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Judaea ( la, Iudaea; el, Ἰουδαία ) was a
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...
which incorporated the regions of
Judea Judea or Judaea ( or ; from he, יהודה, Standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrolog ...

Judea
,
Samaria Samaria, , also known as , 'Nablus Mountains' () is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of the Land of Israel, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south. For the beginning of the Common Era, Josephus set t ...

Samaria
and
Idumea Edom (; Edomite language, Edomite: ; he, Wiktionary:אדום, אֱדוֹם , lit.: "red"; Akkadian language, Akkadian: , ; Egyptian language, Ancient Egyptian: ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan (region), Transjordan located between Mo ...

Idumea
, and extended over parts of the former regions of the
Hasmonean
Hasmonean
and
Herodian kingdom The Herodian Kingdom of Judea was a client state A client state, in international relations The field of international relations dates from the time of the Ancient Greece, Greek historian Thucydides. International relations (IR), intern ...
s of Judea. It was named after
Herod Archelaus Herod Archelaus (, ''Hērōidēs Archelaos''; 23 BC – ) was ethnarch of Samaria, Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern version of Judah (; from he, יהודה, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''Yəhūda'', Tiberian voc ...

Herod Archelaus
's Tetrarchy of Judaea, but the Roman province encompassed a much larger territory. The name "Judaea" was derived from the
Kingdom of Judah The Kingdom of Judah ( he, יְהוּדָה, ''Yəhūdā''; akk, 𒅀𒌑𒁕𒀀𒀀 ''Ya'uda'' 'ia-ú-da-a-a'' arc, 𐤁‬𐤉‬𐤕‬𐤃𐤅‬𐤃 ''Bēyt David, Dāwīḏ'') was an Israelites, Israelite kingdom of the Southern Le ...
of the 6th century BCE. Following the deposition of
Herod Archelaus Herod Archelaus (, ''Hērōidēs Archelaos''; 23 BC – ) was ethnarch of Samaria, Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern version of Judah (; from he, יהודה, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''Yəhūda'', Tiberian voc ...

Herod Archelaus
in 6 CE, Judea came under direct Roman rule, during which time the Roman governor was given authority to punish by execution. The general population also began to be taxed by Rome. The province of Judea was the scene of unrest at its founding in 6 CE during the
Census of Quirinius The Census of Quirinius was a census of Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern version of Judah (; from he, יהודה, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''Yəhūda'', Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian ''Yehūḏā''; el, Ἰουδαία ...
, the
crucifixion of Jesus The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern version of Judah (; from he, יהודה, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''Yəhūda'', Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian ''Yehūḏā''; e ...
circa 30–33 CE, and several wars, known as the
Jewish–Roman wars The Jewish–Roman wars were a series of large-scale revolt Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociol ...
, were fought during its existence. The
Second Temple The Second Temple (, ), also known in its later years as Herod's Temple, was the reconstructed Jewish holy temple that stood on the Temple Mount The Temple Mount (Hebrew language, Hebrew: , ; "Mount of the House f God, i.e. the Temple in ...

Second Temple
of
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
was destroyed by the
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, ...
in 70 CE near the end of the
First Jewish–Roman War The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the Great Jewish Revolt ( he, המרד הגדול '), or The Jewish War, was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Isra ...
, and the ''
Fiscus Judaicus 250px, A coin issued by calumnia sublata'', "abolition of malicious prosecution">calumnia_(Roman_law).html" ;"title="Nerva reads ''fisci Judaici calumnia (Roman law)">calumnia sublata'', "abolition of malicious prosecution in connection with the ...
'' was instituted. After the
Bar Kokhba revolt The Bar Kokhba revolt ( he, מֶרֶד בַּר כּוֹכְבָא, links=no; ''Mered Bar Kokhba'') was a rebellion of the Jews of the , led by , against the . Fought circa 132–136 CE, it was the last of three major , so it is also known as T ...
(132–135), the Roman Emperor
Hadrian Hadrian (; la, Caesar Traianus Hadrianus ; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born into a Roman Italo-Hispanic family, which settled in Spain from the Italian city of Atri, Abruzzo, Atri in Picenum. Hi ...

Hadrian
changed the name of the province to
Syria Palaestina Syria Palaestina (literally, "Palestinian Syria";Trevor Bryce, 2009, ''The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia''Roland de Vaux, 1978, ''The Early History of Israel'', Page 2: "After the revolt of Bar Cochba in A. ...
and the name of the city of Jerusalem to
Aelia Capitolina Aelia Capitolina (Traditional English Pronunciation: ; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Thr ...
, which certain scholars conclude was an attempt to disconnect the
Jewish people Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2International Organization for Standardization, ISO 259 is a series of international standards for the romanization of Hebrew, romanization of Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew characters into Latin alphabet, La ...
from their homeland.H.H. Ben-Sasson, ''A History of the Jewish People'', Harvard University Press, 1976, , page 334: "In an effort to wipe out all memory of the bond between the Jews and the land, Hadrian changed the name of the province from Iudaea to Syria-Palestina, a name that became common in non-Jewish literature."


Background

The first intervention of Rome in the region dates from 63 BCE, following the end of the
Third Mithridatic War The Third Mithridatic War (73–63 BC), the last and longest of the three Mithridatic Wars The Mithridatic Wars were three conflicts fought by Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder ...
, when Rome established the
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
of
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...
. After the defeat of
Mithridates VI of Pontus Mithridates or Mithradates VI Eupator ( grc-gre, Μιθραδάτης; 135–63 BC) was ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus The Kingdom of Pontus ( grc, Βασιλεία τοῦ Πόντου, ''Basileía toû Póntou'') was a Hellenistic The ...

Mithridates VI of Pontus
,
Pompey Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (; 29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization f ...
sacked Jerusalem and installed Hasmonean prince
Hyrcanus II John Hyrcanus II (, ''Yohanan Hurqanos'') (died 30 BCE), a member of the Hasmonean dynasty, was for a long time the Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an i ...

Hyrcanus II
as
Ethnarch Ethnarch, pronounced , the anglicized form of ethnarches ( el, ), refers generally to political leadership over a common ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (p ...
and
High Priest The term “high priest” usually refers either to an individual who holds the office of ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction ...
but not as king. Some years later
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...

Julius Caesar
appointed
Antipater the Idumaean Antipater I the Idumaean, (born 113 or 114 BCE, died 43 BCE) was the founder of the Herodian Dynasty #REDIRECT Herodian dynasty #REDIRECT Herodian dynasty#REDIRECT Herodian dynasty 260px, Coin of Herod the Great The Herodian dynasty was a ro ...
, also known as ''Antipas'', as the first Roman Procurator. Antipater's son Herod was designated "
King of the Jews This article is an overview of the kings of the Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy), United Kingdom of Israel as well as those of History of ancient Israel and Judah, its successor states and classical period kingdoms ruled by the Hasmonean dynas ...
" by the
Roman Senate
Roman Senate
in 40 BCE but he did not gain military control until 37 BCE. During his reign the last representatives of the Hasmoneans were eliminated, and the huge port of
Caesarea Maritima Caesarea Maritima (; Koine Greek, Greek: ''Parálios Kaisáreia''), formerly Strato's Tower, also known as Caesarea Palestinae, was an ancient city in the Sharon Plain on the coast of the Mediterranean, now in ruins and included in an National ...

Caesarea Maritima
was built. Herod died in 4 BCE, and his kingdom was divided among three of his sons, two of whom (
Philip Philip, also Phillip, is a male given name, derived from the Greek language, Greek (''Philippos'', lit. "horse-loving" or "fond of horses"), from a compound of (''philos'', "dear", "loved", "loving") and (''hippos'', "horse"). Prominent Philip ...
and
Herod Antipas Herod Antipas ( el, Ἡρῴδης Ἀντίπας, ''Hērǭdēs Antipas''; born before 20 BC – died after 39 AD), was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee and Perea (region), Perea, who bore the title of Herodian Tetrarchy, tetrarch ("ruler of a q ...

Herod Antipas
) became
tetrarchs The Tetrarchy is the term adopted to describe the system of government of the ancient Roman Empire instituted by Roman Emperor The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial period (s ...
('rulers of a quarter part'). The third son,
Archelaus
Archelaus
, became an
ethnarch Ethnarch, pronounced , the anglicized form of ethnarches ( el, ), refers generally to political leadership over a common ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (p ...
and ruled over half of his father's kingdom. One of these principalities was ''Judea'', corresponding to the territory of the historic Judea, plus Samaria and Idumea.
Archelaus
Archelaus
ruled Judea so badly that he was dismissed in 6 CE by the
Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Politica ...
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
, after an appeal from his own population. Herod Antipas, ruler of
Galilee Galilee (; he, הַגָּלִיל, ha-galil; ar, الجليل, al-jalīl) is a region located in northern Israel and southern Lebanon. Galilee traditionally refers to the mountainous part, divided into Upper Galilee (, ; , ) and Lower Galil ...

Galilee
and
Perea Image:First century Iudaea province.gif, 280px, Perea and its surroundings in the 1st century CE Perea or Peraea (Greek language, Greek: Περαία, "peraia, the country beyond"), was the portion of the kingdom of Herod the Great occupying the ...
from 4 BCE was in 39 CE dismissed by
Emperor Caligula
Emperor Caligula
. Herod's son Philip ruled the northeastern part of his father's kingdom.


Judea as Roman province(s)


Revolt and removal of Herod Archelaus

Following the death of
Herod the Great Herod I (; ; grc-gre, ; c. 72 – 4 or 1 BCE), also known as Herod the Great, was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romu ...
, the
Herodian Kingdom of Judea The Herodian kingdom of Judea was a client state of the Roman Republic from 37 BCE, when Herod the Great was appointed "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate. When Herod died in 4 BCE, the kingdom was divided among his sons into the Herodian Tetr ...
was divided into the
Herodian Tetrarchy The Herodian Tetrarchy was formed following the death of Herod the Great Herod I (; ; grc-gre, ; c. 72 – 4 or 1 BCE), also known as Herod the Great, was a Roman Empire, Roman client state, client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian K ...
, jointly ruled by Herod's sons and sister:
Herod Archelaus Herod Archelaus (, ''Hērōidēs Archelaos''; 23 BC – ) was ethnarch of Samaria, Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern version of Judah (; from he, יהודה, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standard ''Yəhūda'', Tiberian voc ...

Herod Archelaus
(who ruled
Judea Judea or Judaea ( or ; from he, יהודה, Standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrolog ...

Judea
,
Samaria Samaria, , also known as , 'Nablus Mountains' () is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of the Land of Israel, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south. For the beginning of the Common Era, Josephus set t ...

Samaria
and
Idumea Edom (; Edomite language, Edomite: ; he, Wiktionary:אדום, אֱדוֹם , lit.: "red"; Akkadian language, Akkadian: , ; Egyptian language, Ancient Egyptian: ) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan (region), Transjordan located between Mo ...

Idumea
), Herod Philip (who ruled
Batanea Batanaea or Batanea (the Hellenized/Latinised form of Bashan) was an area of the Holy Land (Biblical), Biblical Holy Land, north-east of the Jordan River, to the west of Trachonitis. It was one of the four post-Babylonian captivity, Exile divisions ...
,
Trachonitis The Lajat (/ALA-LC ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script. Applications The system is used to represent bib ...

Trachonitis
as well as Auranitis),
Herod Antipas Herod Antipas ( el, Ἡρῴδης Ἀντίπας, ''Hērǭdēs Antipas''; born before 20 BC – died after 39 AD), was a 1st-century ruler of Galilee and Perea (region), Perea, who bore the title of Herodian Tetrarchy, tetrarch ("ruler of a q ...

Herod Antipas
(who ruled
Galilee Galilee (; he, הַגָּלִיל, ha-galil; ar, الجليل, al-jalīl) is a region located in northern Israel and southern Lebanon. Galilee traditionally refers to the mountainous part, divided into Upper Galilee (, ; , ) and Lower Galil ...

Galilee
and
Perea Image:First century Iudaea province.gif, 280px, Perea and its surroundings in the 1st century CE Perea or Peraea (Greek language, Greek: Περαία, "peraia, the country beyond"), was the portion of the kingdom of Herod the Great occupying the ...
) and
Salome I Salome I (ca. 65 BCE – ca. 10 CE) was the sister of Herod the Great and the mother of Berenice (daughter of Salome), Berenice by her husband Costobarus, governor of Idumea. She was a nominal queen regnant of the toparchy of Jabneh, Iamnia, Ash ...
(who briefly ruled Jamnia). A messianic revolt erupted in Judea in 4 BCE because of Archelaus's incompetence; the revolt was brutally crushed by the
Legate
Legate
of
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...
,
Publius Quinctilius Varus Publius Quinctilius Varus (46 BC – AD 9) was a Roman general and politician under the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of d ...
, who occupied
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
and crucified 2000 Jewish rebels. Because of his failure to properly rule Judea, in 6 CE Archelaus was removed from his post by Emperor
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
and Judea, Samaria and Idumea came under direct Roman administration.


Under a prefect (6-41)

The Judean province did not initially include
Galilee Galilee (; he, הַגָּלִיל, ha-galil; ar, الجليل, al-jalīl) is a region located in northern Israel and southern Lebanon. Galilee traditionally refers to the mountainous part, divided into Upper Galilee (, ; , ) and Lower Galil ...

Galilee
, Gaulanitis (today's Golan), nor
Peraea Peraia, and Peraea or Peræa (from grc, ἡ περαία, ''hē peraia'', "land across") in the Classical Antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history Hist ...
or the
Decapolis The Decapolis (Greek: grc, Δεκάπολις, Dekápolis, Ten Cities, label=none) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥω ...
. Its revenue was of little importance to the Roman treasury, but it controlled the land and coastal sea routes to the "bread basket" of
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...
and was a buffer against the
Parthian Empire The Parthian Empire (), also known as the Arsacid Empire (), was a major political and cultural power in from 247 BC to 224 AD. Its latter name comes from its founder, , who led the tribe in conquering the region of in 's northeast, ...

Parthian Empire
. The capital was moved from Jerusalem to
Caesarea Maritima Caesarea Maritima (; Koine Greek, Greek: ''Parálios Kaisáreia''), formerly Strato's Tower, also known as Caesarea Palestinae, was an ancient city in the Sharon Plain on the coast of the Mediterranean, now in ruins and included in an National ...

Caesarea Maritima
. Augustus appointed
Publius Sulpicius Quirinius Publius Sulpicius Quirinius (c. 51 BC – AD 21), also translated as Cyrenius, was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient ...
to the post of
Legate
Legate
of
Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا or ar, سُورِيَة, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-S ...
and he conducted the first Roman tax census of Syria and Judea, which triggered the revolt of
Judas of Galilee Judas of Galilee, or Judas of Gamala, was a Jewish leader who led resistance to the census imposed for Roman tax purposes by Quirinius in Judea Province around 6 CE. He encouraged Jews not to register and those that did had their houses burnt an ...
; the revolt was quickly crushed by Quirinius. Judea was not a
senatorial province A senatorial province ( la, provincia populi Romani, province of the Roman people) was a Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Italy that were co ...
, nor an
imperial province An imperial province was a Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and lat ...
, but instead was a "satellite of Syria" governed by a
prefect Prefect (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of th ...

prefect
who was a knight of the Equestrian Order (as was that of
Roman Egypt , conventional_long_name = Roman Egypt , common_name = Egypt , subdivision = Roman province, Province , nation = the Roman Empire , era = Late antiquity , capital = Alexandria , title_leader = Praefectus Augustalis , image_ ...
), not a former consul or
praetor Praetor ( , ), also pretor, was the granted by the government of to a man acting in one of two official capacities: (i) the commander of an , and (ii) as an elected ' (magistrate), assigned to discharge various duties. The functions of the magi ...
of
senatorial rank
senatorial rank
. Quirinius appointed Coponius as first prefect of Judea Still, Jews living in the province maintained some form of independence and could judge offenders by their own laws, including capital offenses, until ''c.'' 28 CE. Judea in the early
Roman period The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of governme ...
was divided into five administrative districts with centers in Jerusalem,
Gadara Gadara ( el, Γάδαρα ''Gádara''), in some texts Gedaris, was an ancient Hellenistic The Hellenistic period spans the period of History of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323&n ...
,
Amathus Amathus or Amathous ( grc, Ἀμαθοῦς) was an ancient city and one of the ancient royal cities of Cyprus Cyprus ; tr, Kıbrıs (), officially called the Republic of Cyprus,, , lit: Republic of Cyprus is an island country An ...
,
Jericho Jericho ( ; ar, أريحا ' ; he, יְרִיחוֹ ') is a city in the . It is located in the , with the to the east and to the west. It is the administrative seat of the and is governed by the . In 2007, it had a population of 18,346. ...

Jericho
, and
Sepphoris Sepphoris () or Zippori (; he, צִפּוֹרִי, Tzipóri; grc, Σέπφωρις, Sépphōris; ar, صفورية, Ṣaffūriya), in the past called Diocaesaraea ( grc, Διοκαισάρεια, links=no) and, during the Crusades, le Safor ...

Sepphoris
. In 30-33 CE, Roman prefect
Pontius Pilate Pontius Pilate ( ; grc-gre, Πόντιος Πιλᾶτος, ) was the fifth governor of the , serving under Emperor from the year 26/27 to 36/37 AD. He is best known for being the official who presided over and later ordered . Pilate's importan ...
, at the request of the Jewish authorities, had
Jesus of Nazareth Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...
crucified Crucifixion is a method of punishment or capital punishment in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang perhaps for several days, until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation. It was used as a punishment ...
on the charge of sedition, an act that led to the birth of
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
. In 36 CE another messianic revolt erupted near
Mount Gerizim Mount Gerizim (; Samaritan Hebrew: ࠄࠟࠓࠂࠟࠓࠩࠆࠝࠉࠌ ''ʾĀ̊rgā̊rīzēm''; Hebrew: ''Har Gərīzīm''; ar, جَبَل جَرِزِيم ''Jabal Jarizīm'' or جبل الطور ''Jabal al-Ṭūr'') is one of two mountains in t ...
, under the lead of a
Samaritan Jew
Samaritan Jew
, and was quickly crushed by Pilate; the Samaritans complained against Pilate's brutality to the Legate of Syria
Lucius Vitellius the Elder Titulus of Pyramus, the '' cubicularius'' of Lucius Vitellius Lucius Vitellius (before 7 BC – AD 51) was the youngest of four sons of procurator (Roman), procurator Publius Vitellius the Elder, Publius Vitellius and the only one who did not d ...
, who removed Pilate from his post and sent him to Rome to account, replacing him with an acting prefect called Marcellus. In 37 CE, Emperor Caligula ordered the erection of a statue of himself in the Jewish
Temple of Jerusalem The Temple in Jerusalem was any of a series of structures which were located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque. These successive temples stood at this location and func ...
,Philo of Alexandria, ''On the Embassy to Gaius'' XXX.203. a demand in conflict with Jewish monotheism.Philo of Alexandria, ''On the Embassy to Gaius'' XVI.115. The
Legate
Legate
of Syria, Publius Petronius, fearing civil war if the order was carried out, delayed implementing it for nearly a year. King
Herod Agrippa I Herod Agrippa, also known as Herod II or Agrippa I (; 11 BC – AD 44), was a Herodian Dynasty, King of Judea from AD 41 to 44. He was the last ruler with the royal title reigning over Judea (Roman province), Judea and the father of Herod Agrip ...
finally convinced Caligula to reverse the order.Josephus, ''Antiquities of the Jews'' XVIII.8.1. Caligula later issued a second order to have his statue erected in the Temple of Jerusalem, but he was murdered before the statue reached Jerusalem and his successor
Claudius Claudius ( ; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was the fourth Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial p ...

Claudius
rescinded the order.Josephus, ''Antiquities of the Jews'' XVIII.8. The "Crisis under
Caligula Caligula (; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD), formally known as Gaius (Gaius Gaius, sometimes spelled ''Gajus'', Cajus, Caius, was a common Latin praenomen The praenomen (; plural: praenomina) was a given name, personal name chosen by th ...

Caligula
" has been proposed as the first open break between Rome and the Jews.


Autonomy under Herod Agrippa (41–44)

Between 41 and 44 CE, Judea regained its nominal
autonomy In developmental psychology Developmental psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions ...
, when
Herod Agrippa Herod Agrippa, also known as Herod II or Agrippa I (; 11 BC – AD 44), was a King of Judea from AD 41 to 44 and of Philip's tetrarchy from 39. He was the last ruler with the royal title reigning over Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern ...
was made ''King of the Jews'' by the emperor
Claudius Claudius ( ; Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was the fourth Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the History of the Roman Empire, imperial p ...

Claudius
, thus in a sense restoring the Herodian dynasty, although there is no indication that Judea ceased to be a Roman province simply because it no longer had a prefect. Claudius had decided to allow, across the empire, procurators, who had been personal agents to the Emperor often serving as provincial tax and finance ministers, to be elevated to governing magistrates with full state authority to keep the peace. He may have elevated Judea's procurator to imperial governing status because the imperial legate of Syria was not sympathetic to the Judeans.


Under a procurator (44–66)

Following Agrippa's death in 44, the province returned to direct Roman control, incorporating Agrippa's personal territories of Galilee and Peraea, under a row of procurators. Nevertheless, Agrippa's son,
Agrippa II Herod Agrippa II (; AD 27/28 – or 100), officially named Marcus Julius Agrippa and sometimes shortened to Agrippa, was the last ruler from the Herodian dynasty #REDIRECT Herodian dynasty #REDIRECT Herodian dynasty#REDIRECT Herodian dynasty ...

Agrippa II
was designated ''King of the Jews'' in 48. He was the seventh and last of the
Herodians The Herodians (''Herodiani'') were a sect of Hellenistic Jews mentioned in the New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Bibli ...
. Between the years 66-70 follows the Great Revolt.


Under a legate (70–132)

From 70 until 135 Judea's rebelliousness required a governing Roman
legate
legate
capable of commanding legions. Because Agrippa II maintained loyalty to the Empire, the Kingdom was retained until he died, either in 93/94 or 100, when the area returned to complete, undivided Roman control. Judaea was the stage of two, possibly three, major
Jewish–Roman wars The Jewish–Roman wars were a series of large-scale revolt Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an established authority In the fields of sociol ...
: * 66
70 CE AD 70 (Roman numerals, LXX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Vespasian and Titus (or, less frequently, year 823 ''Ab urbe ...
First Jewish–Roman War The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the Great Jewish Revolt ( he, המרד הגדול '), or The Jewish War, was the first of three major rebellions by the Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Isra ...
, resulting in the siege of Jerusalem, the destruction of
Herod's Temple The Second Temple (, '' Beit HaMikdash HaSheni'') was the Jewish holy temple, which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic n ...

Herod's Temple
and ending with the
siege of Masada The siege of Masada was one of the final events in the First Jewish–Roman War, occurring from 73 to 74 Common Era, CE on and around a large hilltop in current-day Israel. The siege is known to history via a single source, Flavius Josephus, a Je ...
in 73–74. (see
Josephus Flavius Josephus (; grc-gre, Ἰώσηπος, ; 37 – 100) was a first-century Roman Jews, Romano-Jewish historian and military leader, best known for ''The Jewish War'', who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Judea (Roman province), Roman ...

Josephus
). Before the war Judaea was a Roman province of the third category, that is, under the administration of a procurator of equestrian rank and under the overall control of the ''governor of Syria''. After the war it became an independent Roman province with the official name of ''Judaea'' and under the administration of a governor of praetorian rank, and was therefore moved up into the second category (it was only later, in about 120, that Judaea became a consular province, that is, with a governor of consular rank). *115–117 – the
Kitos War The Kitos War (115–117; he, מרד הגלויות, mered ha-galuyot, or ''mered ha-tfutzot''; "rebellion of the diaspora" la, Tumultus Iudaicus) was one of the major Jewish–Roman wars The Jewish–Roman wars were a series of large-sc ...
(Second Jewish-Roman War); Judea's role in it is disputed though, as it played itself out mainly in the Jewish diaspora and there are no fully trustworthy sources on Judea's participation in the rebellion, nor is there any archaeological way of distinguishing destruction levels of 117 CE from those of the major Bar Kokhba revolt of just a decade and a half later. *132–135 –
Bar Kokhba's revolt The Bar Kokhba revolt ( he, מֶרֶד בַּר כּוֹכְבָא, links=no; ''Mered Bar Kokhba'') was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire. Fought circa 132–136 CE, it wa ...
(Third Jewish-Roman War); Following the suppression of Bar Kokhba's revolt, the emperor
Hadrian Hadrian (; la, Caesar Traianus Hadrianus ; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born into a Roman Italo-Hispanic family, which settled in Spain from the Italian city of Atri, Abruzzo, Atri in Picenum. Hi ...

Hadrian
changed the name of the province to
Syria Palaestina Syria Palaestina (literally, "Palestinian Syria";Trevor Bryce, 2009, ''The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia''Roland de Vaux, 1978, ''The Early History of Israel'', Page 2: "After the revolt of Bar Cochba in A. ...
and Jerusalem became ''
Aelia Capitolina Aelia Capitolina (Traditional English Pronunciation: ; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Thr ...
''. Most scholars, including
Hayim Hillel Ben-Sasson Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson ( he, חיים הלל בן-ששון (1914 in Valozhyn – 16 May 1977 in Jerusalem) was professor of Jewish medieval history at Hebrew University of Jerusalem The Hebrew University of Jerusalem ( he, הַאוּנִיב ...
believe this was done to erase the historical ties of the Jewish people to the region. However, this did not prevent the Jewish people from referring to the country in their writings as either "Yehudah" () or "The Land of Israel" ().


Division into three provinces (135)

Under
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in , Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become a commander of ...
(284–305) the region was divided into three provinces:H. H. Ben-Sasson, ''A History of the Jewish People'', Harvard University Press, 1976, , page 351 *
Palaestina Prima Palæstina Prima or Palaestina I was a Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, ...
(Judea, Samaria, Idumea, Peraea and the coastal plain, with Caesarea Maritima as capital) *
Palaestina Secunda Palæstina Secunda or Palaestina II was a Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Age ...
(Galilee, Decapolis and Golan, with
Beth-Shean Beit She'an ( he, בֵּית שְׁאָן '), also known as Beisan ( ar, بيسان ), and historically known as Scythopolis (''Σκυθόπολις'' in Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( ...
as capital) *
Palaestina Tertia Palaestina Salutaris or Palaestina Tertia was a Byzantine (Eastern Roman) province, which covered the area of the Negev, Sinai Peninsula, Sinai (except the north western coast) and south-west of Transjordan (region), Transjordan, south of the Dead ...
(the
Negev The Negev or Negeb (; he, הַנֶּגֶב; ar, ٱلنَّقَب ') is a desert upright=1.5, alt=see caption, Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali ("Empty quarter") in the United Arab Emirates">Rub'_al_Khali.html" ;"title="Sand dunes in th ...

Negev
desert, with
Petra The Positron-Electron Tandem Ring Accelerator (PETRA) is one of the particle accelerator A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel electric charge, charged particles to very high speeds and energies, and to ...

Petra
as capital).


List of governors (6–135 CE)


References


External links


Jewish Encyclopedia: Procurators of Iudaea

Procurators
''
Jewish Encyclopedia ''The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History, Religion, Literature, and Customs of the Jewish People from the Earliest Times to the Present Day'' is an English-language encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the ...
'', 1906
The name Rome gave to the land of Israel
{{Authority control 0s establishments in the Roman Empire 6 establishments 130s disestablishments in the Roman Empire Classical Palestine Classical Syria Ancient history of Jordan Israel in the Roman era Political entities in the Land of Israel Samaria 1st-century Judaism 2nd-century Judaism States and territories disestablished in the 2nd century States and territories established in the 0s