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is a form of Japanese street theater and storytelling that was popular during the Depression of the 1930s and the post-war period in Japan until the advent of television during the twentieth century. ''Kamishibai'' was told by a ''kamishibaiya'' ("''kamishibai'' narrator") who travelled to street corners with sets of illustrated boards that they placed in a miniature stage-like device and narrated the story by changing each image. ''Kamishibai'' has its earliest origins in Japanese Buddhist temples where Buddhist monks from the eighth century onward used ''emakimono'' ("picture scrolls") as pictorial aids for recounting their history of the monasteries, an early combination of picture and text to convey a story.

History




Origins


The exact origins of ''kamishibai'' during the twentieth century are unknown, appearing "like the wind on a street corner" in the Shitamachi section of Tokyo around 1930. It is believed, however, that ''kamishibai'' has deep roots in Japan's ''etoki'' ("pictorial storytelling") art history, which can be traced back to the twelfth century ''emaki'' scrolls, such as the ''Choju giga'' ("Frolicking Critters") attributed to the priest Toba Sōjō (1053–1140). The scroll depicts anthropomorphised animal caricatures that satirise society during this period but has no text, making it a pictorial aid to a story. It can therefore be considered a direct precursor of ''kamishibai''. During the Edo period (1603–1868) there was a flourishing of the visual and performance arts particularly through the proliferation of ukiyo-e ("pictures of the floating world"). ''Etoki'' once again became popular during the later eighteenth century as storytellers began to set up on street corners with an unrolled scroll hanging from a pole. In the Meiji Period (1868–1912) ''tachi-e'' ("stand-up pictures"), similar to those in the Edo period, were told by performers who manipulated flat paper cutouts of figures mounted on wooden poles (similar to the shadow puppets of Indonesia and Malaysia). The Zen priest Nishimura is also credited to have used these pictures during sermons to entertain children. Another form of ''etoki'' was the Japanese modified stereoscope imported from the Netherlands. Much smaller in size, six engravings of landscapes and everyday scenes would be placed one behind the other on top of the device and lowered when required so that the viewer, who looked at them through a lens, could experience the illusion of space created by this device. The artistic and technological developments of the Edo and Meiji periods can be linked to the establishment of ''kamishibai''.


Golden age


''Kamishibai'', cartoons, and comics became substantially popular during the Great Depression of the 1930s and after the Japanese surrender to the Allied Forces in August 1945 at the end of the Second World War. This period is known as the "Golden Age" of ''kamishibai'' in Japan. ''Kamishibai'' produced and narrated over this period gives insight into the mindset of the people who lived through such a tumultuous period in history. Contrary to the hardships imposed by the depression, in 1933 there were 2,500 ''kamishibaiya'' in Tokyo alone, who performed ten times a day for audiences of up to thirty children, equalling a total of one million children a day. The Depression years were the most prosperous and vibrant for ''kamishibai'': with 1.5 million unemployed in Tokyo in 1930, it provided a great job opportunity for many people. The early post-war period was particularly hard on the citizens of Japan who wanted to rebuild their lives in a rapidly changing environment. Comics became popular in newspapers and magazines, depicting scenes of everyday life injected with humour. A strong publishing industry emerged from the demand for comics, but outside of this industry, the desire for cheap entertainment provoked the establishment of new comic outdoor storytelling, ''kamishibai''. Five million children and adults were entertained across Japan daily during the post-war period. The ''gaito kamishibaiya'' ("street-corner ''kamishibai'' storyteller") parked their bicycle at a familiar intersection and banged their ''hyōshigi'' ("clapping sticks") together to announce their presence and create anticipation for the show. When the audience arrived they would sell sweets to the children as a fee for the show, which was their main source of income. They would then unfold a ''butai'', a miniature wooden proscenium which held the illustrated boards for the narrator to change as he narrated (and provided sound effects for) the unscripted story. True artists only used hand-painted original art, not the mass-produced kind found in schools or for other communication purposes. ''Kamishibai kashimoto'' (dealers) were sought to commission and rent artwork to narrators for a small fee. The creation of these boards was similar to that of an American comic book company, with each person separately doing the colouring of a panel. The principle illustrator would make pencil sketches that were then done over with thick brushes of India ink. Watercolour paint was then applied to delineate the background and foreground, an opaque tempera paint was then added on top and lastly a coat of lacquer to give it shine and protect it from the elements. A mix of 'trashy pop culture' and fine artistry, ''kamishibai'' blended the traditional linear style of Japanese painting with the heavy chiaroscuro of Western painting, contrasting light and dark to give the figures depth and dynamism. There were a variety of popular stories and themes in ''kamishibai'', which are now seen in contemporary manga and anime, including one of the first illustrated costume superheroes in the world, ''Ōgon Bat'' ("Golden Bat") in 1931, superheroes with secret identities like ''Prince Ganma'' (whose alter ego was a street urchin) and the popular genre of ''gekiga'' or "drama pictures". Many prolific ''manga'' artists, like Shigeru Mizuki, were once ''kamishibai'' artists before the medium went out of vogue in 1953. ''Kamishibai'' was also utilized as a source of communication to the masses, an "evening news" for adults during the Second World War and the Allied Occupation (1945–1953). There are theories about the acceptance of drawing as a means to communicate in Asian nations more so than in Western nations which can be linked to the different printing technologies utilized in each regions histories. In the West, text and image eventually became separated because of the Gutenberg method of moveable type. In the Japanese language of complex characters, it was much easier to employ the woodblock printing. Such use was often related to propaganda.


Decline


The popularity of ''kamishibai'' declined at the end of the Allied Occupation and the introduction of television, known originally as ''denki kamishibai'' ("electric kamishibai") in 1953. With television bringing larger access to a variety of entertainment, many ''kamishibai'' artists and narrators lost their work, with the former turning to drawing ''gekiga'', bringing new talent and narrative to this growing genre. Although this Japanese art form has largely disappeared, its significance and contributions have allowed ''kamishibai'' to be attributed as an origin for manga.

Modern usage

As part of the Toyota Production System, ''kamishibai'' boards are used as a visual control for performing audits within a manufacturing process. A series of cards are placed on a board and selected at random or according to schedule by supervisors and managers of the area. This ensures safety and cleanliness of the workplace is maintained and that quality checks are being performed. ''Kamishibai'' storytelling is currently being conducted as part of an ongoing campaign to promote world peace. Maki Saji (a Buddhist nun) created a ''kamishibai'' based on the story of one of the many children, Sadako Sasaki, who suffered as a result of the atomic bomb raid on Hiroshima in 1945. In May 2010, she was a delegate at a Meeting of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons at the United Nations in New York, where she performed to promote a world in harmony and free of nuclear arms.

See also

* Cantastoria * Light novel * Tokusatsu * Toy theater * Visual novel *Yamishibai

References



External links


Atelier Kamishibai Artist Community

Official Kamishibai Artist Forums

ZiRKUSOFiA
Cuentos y Talleres de Kamishibai.


The International Kamishibai Association of Japan (IKAJA)

Kamishibai for Kids

Storycard Theater

Kreashibai website and shop

Review of Manga Kamishibai: The Art of Japanese Paper Theater on PopMatters.com

Entry
in The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction
Manga's story starts with kamishibai
{{Authority control Category:Buddhist folklore Category:Japan in non-Japanese culture Category:Japanese culture Category:Japanese folklore Category:Performing arts in Japan Category:Storytelling