imperial court, the Kangxi Emperor led them to gradually taking on greater responsibilities until they were assuming the duties of state officials. In 1705, on the Kangxi Emperor's order, a compilation of Tang poetry, the Quan Tangshi, was produced. The Kangxi Emperor also was interested in Western technology and wanted to import them to China. This was done through Jesuit China missions, Jesuit missionaries, such as Ferdinand Verbiest, whom the Kangxi Emperor frequently summoned for meetings, or Karel Slavíček, who made the first precise map of
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
on the emperor's order. From 1711 to 1723, Matteo Ripa, an Italian people, Italian priest sent to China by the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples, worked as a painter and copper-engraver at the Qing court. In 1723, he returned to Naples from China with four young Chinese Christians, in order to groom them to become priests and send them back to China as missionaries. This marked the beginning of the Collegio dei Cinesi, sanctioned by Pope Clement XII to help the propagation of Christianity in China. This Chinese Institute was the first school of Sinology in Europe, which would later develop to become the Istituto Orientale and the present day Naples Eastern University. The Kangxi Emperor was also the first Chinese emperor to play a western musical instrument. Thomas Pereira taught him how to play the harpsichord, and he employed Karel Slavíček as court musician. Slavíček was playing Spinet; later the emperor would play on it himself. He also invented a Chinese calendar. China's famed blue and white porcelain probably reached its zenith during the Kangxi Emperor's reign.


Christianity

In the early decades of the Kangxi Emperor's reign, Society of Jesus, Jesuits played a large role in the imperial court. With their knowledge of astronomy, they ran the imperial observatory. Jean-François Gerbillon and Thomas Pereira served as translators for the negotiations of the
Treaty of Nerchinsk The Treaty of Nerchinsk () of 1689 was the first treaty between the Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' (russian: Русское царство, ''Russkoye tsarstvo''; later changed to: , ''Rossiyskoye tsarstvo''), also c ...
. The Kangxi Emperor was grateful to the Jesuits for their contributions, the many languages they could interpret, and the innovations they offered his military in gun manufacturingMantienne, p. 180 and artillery, the latter of which enabled the Qing Empire to conquer the
Kingdom of Tungning The Kingdom of Tungning () or Kingdom of Formosa was a government that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, Peopl ...

Kingdom of Tungning
.''Les Missions Etrangeres'', p. 83 The Kangxi Emperor was also fond of the Jesuits' respectful and unobtrusive manner; they spoke the Chinese language well, and wore the silk robes of the elite.Manteigne, p. 178 In 1692, when Pereira requested tolerance for Christianity, the Kangxi Emperor was willing to oblige, and issued the Edict of Toleration, which recognized Catholicism, barred attacks on their churches, and legalized their missions and the practice of Christianity by the Chinese people. However, controversy arose over whether Chinese Christians could still take part in traditional Confucianism, Confucian ceremonies and Ancestor veneration in China, ancestor worship, with the Jesuits arguing for tolerance and the Dominican Order, Dominicans taking a hard-line against foreign "idolatry". The Dominican position won the support of Pope Clement XI, who in 1705 sent Charles-Thomas Maillard de Tournon as his Papal legate, representative to the Kangxi Emperor, to communicate the ban on Chinese rites. Through de Tournon, the Pope insisted on sending his own representative to Beijing to oversee Jesuit missionaries in China. Kangxi refused, wanting to keep missionary activities in China under his final oversight, managed by one of the Jesuits who had been living in Beijing for years. On 19 March 1715, Pope Clement XI issued the papal bull ''Ex illa die'', which officially condemned Chinese rites. In response, the Kangxi Emperor officially forbade Christian missions in China, as they were "causing trouble".


Succession disputes

A prolonged struggle between various princes emerged during the Kangxi Emperor's reign over who should inherit the throne – the Nine Lords' War (). In 1674 the Kangxi Emperor's first spouse,
Empress Xiaochengren Empress Xiaochengren (3 February 1654 – 6 June 1674), of the Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historic ...
, died while giving birth to his second surviving son Yinreng, who at the age of two was named crown prince – a Han Chinese custom, to ensure stability during a time of chaos in the south. Although the Kangxi Emperor left the education of several of his sons to others, he personally oversaw the upbringing of Yinreng, grooming him to be a perfect successor. Yinreng was tutored by the Mandarin (bureaucrat), mandarin Wang Shan, who remained devoted to him, and spent the later years of his life trying to persuade the Kangxi Emperor to restore Yinreng as the crown prince. Yinreng proved to be unworthy of the succession despite his father showing favoritism towards him. He was said to have beaten and killed his subordinates, and was alleged to have had sexual relations with one of his father's concubines, which was deemed incest and a capital offence. Yinreng also purchased young children from Jiangsu to satisfy his pedophiliac pleasure. In addition, Yinreng's supporters, led by Songgotu, gradually formed a "Crown Prince Party" (太子黨), that aimed to help Yinreng get the throne as soon as possible, even if it meant using unlawful methods. Over the years, the Kangxi Emperor kept constant watch over Yinreng and became aware of his son's many flaws, while their relationship gradually deteriorated. In 1707, the emperor decided that he could no longer tolerate Yinreng's behavior, which he partially mentioned in the imperial edict as "never obeying ancestors' virtues, never obliged to my order, only doing inhumanity and devilry, only showing maliciousness and lust", and decided to strip Yinreng of his position as crown prince. The Kangxi Emperor placed his oldest surviving son, Yinzhi, Prince Zhi, Yinzhi, in charge of overseeing Yinreng's house arrest. Yinzhi, an unfavored Dishu system, Shu son, knowing he had no chance of being selected, recommended the eighth prince, Yinsi, and requested his father to order Yinreng's execution. The Kangxi Emperor was enraged and stripped Yinzhi of his titles. The emperor then commanded his subjects to cease debating the succession issue, but despite this and attempts to reduce rumours and speculation as to who the new crown prince might be, the imperial court's daily activities were disrupted. Yinzhi's actions caused the Kangxi Emperor to suspect that Yinreng might have been framed, so he restored Yinreng as crown prince in 1709, with the support of the 4th and 13th princes, and on the excuse that Yinreng had previously acted under the influence of mental illness. In 1712, during the Kangxi Emperor's last inspection tour of the south, Yinreng, who was put in charge of state affairs during his father's absence, tried to vie for power again with his supporters. He allowed an attempt at forcing the Kangxi Emperor to abdicate when his father returned to
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
. However, the emperor received news of the planned coup d'etat, and was so angry that he deposed Yinreng and placed him under house arrest again. After the incident, the emperor announced that he would not appoint any of his sons as crown prince for the remainder of his reign. He stated that he would place his Imperial Valedictory Will inside a box in the Palace of Heavenly Purity, which would only be opened after his death. Seeing that Yinreng was completely disavowed, Yinsi and some other princes turned to support the 14th prince, Yinti, while the 13th prince supported Yinzhen. They formed the so-called "Eighth Lord Party" () and "Fourth Lord Party" ().


Death and succession

Following the deposition of the crown prince, the Kangxi Emperor implemented groundbreaking changes in the political landscape. The 13th prince, Yinxiang (prince), Yinxiang, was placed under house arrest as well for cooperating with Yinreng. The eighth prince Yunsi, Yinsi was stripped of all his titles and only had them restored years later. The 14th prince Yunti, Prince Xun, Yinti, whom many considered to be the most likely candidate to succeed the Kangxi Emperor, was sent on a military campaign during the political conflict. Yinsi, along with the ninth and tenth princes, Yuntang, Yintang and Yin'e, pledged their support to Yinti. In the evening of 20 December 1722 before his death, the Kangxi Emperor called seven of his sons to assemble at his bedside. They were the third, fourth, eighth, ninth, tenth, 16th and 17th princes. After the Kangxi Emperor died, Longkodo announced that the emperor had selected the fourth prince, Yinzhen, as the new emperor. Yinzhen ascended to the throne and became known as the Yongzheng Emperor. The Kangxi Emperor was entombed at the Eastern Qing Tombs, Eastern Tombs in Zunhua, Hebei. A legend concerning the Kangxi Emperor's will states that he chose Yunti, Prince Xun, Yinti as his heir, but Yinzhen forged the will in his own favour. It has, however, long been refuted by serious historians. Yinzhen, later the Yongzheng Emperor, has attracted many rumours, and some novel-like private books claim he did not die of illness but was assassinated by a swordswoman, Lü Siniang (), the granddaughter of Lü Liuliang, though this is never treated seriously by scholars.


Personality and achievements

The Kangxi Emperor was a great consolidator of the Qing dynasty. The transition from the Ming dynasty to the Qing was a cataclysm whose central event was the fall of the capital
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
to the peasant rebels led by Li Zicheng, then to the Manchus in 1644, and the installation of the five-year-old
Shunzhi Emperor The Shunzhi Emperor (Fulin; 15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661) was List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, Emperor of the Qing dynasty from 1644 to 1661, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper. A Deliberative Council of Princes and ...
on their throne. By 1661, when the Shunzhi Emperor died and was succeeded by the Kangxi Emperor, the Qing conquest of China proper was almost complete. Leading Manchus were already using Chinese institutions and mastering Confucianism, Confucian ideology, while maintaining Manchu culture among themselves. The Kangxi Emperor completed the conquest, suppressed all significant military threats and revived the central government system inherited from the Ming with important modifications. The Kangxi Emperor was a workaholic, rising early and retiring late, reading and responding to numerous Official Communications of the Chinese Empire#Memorials, memorials every day, conferring with his councilors and giving audiences – and this was in normal times; in wartime, he might be reading memorials from the warfront until after midnight or even, as with the Zunghar Khanate, Dzungar conflict, away on campaign in person. The Kangxi Emperor devised a system of communication that circumvented the scholar-bureaucrats, who had a tendency to usurp the power of the emperor. This Official Communications of the Chinese Empire#Memorials, Palace Memorial System involved the transfer of secret messages between him and trusted officials in the provinces, where the messages were contained in locked boxes that only he and the official had access to. This started as a system for receiving uncensored extreme-weather reports, which the emperor regarded as divine comments on his rule. However, it soon evolved into a general-purpose secret "news channel." Out of this emerged a Grand Council (Qing dynasty), Grand Council, which dealt with extraordinary, especially military, events. The council was chaired by the emperor and manned by his more elevated Han Chinese and Manchu household staff. From this council, the Mandarin (bureaucrat), mandarin civil servants were excluded – they were left only with routine administration. The Kangxi Emperor managed to woo the Confucian intelligentsia into co-operating with the Qing government, despite their deep reservations about Manchu rule and loyalty to the Ming. He appealed to this very sense of Confucian values, for instance, by issuing the Sacred Edict in 1670. He encouraged Confucian learning and made sure that the Imperial examinations, civil service examinations were held every three years even during times of stress. When some scholars, out of loyalty to the Ming, refused to take the exams, he hit upon the expedient of a special exam to be taken by nomination. He personally sponsored the writing of the History of Ming, Ming Official History, the
Kangxi Dictionary#REDIRECT Kangxi Dictionary The ''Kangxi Dictionary'' () is the standard Chinese dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries. The Kangxi Emperor of Qing Dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last History of Chin ...
, a phrase-dictionary, a vast encyclopedia and an even vaster compilation of Chinese literature. To promote his image as a "sage ruler," he appointed Manchu and Chinese tutors with whom he studied the Confucian classics and worked intensively on Chinese calligraphy. In the one military campaign in which he actively participated, against the Dzungar Mongols, the Kangxi Emperor showed himself an effective military commander. According to Finer, the emperor's own written reflections allow one to experience "how intimate and caring was his communion with the rank-and-file, how discriminating and yet masterful his relationship with his generals". As a result of the scaling down of hostilities as peace returned to China after the Manchu conquest, and also as a result of the ensuing rapid increase of population, land cultivation and therefore tax revenues based on agriculture, the Kangxi Emperor was able first to make tax remissions, then in 1712 to freeze the Land value tax, land tax and corvée altogether, without embarrassing the state treasury (although the dynasty eventually suffered from this fiscal policy).Finer (1997), pp. 1156–7.


Family

Parents: * Father: Fulin, the
Shunzhi Emperor The Shunzhi Emperor (Fulin; 15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661) was List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, Emperor of the Qing dynasty from 1644 to 1661, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper. A Deliberative Council of Princes and ...
of the Aisin-Gioro clan, Aisin Gioro clan (爱新觉罗氏 順治帝 福臨) * Mother:
Empress Xiaokangzhang Empress Xiaokangzhang (1640 – 20 March 1663), of the Manchu people, Manchu Eight Banners, Bordered Yellow Banner Tunggiya clan, was a posthumous name bestowed to the consort of Shunzhi Emperor, Fulin, the Shunzhi Emperor, and mother of Kangxi ...
of the Tunggiya clan (孝康章皇后 佟佳氏) Empress: *
Empress Xiaochengren Empress Xiaochengren (3 February 1654 – 6 June 1674), of the Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historic ...
, of the Heseri clan (孝誠仁皇后 赫舍里氏; 3 February 1654 – 6 June 1674) ** Chenghu (承祜; 4 January 1670 – 3 March 1672), second son ** Yunreng, Prince Li (理), Prince Limi of the First Rank (理密親王 允礽; 6 June 1674 – 27 January 1725), seventh (second) son * Empress Xiaozhaoren, of the Niohuru clan (孝昭仁皇后 鈕祜祿氏; 1653 – 18 March 1678), second cousin * Empress Xiaoyiren of the Tunggiya clan (孝懿仁皇后 佟佳氏; d. 24 August 1689), first cousin ** Eighth Daughter (13 July 1683 – 6 August 1683) ** Miscarriage (August 1689) * Empress Xiaogongren of the Uya clan (; 28 April 1660 – 25 June 1723) ** Yinzhen, the Yongzheng Emperor (; 13 December 1678 – 8 October 1735), 11th (fourth) son ** ''Yinzuo'' (; 5 March 1680 – 15 June 1685), 14th (sixth) son ** ''Seventh daughter'' (5 July 1682 – September 1682) ** Princess Wenxian of the First Rank (; 10 November 1683 – August/September 1702), ninth daughter *** Married Shun'anyan (; d. 1724) of the Manchu Tunggiya clan in October/November 1700. ** ''12th daughter'' (14 June 1686 – February/March 1697) ** Yunti, Prince Xun, Yunti, Prince Xun (恂), Prince Xunqin of the Second Rank (; 10 February 1688 – 16 February 1755), 23rd (14th) son Imperial Noble Consort: * Imperial Noble Consort Quehui, of the Tunggiya clan (; September/October 1668 – 24 April 1743), first cousin * Imperial Noble Consort Jingmin, of the Janggiya clan (; d. 20 August 1699) **Yinxiang, Prince Yi, Yinxiang, Prince Yi (怡), Prince Yixian of the First Rank (; 16 November 1686 – 18 June 1730), 22nd (13th) son ** Princess Wenke of the Second Rank (; 31 December 1687 – 27 July 1709), 13th daughter *** Married Cangjin () of the Borjigin#Onnigud Mongols, Onnigud Borjigit clan in August/September 1706 ** Princess Dunke of the Second Rank (; 3 February 1691 – 2 January 1710), 15th daughter *** Married Dorji (; d. 1720) of the Borjigin#Khorchin Mongols, Khorchin Borjigit clan in January/February 1709, and had issue (one daughter) * Imperial Noble Consort Dunyi, of the Gūwalgiya clan (; 3 December 1683 – 30 April 1768) ** ''18th daughter'' (17 November 1701 – November 1701) Noble Consort : * Noble Consort Wenxi, of the Niohuru clan (; d. 19 December 1694), second cousin ** Yun'e, Duke of the Second Rank (; 28 November 1683 – 18 October 1741), 18th (tenth) son ** ''11th daughter'' (24 October 1685 – June/July 1686). Consort: * Consort Hui, of the Borjigin#Khorchin Mongols, Khorchin Borjigit clan (; d. 30 May 1670), first cousin twice removed * Consort Rong (Kangxi), Consort Rong, of the Magiya clan (; d. 26 April 1727) ** ''Chengrui'' (; 5 November 1667 – 10 July 1670), first son ** ''Saiyinchahun'' (; 24 January 1672 – 6 March 1674), fourth son ** Princess Rongxian of the First Rank (; 20 June 1673 – 29 May 1728), third daughter *** Married Örgen (; d. 1721) of the Borjigin#Barin Mongols, Barin Borjigit clan in June/July 1691 and had issue (a son) ** ''Changhua'' (; 11 May 1674), sixth son ** ''Changsheng'' (; 10 September 1675 – 27 April 1677), eighth son ** Yunzhi, Prince Cheng, Yunzhi, Prince Cheng (誠), Prince Chengyin of the Second Rank (; 23 March 1677 – 10 July 1732), tenth (third) son * Consort Hui, of the Clan Nara#Notable figures of the Yehe Nara, Yehe Nara clan (; d. 1 May 1732) ** ''Chengqing'' (; 21 March 1670 – 26 May 1671), third son ** Yunzhi, Prince Zhi, Yunzhi, Prince of the Fourth Rank (; 12 March 1672 – 7 January 1735), fifth (first) son * Consort Yi, of the Gorolo clan (; d. 2 October 1733) ** Yunqi (Prince), Yunqi, Prince Heng, Prince Hengwen of the First Rank (; 5 January 1680 – 10 July 1732), 13th (fifth) son ** Yuntang, Prince of the Fourth Rank (; 17 October 1683 – 22 September 1726), 17th (ninth) son ** ''Yinzi'' (; 8 June 1685 – 22 August 1696), 20th (11th) son * Consort Ping, of the Hešeri clan (; d. 18 July 1696) ** ''Yinji'' (; 23 February 1691 – 30 March 1691), 24th son * Shuangjie, Consort Liang of the Wei clan (; d. 29 December 1711) ** Yunsi, Prince Lian of the First Rank (; 29 March 1681 – 5 October 1726), 16th (eighth) son * Consort Cheng, of the Daigiya clan (; d. 18 December 1740) ** Yunyou, Prince Chun (淳), Prince Chundu of the First Rank (; 19 August 1680 – 18 May 1730), 15th (seventh) son * Consort Xuan, of the Borjigin#Khorchin Mongols, Khorchin Borjigit clan (; d. 12 September 1736), third cousin * Niuniu, Consort Ding of the Wanlioha clan (; January/February 1661 – 24 May 1757) ** Yuntao, Prince Lü, Prince Lüyi of the First Rank (; 18 January 1686 – 1 September 1763), 21st (12th) son * Consort Shunyimi, of the Wang clan (; d. 19 November 1744) ** Yunxu, Prince Yu (愉), Prince Yuke of the Second Rank (; 24 December 1693 – 8 March 1731), 25th (15th) son ** Yunlu, Prince Zhuang, Prince Zhuangke of the First Rank (; 28 July 1695 – 20 March 1767), 26th (16th) son ** ''Yinxie'' (; 15 May 1701 – 17 October 1708), 28th (18th) son * Consort Chunyuqin, of the Chen clan (; d. 12 January 1754) ** Yunli, Prince Guo, Prince Guoyi of the First Rank (; 24 March 1697 – 21 March 1738), 27th (17th) son Imperial Concubine: * Imperial Concubine An, of the Li clan () * Imperial Concubine Jing, of the Wanyan, Wanggiya clan () * Imperial Concubine Duan, of the Dong clan (; d. 1702) ** ''Second daughter'' (17 April 1671 – March/April 1673) * Imperial Concubine Xi, of the Hešeri clan (; d. 31 October 1702) * Yanjimai, Imperial Concubine Tong of the Clan Nara#Notable figures of the Nara, Ula Nara clan (; d. 1 August 1744) ** Princess Chunque of the First Rank (; 20 March 1685 – 22 April 1710), tenth daughter *** Married Ts'ering (; d. 1750) of the Borjigin#Khalkha Mongols, Khalkha Borjigit clan in June/July 1706, and had issue (one son) * Zaiyi, Imperial Concubine Xiang of the Gao clan (; d. 14 August 1746) ** ''Yinji'' (; 25 October 1702 – 28 March 1704), 29th (19th) son ** ''19th daughter'' (30 March 1703 – February/March 1705) ** Yunyi, Prince Jianjing of the Third Rank (; 1 September 1706 – 30 June 1755), 30th (20th) son * Imperial Concubine Xi, of the Chen clan (; April/May 1690 – 1 February 1737) ** Yunxi (prince), Yunxi, Prince Shen, Prince Shenjing of the Second Rank (; 27 February 1711 – 26 June 1758), 31st (21st) son * Imperial Concubine Jin, of the Sehetu clan (; d. 23 April 1739) ** Yunhu (Prince), Yunhu, Prince Gongqin of the Third Rank (; 10 January 1712 – 12 February 1744), 32nd (22nd) son * Imperial Concubine Jing, of the Shi clan (; 13 December 1689 – 10 July 1758) ** Yunqi, Prince Cheng of the Third Rank (; 14 January 1714 – 31 August 1785), 33rd (23rd) son * Imperial Concubine Mu, of the Chen clan (; d. 1727) ** Yunbi (prince), Yunbi, Prince Xian (諴), Prince Xianke of the First Rank (; 5 July 1716 – 3 December 1773), 34th (24th) son. Noble Lady: * Noble Lady Yi, of the Yi clan (伊貴人易氏; d.1728) *Noble Lady Bu, of the Joogiya clan (; d. 21 February 1717) ** Princess Duanjing of the Second Rank (; 9 June 1674 – March/April 1710), fifth daughter *** Married Ga'erzang (; 1675–1722) of the Kharchin Mongols, Kharchin Ulanghan () clan in November/December 1692, and had issue (one daughter) * Noble Lady, of the Clan Nara#Notable figures of the Nara, Nara clan () ** ''Wanfu'' (; 4 December 1675 – 11 March 1679), ninth son ** ''Yinzan'' (; 10 April 1679 – 30 April 1680), 12th son * Noble Lady, of the Gorolo clan () ** Princess Kejing of the First Rank (; 4 July 1679 – March/April 1735), sixth daughter *** Married Dondob Dorji (; d. 1743) of the Borjigin#Khalkha Mongols, Khalkha Borjigit clan in December 1697 or January 1698 and had issue (three sons) ** ''Yinju'' (; 13 September 1683 – 17 July 1684), 19th son * Noble Lady, of the Yuan clan (; d. 25 September 1719) ** Princess Quejing of the Second Rank (; 16 January 1690 – 1736), 14th daughter *** Married Sun Chengyun (; d. 1719) in 1706 * Noble Lady, of the Chen clan () ** ''Yinyuan'' (; 2 March 1718), 35th son Mistress: * Mistress, of the Zhang clan () ** ''First daughter'' (23 December 1668 – November 1671) ** ''Fourth daughter'' (16 March 1674 – January/February 1679) * Mistress, of the Wang clan () ** ''16th daughter'' (27 November 1695 – October/November 1707) * Mistress, of the Liu clan () ** ''17th daughter'' (12 January 1699 – December 1700 or January 1701) * Mistress, of the Niohuru clan () ** ''20th daughter'' (20 November 1708 – January/February 1709)


Ancestry


Popular culture


Fiction

* ''Kangxi Dadi'' (康熙大帝; ''The Great Kangxi Emperor''), a Historical fiction, historical novel by Er Yuehe which romanticises the Kangxi Emperor's life. *''The Deer and the Cauldron'' (鹿鼎記), a ''wuxia'' novel by Jin Yong, Louis Cha. In the story, by coincidence, the Kangxi Emperor and the protagonist, List of The Deer and the Cauldron characters#Main characters, Wei Xiaobao, become close friends in their childhood. Wei helps the emperor consolidate his rule over the Qing Empire and plays an important role in affecting how significant historical events during the Kangxi era unfold. *''Qijian Xia Tianshan'' (七劍下天山; ''Seven Swords Descend from Mount Heaven''), a ''wuxia'' novel by Liang Yusheng. In the story, the Kangxi Emperor discovers that his father, the
Shunzhi Emperor The Shunzhi Emperor (Fulin; 15 March 1638 – 5 February 1661) was List of emperors of the Qing dynasty, Emperor of the Qing dynasty from 1644 to 1661, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper. A Deliberative Council of Princes and ...
, has become a monk in a monastery on Mount Wutai. He orders a close aide to kill his father in order to consolidate power, and attempts to erase evidence of the murder later.


Film and television


Video games

* ''Age of Empires III: The Asian Dynasties'': The Kangxi Emperor is featured as the Chinese leader in this real-time strategy game. * ''Call Me Emperor'': Kangxi is featured as a minister in this Role-playing video game, Strategy Click-RPG game.


See also

* Chinese emperors family tree (late) * Kangxi Tongbao


Notes


References


Bibliography and further reading

* * . * Finer, S. E. (1997). ''The History of Government from the Earliest Times''. (three-volume set, hardback) * * * * . * . * * . * * Ch. 3, "Kangxi's Consolidation," in Jonathan D. Spence, ''The Search for Modern China'' (New York: Norton; 3rd, 2013), pp. 48–71. * *


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Kangxi Emperor Kangxi Emperor, 1654 births 1722 deaths 17th-century Chinese monarchs 18th-century Chinese monarchs Child rulers from Asia Qing dynasty emperors Shunzhi Emperor's sons