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The Jubba River or Juba River ( so, Wabiga Jubba, it, Giuba) is a
river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of wate ...

river
in southern
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒖; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
which flows through the autonomous region of
Jubaland Jubaland ( so, Jubbaland, ar, , it, Oltregiuba), the Juba Valley ( so, Dooxada Jubba) or Azania ( so, Asaaniya, ar, ), is a Federal Member State in southern Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federa ...
. It begins at the border with
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea and Djibouti to the north, Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the sout ...

Ethiopia
, where the Dawa and Ganale Dorya rivers meet, and flows directly south to the Somali Sea, where it empties at the ''Goobweyn'' juncture. The Jubba basin covers an area of . The Somali regional state of
Jubaland Jubaland ( so, Jubbaland, ar, , it, Oltregiuba), the Juba Valley ( so, Dooxada Jubba) or Azania ( so, Asaaniya, ar, ), is a Federal Member State in southern Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federa ...
, formerly called ''Trans-Juba'', is named after the river.


History


Ajuran Empire

The Jubba River has a rich history of a once-booming sophisticated civilization and trade network conducted by the powerful
Somalis The Somalis ( so, Soomaalida 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒆𐒖, ar, صوماليون) are an Cushitic peoples, East Cushitic ethnic group native to the Horn of Africa who share a common ancestry, culture and history. The Somali language is the ...

Somalis
that held sway over the Jubba river. During the Middle Ages Jubba river was under the
Ajuran Empire The Ajuran Empire ( so, Saldanadda Ajuuraan, ar, سلطنة الأجورانية), also spelled Ajuuraan Empire, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somalis, Somali empire in the medieval times in the Horn of Africa that dominated the trade in nor ...
of the
Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to a mainland fr ...

Horn of Africa
which utilized the Jubba River for its plantations and was the only
hydraulic empire A hydraulic empire (also known as a hydraulic despotism, or water monopoly empire) is a social or government structure which maintains power and control through exclusive control over access to water. It arises through the need for flood control ...
in Africa. A hydraulic empire that rose in the 13th century AD, Ajuran monopolized the water resources of the Jubba River and
Shebelle
Shebelle
. Through
hydraulic engineering Hydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering Civil engineering is a Regulation and licensure in engineering, professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and ...
, it also constructed many of the
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its nat ...

limestone
wells Wells most commonly refers to: * Wells, Somerset, a cathedral city in Somerset, England * Well, an excavation or structure created in the ground * Wells (name) Wells may also refer to: Places ;Canada *Wells, British Columbia ;England * Wells ( ...

wells
and
cistern A cistern (Middle English ', from Latin ', from ', "box", from Greek language, Greek ', "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water. Cisterns are often built to catch and Rainwater tank, store rainwater. Cisterns are ...

cistern
s of the state that are still operative and in use today. Its rulers developed new systems for agriculture and taxation, which continued to be used in parts of the Horn of Africa as late as the 19th century. Through their control of the region's wells, the Garen rulers effectively held a monopoly over their
nomadic A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo ...

nomadic
subjects as they were the only
hydraulic empire A hydraulic empire (also known as a hydraulic despotism, or water monopoly empire) is a social or government structure which maintains power and control through exclusive control over access to water. It arises through the need for flood control ...
in Africa during their reign. Large wells made out of
limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt Salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of Salt (chemistry), salts; salt in its nat ...

limestone
were constructed throughout the state, which attracted
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...
nomads with their livestock. The centralized regulations of the wells made it easier for the nomads to settle disputes by taking their queries to government officials who would act as mediators. Long distance caravan trade, a long-time practice in the Horn of Africa, continued unchanged in Ajuran times. Today, numerous ruined and abandoned towns throughout the interior of Somalia and the Horn of Africa are evidence of a once-booming inland trade network dating from the medieval period. With the centralized supervision of the Ajuran, farms in
Afgooye Afgooye ( so, Afgooye, ar, أفجويى, it, Afgoi) is a town in the southwestern Somalia Lower Shebelle (Shabellaha Hoose) region of Somalia. It is the center of the Afgooye District. Afgooye is the third largest city of South_West_State_of_Som ...
,
Bardhere Bardera ( ar, بارديرا, so, Baardheere) is an agricultural city in Bardhere District, Gedo region of Somalia. It is the second most populous town in the Juba Valley, with Kismayo being the largest and most densely populated city in the region ...
and other areas in the Jubba and
Shebelle
Shebelle
valleys increased their productivity. A system of irrigation ditches known locally as ''Kelliyo'' fed directly from the
Shebelle River The Shebelle River ( so, Webi Shabeelle, ar, نهر شبيلي, am, እደላ, it, Uebi Scebeli) begins in the highlands Highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau. Generally speaking, upland (or uplands) re ...

Shebelle River
and Jubba River into the plantations where
sorghum ''Sorghum'' is a genus of about 25 species of flowering plants in the grass family ( Poaceae). Some of these species are grown as cereals for human consumption and some in pastures for animals. One species, '' Sorghum bicolor'', was originally ...

sorghum
,
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be ...

maize
, beans, grain and cotton were grown during the ''gu'' (
Spring Spring(s) may refer to: Common uses * Spring (season), a season of the year * Spring (device), a mechanical device that stores energy * Spring (hydrology), a natural source of water * Spring (mathematics), a geometric surface in the shape of a heli ...
in Somali) and ''xagaa'' (
Summer Summer is the hottest of the four temperate In geography, the temperate climates of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land ...

Summer
in Somali) seasons of the
Somali calendar The Somali calendar ( so, Soomaali tiro ammin) is based on both the solar and lunar calendar A lunar calendar is a calendar based on the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases ( synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cyc ...
. This irrigation system was supported by numerous
dikes
dikes
and dams. To determine the average size of a farm, a land measurement system was also invented with ''moos'', ''taraab'' and ''guldeed'' being the terms used. The urban centers of
Mogadishu Mogadishu (, also ; so, Muqdisho or Xamar ; ar, مقديشو, Muqadīshū ; it, Mogadiscio ), locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital city and most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city ...

Mogadishu
,
Merca Merca ( so, Marka, Maay Maay, Maay: ''Marky'', ar, مركة) is a historic port city in the southern Lower Shebelle province of Somalia. It is located approximately to the southwest of the nation's capital Mogadishu. Merca is the traditional home ...
,
Barawa Barawa ( so, Baraawe, ar, مدينة ﺑﺮﺍﻭة ''Madīna Barāwa''), also known as Barawe and Brava, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the lette ...

Barawa
,
Kismayo Kismayo ( so, Kismaayo; ar, كيسمايو, ; it, Chisimaio) is a port city in the southern Lower Juba (Jubbada Hoose) province of Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a ...

Kismayo
and
Hobyo Hobyo ( so, Hobyo),( it, Obbia), is an ancient port city in Galmudug Galmudug (Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.Semitic languages: an international handbook / edited by ...
and other respective ports became profitable trade outlets for commodities originating from the interior of the State. The
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...

Somali
farming communities of the hinterland from Jubba and
Shebelle
Shebelle
valleys brought their
crops A crop is a plant that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence. Crops may refer either to the harvested parts or to the harvest in a more refined state. Most crops are cultivated in agriculture Agriculture is the ...

crops
to the
Somali Somali refers to an East African tribe (ethnic group) native to Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, D ...

Somali
coastal cities, where they were sold to local merchants who maintained a lucrative foreign commerce with ships sailing to and coming from
Arabia The Arabian Peninsula (; ar, شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, , "Arabian Peninsula" or , , "Island of the Arabs") is a peninsula of Western Asia, situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian Plate. At , the ...

Arabia
,
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Tu ...

Persia
,
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

India
,
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...
,
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a spanning the and the of . It is bordered by the to , the () and to , the to the east, to , and to . In the northeast, the , which is the northern arm of the R ...

Egypt
,
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
, and as far away as
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...

Java
and
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
.


Modern Period

Over two centuries passed until Baron
Karl Klaus von der Decken by C. Kolb 1874 of the Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg), Order of Saint John   male with a large insect, Serengeti National Park, Tanzania Baron Karl Klaus (Carl Claus) Von der Decken family, von der Decken (born 8 August 1833 ...
ascended the lower reaches of the river on the small steamship Welf in 1863. He wrecked the steamship in the rapids above
Bardhere Bardera ( ar, بارديرا, so, Baardheere) is an agricultural city in Bardhere District, Gedo region of Somalia. It is the second most populous town in the Juba Valley, with Kismayo being the largest and most densely populated city in the region ...
, where the party was attacked by local Somalis, ending in the deaths of the Baron and three others in his party. The first European to explore widely and complete the course of the river was the Italian explorer
Vittorio Bottego Vittorio Bottego (; Parma Parma (; egl, Pärma, pronounced pːè(r)ma is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The S ...
attended by Commander F. G. Dundas British Navy. Bottego and his expedition sailed of the river in 1891. During his exploration
Vittorio Bottego Vittorio Bottego (; Parma Parma (; egl, Pärma, pronounced pːè(r)ma is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The S ...
changed the name of the main affluent of Jubba—the Ganale river—in Ganale Doria after the famous Italian naturalist
Giacomo Doria Marquis Giacomo Doria (1 November 1840 – 19 September 1913) was an Italy, Italian natural history, naturalist, botanist, herpetologist, and politician. He was the founder of the Museo Civico di Storia Naturale in Genoa in 1867, and director ...
.F. G. Dundas, "Expedition up the Jub River through Somali-Land, East Africa", ''Geographical Journal'', 1 (March 1893), pp. 209-222.


Overview

The Jubba basin region is primarily
savanna A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats ...

savanna
, and is, ecologically speaking, the richest part of the country due to its fertile farmland. Native wild life include
giraffe The giraffe is a tall African mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in Fe ...

giraffe
s,
cheetah The cheetah (''Acinonyx jubatus'') is a large Felidae, cat native to Africa and central Iran. It is the Fastest animals, fastest land animal, estimated to be capable of running at with the fastest reliably recorded speeds being , and as suc ...

cheetah
s,
lion The lion (''Panthera leo'') is a large Felidae, cat of the genus ''Panthera'' native to Africa and India. It has a muscular, deep-chested body, short, rounded head, round ears, and a hairy tuft at the end of its tail. It is sexually dimorphic; ...

lion
s,
leopard The leopard (''Panthera pardus'') is one of the five extant in the ', a member of the cat , . It occurs in a wide range in , in some parts of and , , and on the to and . It is listed as on the because leopard populations are threatened ...

leopard
s,
hyena Hyenas, or hyaenas (from Ancient Greek , ), are feliformia, feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae . With only four extant species (each in their own genus), it is the fifth-smallest biological family in the Carnivora and one of the ...

hyena
s,
buffalo
buffalo
s,
hippopotamus The hippopotamus ( ; ''Hippopotamus amphibius''), also called the hippo, common hippopotamus or river hippopotamus, is a large, mostly herbivore, herbivorous, List of semiaquatic tetrapods, semiaquatic mammal and ungulate native to sub-Sahara ...

hippopotamus
,
crocodile Crocodiles (family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. I ...

crocodile
s,
oryx ''Oryx'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a sp ...

oryx
,
gazelle A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus ''Gazella''. This article also deals with the seven species included in two further genera, ''Eudorcas'' and ''Nanger'', which were formerly considered subgenera of ''Gazella''. A third for ...

gazelle
s,
camel A camel is an even-toed ungulate The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulates—hoofed animals—which bear weight equally on two (an even number) of their five toes: the third and fourth. The other three toes are either present, ...

camel
s,
ostrich ''Struthio'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a ...

ostrich
es,
jackal Jackals are medium-sized omnivorous mammals of the subtribe Canina, which also includes wolves and the domestic dog The dog or domestic dog (''Canis familiaris'' or ''Canis lupus familiaris'') is a Domestication, domesticated descenda ...

jackal
s and
wild donkey
wild donkey
s. The Jubba River gives its name to the Somali administrative regions of Upper Juba (
Gedo Gedo ( so, Gedo, Maay Maay, Maay: ''Gethy'', ar, جيذو, it, Ghedo or ''Ghedu'') is an administrative region (''States and regions of Somalia, gobol'') in Jubaland, southern Somalia. Its regional capital is Garbahaarreey. It was created in 1 ...

Gedo
,
Bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface ...

Bay
,
Bakool Bakool ( so, Bakool, ar, بكول) is a region (''gobol'') in southwestern Somalia. Overiew It is bordered by the Somali regions of Hiiraan, Bay, Somalia, Bay and Gedo. Bakool, like Gedo and Bay, as well as most parts of the Jubbada Dhexe (Mid ...
),
Middle Juba Middle Juba ( so, Jubbada Dhexe, ar, جوبا الأوسط, it, Medio Giuba) is an administrative region ('' gobol'') in southern Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a cou ...
and
Lower Juba Lower Juba ( so, Jubbada Hoose, ar, جوبا السفلى, it, Basso Giuba) is an administrative region (''Administrative divisions of Somalia, gobol'') in southern Somalia. With its capital at Kismayo, it lies in the States and regions of Somal ...
, as well as to the larger historical region of
Jubaland Jubaland ( so, Jubbaland, ar, , it, Oltregiuba), the Juba Valley ( so, Dooxada Jubba) or Azania ( so, Asaaniya, ar, ), is a Federal Member State in southern Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federa ...
. Major cities which the Jubba River passes by include
Dolow Dolow ( so, Dooloow), also spelled Doolow, is a town in the southern Gedo region of Somalia. The city sits on the Jubba River near the Somali Region in Ethiopia, just north of Luuq. Balet Hawo District lies west of Dolow near the North Eastern P ...
,
Luuq Luuq ( so, Luuq, ar, لوق) is a town in the southwestern Gedo Gedo ( so, Gedo, Maay Maay, Maay: ''Gethy'', ar, جيذو, it, Ghedo or ''Ghedu'') is an administrative region (''States and regions of Somalia, gobol'') in Jubaland, southern So ...

Luuq
,
Burdhubo Burdhubo ( so, Buurdhuubo) is a town in the southern Gedo region of Somalia. It is the center of the Burdhubo District. Overview Burdhubo sits on the Jubba River in the Jubba Valley, between the cities of Bardera and Luuq. Garbahaarreey, the Gedo r ...
, Beled'hawo,
Bardhere Bardera ( ar, بارديرا, so, Baardheere) is an agricultural city in Bardhere District, Gedo region of Somalia. It is the second most populous town in the Juba Valley, with Kismayo being the largest and most densely populated city in the region ...
, Buale, and
Goobweyn Goob Weyn is a town in the southern Lower Juba region of Somalia. References Goob Weyn, Somalia
Populated places in Lower Juba {{Somalia-geo-stub ...
near Kismaayo.


See also

*
Shebelle River The Shebelle River ( so, Webi Shabeelle, ar, نهر شبيلي, am, እደላ, it, Uebi Scebeli) begins in the highlands Highlands or uplands are any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau. Generally speaking, upland (or uplands) re ...

Shebelle River


References


External links


Map of the Jubba River basin at Water Resources eAtlas
{{Rivers of Somalia Rivers of Somalia Rivers of Ethiopia International rivers of Africa Ethiopia–Somalia border Jubaland Border rivers