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Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an
Anglo-Irish Anglo-Irish () is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that di ...
satirist This is an incomplete list of writers, cartoonists and others known for involvement in satire Satire is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-u ...
, essayist, political
pamphleteer Pamphleteer is a historical term for someone who creates or distributes pamphlet A pamphlet is an unbound book A book is a medium for recording information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers th ...

pamphleteer
(first for the Whigs, then for the
Tories A Tory () is a person who holds a political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between ...
), poet and
Anglican cleric The Anglican ministry is both the leadership and agency of Christian service in the Anglican Communion. "Ministry" commonly refers to the office of ordination, ordained clergy: the ''threefold order'' of bishops, priests and deacons. More accuratel ...
who became
Dean Dean may refer to: People * Dean (given name) * Dean (surname), a surname of Anglo-Saxon English origin * Dean (South Korean singer), a stage name for singer Kwon Hyuk * Dean Delannoit, a Belgian singer most known by the mononym Dean Title ...
of
St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin Saint Patrick's Cathedral ( ir, Ard-Eaglais Naomh Pádraig) in Dublin, Ireland Dublin (, ; ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlan ...

St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin
, hence his common
sobriquet A sobriquet ( ), or soubriquet, is a nickname A nickname (also moniker) is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place or thing. Commonly used to express affection, a form of endearment, and sometimes amusement, it can also be u ...
, "Dean Swift". Swift is remembered for works such as ''
A Tale of a Tub ''A Tale of a Tub. Written for the Universal Improvement of Mankind.'' was the first major work written by Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (fi ...
'' (1704), ''
An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity ''An Argument to Prove that the Abolishing of Christianity in England May, as Things Now Stand Today, be Attended with Some Inconveniences, and Perhaps not Produce Those Many Good Effects Proposed Thereby'', commonly referred to as ''An Argument ...
'' (1712), ''
Gulliver's Travels ''Gulliver's Travels'', or ''Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships'' is a 1726 prose satire Satire is a genre Genre () is any form or ...

Gulliver's Travels
'' (1726), and ''
A Modest Proposal ''A Modest Proposal For preventing the Children of Poor People From being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country, and For making them Beneficial to the Publick'', commonly referred to as ''A Modest Proposal'', is a Juvenalian satirical essay wri ...
'' (1729). He is regarded by the ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., ...
'' as the foremost prose satirist in the English language, and is less well known for his poetry. He originally published all of his works under pseudonyms—such as
Lemuel Gulliver Lemuel Gulliver () is the fictional protagonist and narrator of ''Gulliver's Travels'', a novel written by Jonathan Swift, first published in 1726. In ''Gulliver's Travels'' According to Swift's novel, Gulliver was born in Nottinghamshire c. 1 ...
,
Isaac Bickerstaff Isaac Bickerstaff Esq was a pseudonym used by Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and Anglican c ...
, M. B. Drapier—or anonymously. He was a master of two styles of satire, the Horatian and Juvenalian styles. His
deadpan Deadpan, dry humour, or dry-wit humour is the deliberate display of emotional neutrality or no emotion, commonly as a form of Comedy, comedic delivery to contrast with the ridiculousness or absurdity of the subject matter. The delivery is meant to ...
,
ironic Irony (), in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what on the surface appears to be the case or to be expected differs radically from what is actually the case. Irony can be categorized into differ ...
writing style, particularly in ''
A Modest Proposal ''A Modest Proposal For preventing the Children of Poor People From being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country, and For making them Beneficial to the Publick'', commonly referred to as ''A Modest Proposal'', is a Juvenalian satirical essay wri ...
'', has led to such
satire Satire is a of the , , and s, usually in the form of and less frequently , in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, often with the intent of shaming or exposing the perceived flaws of individuals, corpora ...
being subsequently termed "Swiftian".


Biography


Early life

Jonathan Swift was born on 30 November 1667 in
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...

Dublin
in the
Kingdom of Ireland The Kingdom of Ireland ( ga, label= Classical Irish, an Ríoghacht Éireann; ga, label=Modern Irish Irish ( in ), sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a of the branch of the , which is a part of the . Irish is to the and was the po ...

Kingdom of Ireland
. He was the second child and only son of Jonathan Swift (1640–1667) and his wife Abigail Erick (or Herrick) of
Frisby on the Wreake Frisby on the Wreake is a village and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and ...
. His father was a native of
Goodrich, Herefordshire 300px, South side of Goodrich Castle Goodrich is a village in south Herefordshire, England close to Gloucestershire and the Forest of Dean, situated near the River Wye at . It is known for its Norman architecture, Norman and mediaeval castle built ...
, but he accompanied his brothers to
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
to seek their fortunes in law after their
Royalist A royalist supports a particular monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. ...
father's estate was brought to ruin during the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of Kingdom of England, England's governance and issues of re ...
. His maternal grandfather, James Ericke, was the vicar of Thornton in Leicestershire. In 1634 the vicar was convicted of Puritan practices. Some time thereafter, Ericke and his family, including his young daughter Abigail, fled to Ireland. Swift's father joined his elder brother, Godwin, in the practice of law in Ireland. He died in Dublin about seven months before his namesake was born. He died of
syphilis Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), are infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues ...
, which he said he got from dirty sheets when out of town. At the age of one, child Jonathan was taken by his
wet nurse A wet nurse is a woman who breastfeeding, breast feeds and cares for another's child. Wet nurses are employed if the mother dies, or if she is unable or chooses not to nurse the child herself. Wet-nursed children may be known as "milk-siblings", ...
to her hometown of
Whitehaven Whitehaven is a town and port on the west coast of Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into ...
,
Cumberland Cumberland ( ) is a historic county of North West England North West England is one of nine official and consists of the of , , , and . The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011. It is the in the United Kingdom, after the ...

Cumberland
, England. He said that there he learned to read the Bible. His nurse returned him to his mother, still in Ireland, when he was three. His mother returned to England after his birth, leaving him in the care of his uncle Godwin Swift (1628–1695), a close friend and confidant of Sir John Temple, whose son later employed Swift as his secretary.Stephen ''DNB'', p. 205 Swift's family had several interesting literary connections. His grandmother Elizabeth (Dryden) Swift was the niece of Sir Erasmus Dryden, grandfather of poet
John Dryden '' John Dryden (; – ) was an English poet, , translator, and playwright who was appointed England's first in 1668. He is seen as dominating the literary life of to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles as the ...

John Dryden
. The same grandmother's aunt Katherine (Throckmorton) Dryden was a first cousin of
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...
, wife of
Sir Walter Raleigh Sir Walter Raleigh (; – 29 October 1618), also spelled Ralegh, was an English statesman, soldier, writer and explorer. One of the most notable figures of the Elizabethan era, he played a leading part in English colonisation of North America ...

Sir Walter Raleigh
. His great-great grandmother Margaret (Godwin) Swift was the sister of
Francis Godwin Francis Godwin (1562–1633) was an English historian, science fiction author, Anglicanism#Anglican divines, divine, Bishop of Llandaff and Bishop of Hereford, of Hereford. Life He was the son of Thomas Godwin (bishop), Thomas Godwin, Bishop of B ...
, author of ''
The Man in the Moone ''The Man in the Moone'' is a book by the English Divine (noun), divine and Church of England bishop Francis Godwin (1562–1633), describing a "voyage of utopian discovery". Long considered to be one of his early works, it is now generally tho ...
'' which influenced parts of Swift's ''
Gulliver's Travels ''Gulliver's Travels'', or ''Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships'' is a 1726 prose satire Satire is a genre Genre () is any form or ...

Gulliver's Travels
''. His uncle Thomas Swift married a daughter of poet and playwright
Sir William Davenant Sir William Davenant (baptised 3 March 1606 – 7 April 1668), also spelled D'Avenant, was an English poet and playwright. Along with Thomas Killigrew, Davenant was one of the rare figures in English Renaissance theatre English Renaissance ...
, a godson of
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national p ...

William Shakespeare
. Swift's benefactor and uncle Godwin Swift took primary responsibility for the young man, sending him with one of his cousins to
Kilkenny College Kilkenny College is an independent Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland ( ga, Eaglais na hÉireann, ; Ulster-Scots: ''Kirk o Airlann'') is a Christian church in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) ...
(also attended by philosopher
George Berkeley George Berkeley (; 12 March 168514 January 1753) – known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne The Bishop of Cloyne is an episcopal title that takes its name after the small town of Cloyne in County Cork, Republic of Ireland Irela ...

George Berkeley
). He arrived there at the age of six, where he was expected to have already learned the basic declensions in Latin. He had not, and thus began his schooling in a lower form. Swift graduated in 1682, when he was 15. He attended
Trinity College, Dublin , name_Latin = Collegium Sanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae Elizabethae juxta Dublin , motto = ''Perpetuis futuris temporibus duraturam'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical langua ...

Trinity College, Dublin
, the sole constituent college of the
University of Dublin The University of Dublin ( ga, Ollscoil Átha Cliath), corporately designated the Chancellor, Doctors and Masters of the University of Dublin, is a university located in Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Irela ...
, in 1682, financed by Godwin's son Willoughby. The four-year course followed a curriculum largely set in the Middle Ages for the priesthood. The lectures were dominated by Aristotelian logic and philosophy. The basic skill taught the students was debate, and they were expected to be able to argue both sides of any argument or topic. Swift was an above-average student but not exceptional, and received his B.A. in 1686 "by special grace."


Adult life


Maturity

Swift was studying for his master's degree when political troubles in Ireland surrounding the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
forced him to leave for England in 1688, where his mother helped him get a position as secretary and personal assistant of Sir William Temple at
Moor Park, Farnham Moor Park, Farnham Farnham is a market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximatel ...
. Temple was an English diplomat who arranged the Triple Alliance of 1668. He had retired from public service to his country estate, to tend his gardens and write his memoirs. Gaining his employer's confidence, Swift "was often trusted with matters of great importance".Stephen ''DNB'', p. 207 Within three years of their acquaintance, Temple had introduced his secretary to and sent him to London to urge the King to consent to a bill for triennial Parliaments. Swift took up his residence at Moor Park where he met
Esther Johnson Esther is described in all versions of the Book of Esther as the Jewish queen of a Persian king Ahasuerus#Book of Esther, Ahasuerus. In the narrative, Ahasuerus seeks a new wife after his queen, Vashti, refuses to obey him, and Esther is chose ...
, then eight years old, the daughter of an impoverished widow who acted as companion to Temple's sister Lady Giffard. Swift was her tutor and mentor, giving her the nickname "Stella", and the two maintained a close but ambiguous relationship for the rest of Esther's life.Stephen ''DNB'', p. 208 In 1690, Swift left Temple for Ireland because of his health, but returned to Moor Park the following year. The illness consisted of fits of vertigo or giddiness, now believed to be
Ménière's disease Ménière's disease (MD) is a disorder of the inner ear that is characterized by episodes of vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, and a fullness in the ear. Typically, only one ear is affected initially; however, over time both ears may become invo ...
, and it continued to plague him throughout his life.Bewley, Thomas H., "The health of Jonathan Swift", ''Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine'' 1998;91:602–605 During this second stay with Temple, Swift received his M.A. from
Hart Hall ''As the hart panteth after the water brooks'' , university = University of Oxford, Oxford , photo = University Of Oxford The Bridge Of Sighs.jpg , scarf = , named_for = Elias de Hertford , established = 1282 as ...
,
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...
, in 1692. He then left Moor Park, apparently despairing of gaining a better position through Temple's patronage, in order to become an ordained priest in the Established
Church of Ireland The Church of Ireland ( ga, Eaglais na hÉireann, ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ul ...
. He was appointed to the
prebend A prebendary is a member of the Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Ro ...
of Kilroot in the
Diocese of ConnorThe Diocese of Connor, Territory of Dalriada, was established in the Synod of Rathbreasail in 1111. The diocese itself was erected in 480. Tradition holds that St. Patrick herded sheep on Slemish, in the heart of the Diocese, when first brought to ...
in 1694, with his parish located at
Kilroot , translit_lang1 = Irish language, Irish , translit_lang1_type = Derivation: , translit_lang1_info = , translit_lang1_type1 = Meaning: , translit_lang1_info1 = Church of the redhe ...
, near
Carrickfergus Carrickfergus ( , meaning " Fergus' rock") is a large town in County Antrim County Antrim (named after the town of Antrim, County Antrim, Antrim, ) is one of six Counties of Northern Ireland, counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined t ...

Carrickfergus
in
County Antrim County Antrim (named after the town of Antrim, County Antrim, Antrim, ) is one of six Counties of Northern Ireland, counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined to the north-east shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of and has a po ...
. Swift appears to have been miserable in his new position, being isolated in a small, remote community far from the centres of power and influence. While at Kilroot, however, he may well have become romantically involved with Jane Waring, whom he called "Varina", the sister of an old college friend. A letter from him survives, offering to remain if she would marry him and promising to leave and never return to Ireland if she refused. She presumably refused, because Swift left his post and returned to England and Temple's service at Moor Park in 1696, and he remained there until Temple's death. There he was employed in helping to prepare Temple's memoirs and correspondence for publication. During this time, Swift wrote ''
The Battle of the Books "The Battle of the Books" is the name of a short satire written by Jonathan Swift and published as part of the prolegomenon, prolegomena to his ''A Tale of a Tub'' in 1704. It depicts a literal battle between books in the King's Library (housed in ...
'', a satire responding to critics of Temple's ''Essay upon Ancient and Modern Learning'' (1690), though ''Battle'' was not published until 1704. Temple died on 27 January 1699. Swift, normally a harsh judge of human nature, said that all that was good and amiable in mankind had died with Temple. He stayed on briefly in England to complete editing Temple's memoirs, and perhaps in the hope that recognition of his work might earn him a suitable position in England. Unfortunately, his work made enemies among some of Temple's family and friends, in particular Temple's formidable sister Lady Giffard, who objected to indiscretions included in the memoirs. Swift's next move was to approach King William directly, based on his imagined connection through Temple and a belief that he had been promised a position. This failed so miserably that he accepted the lesser post of secretary and chaplain to the
Earl of Berkeley File:BerkeleyTombsStAugustinesBristol.jpg, 200px, Three Berkeley tombs in St Augustine's Abbey, Bristol (now Bristol Cathedral), founded by Robert FitzHarding, 1st. feudal baron. South wall of south aisle, looking eastward, in receding order: 4th ...
, one of the Lords Justice of Ireland. However, when he reached Ireland, he found that the secretaryship had already been given to another. He soon obtained the living of Laracor, Agher, and Rathbeggan, and the prebend of Dunlavin in St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. Swift ministered to a congregation of about 15 at Laracor, which was just over four and half miles (7.5 km) from Summerhill, County Meath, and from Dublin. He had abundant leisure for cultivating his garden, making a canal after the Dutch fashion of Moor Park, planting willows, and rebuilding the vicarage. As chaplain to Lord Berkeley, he spent much of his time in Dublin and travelled to London frequently over the next ten years. In 1701, he anonymously published the political pamphlet ''A Discourse on the Contests and Dissentions in Athens and Rome''.


Writer

Swift had residence in
Trim, County Meath Trim () is a town in County Meath, Ireland. It is situated on the River Boyne and has a population of 9,194. The town is noted for Trim Castle – the largest Cambro-Norman castle in Ireland. One of the two cathedrals of the Diocese of Meath a ...
, after 1700. He wrote many of his works during this time period. In February 1702, Swift received his
Doctor of Divinity A Doctor of Divinity (D.D. or DDiv; la, Doctor Divinitatis) is the holder of an advanced academic degree in divinity (academic discipline), divinity. In the United Kingdom, it is considered as an advanced doctoral degree. At the University of ...
degree from
Trinity College, Dublin , name_Latin = Collegium Sanctae et Individuae Trinitatis Reginae Elizabethae juxta Dublin , motto = ''Perpetuis futuris temporibus duraturam'' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical langua ...

Trinity College, Dublin
. That spring he travelled to England and then returned to Ireland in October, accompanied by Esther Johnson—now 20—and his friend Rebecca Dingley, another member of William Temple's household. There is a great mystery and controversy over Swift's relationship with Esther Johnson, nicknamed "Stella". Many, notably his close friend
Thomas SheridanThomas Sheridan may refer to: *Thomas Sheridan (divine) (1687–1738), Anglican divine *Thomas Sheridan (actor) (1719–1788), Irish actor and teacher of elocution *Thomas Sheridan (soldier) (1775–1817/18) *Thomas B. Sheridan (born 1931), American ...
, believed that they were secretly married in 1716; others, like Swift's housekeeper Mrs Brent and Rebecca Dingley (who lived with Stella all through her years in Ireland), dismissed the story as absurd. Swift certainly did not wish her to marry anyone else: in 1704, when their mutual friend William Tisdall informed Swift that he intended to propose to Stella, Swift wrote to him to dissuade him from the idea. Although the tone of the letter was courteous, Swift privately expressed his disgust for Tisdall as an "interloper", and they were estranged for many years. During his visits to England in these years, Swift published ''
A Tale of a Tub ''A Tale of a Tub. Written for the Universal Improvement of Mankind.'' was the first major work written by Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (fi ...
'' and ''
The Battle of the Books "The Battle of the Books" is the name of a short satire written by Jonathan Swift and published as part of the prolegomenon, prolegomena to his ''A Tale of a Tub'' in 1704. It depicts a literal battle between books in the King's Library (housed in ...
'' (1704) and began to gain a reputation as a writer. This led to close, lifelong friendships with
Alexander Pope Alexander Pope (21 May 1688 – 30 May 1744) is seen as one of the greatest English poets and the foremost poet of the early 18th century. He is best known for satirical and discursive poetry, including ''The Rape of the Lock ''The Rape of ...

Alexander Pope
,
John Gay John Gay (30 June 1685 – 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist and member of the Scriblerus Club. He is best remembered for ''The Beggar's Opera'' (1728), a ballad opera. The characters, including Captain Macheath and Polly Peachu ...

John Gay
, and
John Arbuthnot John Arbuthnot FRS (''baptised'' 29 April 1667 – 27 February 1735), often known simply as Dr Arbuthnot, was a Scottish physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonw ...

John Arbuthnot
, forming the core of the Martinus
Scriblerus Club The Scriblerus Club was an informal association of authors, based in London, that came together in the early 18th century. They were prominent figures in the Augustan Age of English letters. The nucleus of the club included the satirists Jonathan ...
(founded in 1713). Swift became increasingly active politically in these years. Swift supported the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
and early in his life belonged to the Whigs. As a member of the
Anglican Church Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...

Anglican Church
, he feared a return of the Catholic monarchy and "Papist" absolutism. From 1707 to 1709 and again in 1710, Swift was in London unsuccessfully urging upon the Whig administration of Lord Godolphin the claims of the Irish clergy to the First-Fruits and Twentieths ("Queen Anne's Bounty"), which brought in about £2,500 a year, already granted to their brethren in England. He found the opposition
Tory A Tory () is a person who holds a political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, ...
leadership more sympathetic to his cause, and, when they came to power in 1710, he was recruited to support their cause as editor of '' The Examiner''. In 1711, Swift published the political pamphlet '' The Conduct of the Allies'', attacking the Whig government for its inability to end the prolonged war with France. The incoming Tory government conducted secret (and illegal) negotiations with France, resulting in the
Treaty of Utrecht The Peace of Utrecht was a series of peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized commun ...

Treaty of Utrecht
(1713) ending the
War of the Spanish Succession The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was an early-18th-century European war, triggered by the death in November 1700 of the childless Charles II of Spain. It established the principle that dynastic rights were secondary to maintaini ...
. Swift was part of the inner circle of the Tory government, and often acted as mediator between (Viscount Bolingbroke), the secretary of state for foreign affairs (1710–15), and Robert Harley (Earl of Oxford), lord treasurer and prime minister (1711–14). Swift recorded his experiences and thoughts during this difficult time in a long series of letters to Esther Johnson, collected and published after his death as '' A Journal to Stella''. The animosity between the two Tory leaders eventually led to the dismissal of Harley in 1714. With the death of
Queen Anne Queen Anne often refers to: * Anne, Queen of Great Britain (1665–1714), queen of England, Scotland and Ireland (1702–1707) and of Great Britain (1707–1714) **Queen Anne style architecture, an architectural style from her reign, and its revival ...

Queen Anne
and accession of
George IGeorge I or 1 may refer to: People * Patriarch George I of Alexandria (floruit, fl. 621–631) * George I of Constantinople (d. 686) * George I of Antioch (d. 790) * George I of Abkhazia (ruled 872/3–878/9) * George I of Georgia (d. 1027) * Yuri D ...
that year, the Whigs returned to power, and the Tory leaders were tried for treason for conducting secret negotiations with France. Swift has been described by scholars as "a Whig in politics and Tory in religion" and Swift related his own views in similar terms, stating that as "a lover of liberty, I found myself to be what they called a Whig in politics ... But, as to religion, I confessed myself to be an High-Churchman." In his "Thoughts on Religion", fearing the intense partisan strife waged over religious belief in the seventeenth century England, Swift wrote that "Every man, as a member of the commonwealth, ought to be content with the possession of his own opinion in private." However, it should be borne in mind that, during Swift's time period, terms like "Whig" and "Tory" both encompassed a wide array of opinions and factions, and neither term aligns with a modern political party or modern political alignments. Also during these years in London, Swift became acquainted with the Vanhomrigh family (Dutch merchants who had settled in Ireland, then moved to London) and became involved with one of the daughters,
Esther Esther is described in all versions of the Book of Esther The Book of Esther (Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historica ...

Esther
. Swift furnished Esther with the nickname " Vanessa" (derived by adding "Essa", a pet form of Esther, to the "Van" of her surname, Vanhomrigh), and she features as one of the main characters in his poem '' Cadenus and Vanessa''. The poem and their correspondence suggest that Esther was infatuated with Swift, and that he may have reciprocated her affections, only to regret this and then try to break off the relationship. Esther followed Swift to Ireland in 1714, and settled at her old family home, Celbridge Abbey. Their uneasy relationship continued for some years; then there appears to have been a confrontation, possibly involving Esther Johnson. Esther Vanhomrigh died in 1723 at the age of 35, having destroyed the will she had made in Swift's favour. Another lady with whom he had a close but less intense relationship was Anne Long, a toast of the
Kit-Cat Club The Kit-Cat Club (sometimes Kit Kat Club) was an early 18th-century English club in London with strong political and literary associations. Members of the club were committed Whigs (British political party), Whigs. They met at the Trumpet tavern ...
.


Final years

Before the fall of the Tory government, Swift hoped that his services would be rewarded with a church appointment in England. However, Queen Anne appeared to have taken a dislike to Swift and thwarted these efforts. Her dislike has been attributed to ''A Tale of a Tub'', which she thought blasphemous, compounded by ''The Windsor Prophecy'', where Swift, with a surprising lack of tact, advised the Queen on which of her bedchamber ladies she should and should not trust. The best position his friends could secure for him was the Deanery of St Patrick's; this was not in the Queen's gift, and Anne, who could be a bitter enemy, made it clear that Swift would not have received the preferment if she could have prevented it. With the return of the Whigs, Swift's best move was to leave England and he returned to Ireland in disappointment, a virtual exile, to live "like a rat in a hole". Once in Ireland, however, Swift began to turn his pamphleteering skills in support of Irish causes, producing some of his most memorable works: ''Proposal for Universal Use of Irish Manufacture'' (1720), ''
Drapier's Letters ''Drapier's Letters'' is the collective name for a series of seven pamphlet A pamphlet is an unbound book (that is, without a Hardcover, hard cover or Bookbinding, binding). Pamphlets may consist of a single sheet of paper that is printed on ...
'' (1724), and ''A Modest Proposal'' (1729), earning him the status of an Irish patriot. This new role was unwelcome to the Government, which made clumsy attempts to silence him. His printer, Edward Waters, was convicted of
seditious libel Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech Speech is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses Phonetics, phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all English words sound ...
in 1720, but four years later a
grand jury A grand jury is a jury A jury is a sworn body of people (the jurors) convened to render an impartial Impartiality (also called evenhandedness or fair-mindedness) is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objectivi ...
refused to find that the ''Drapier's Letters'' (which, though written under a pseudonym, were universally known to be Swift's work) were seditious. Swift responded with an attack on the Irish judiciary almost unparalleled in its ferocity, his principal target being the "vile and profligate villain"
William Whitshed William Whitshed (1679–1727) was an Irish politician and judge who held office as Solicitor-General for Ireland, Solicitor-General and Lord Chief Justice of Ireland; just before his death he became Chief Justice of the Irish Common Pleas. He be ...
,
Lord Chief Justice of Ireland The Court of King's Bench The Court of King's Bench, formally known as The Court of the King Before the King Himself, was a court of common law in the English legal system. Created in the late 12th to early 13th century from the '' curia re ...
. Also during these years, he began writing his masterpiece, ''Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts, by Lemuel Gulliver, first a surgeon, and then a captain of several ships'', better known as ''
Gulliver's Travels ''Gulliver's Travels'', or ''Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships'' is a 1726 prose satire Satire is a genre Genre () is any form or ...

Gulliver's Travels
''. Much of the material reflects his political experiences of the preceding decade. For instance, the episode in which the giant Gulliver puts out the Lilliputian palace fire by urinating on it can be seen as a metaphor for the Tories' illegal peace treaty; having done a good thing in an unfortunate manner. In 1726 he paid a long-deferred visit to London,Stephen ''DNB'', p. 219 taking with him the manuscript of ''Gulliver's Travels''. During his visit he stayed with his old friends Alexander Pope, John Arbuthnot and John Gay, who helped him arrange for the anonymous publication of his book. First published in November 1726, it was an immediate hit, with a total of three printings that year and another in early 1727. French, German, and Dutch translations appeared in 1727, and pirated copies were printed in Ireland. Swift returned to England one more time in 1727, and stayed once again with Alexander Pope. The visit was cut short when Swift received word that Esther Johnson was dying, and rushed back home to be with her. On 28 January 1728, Johnson died; Swift had prayed at her bedside, even composing prayers for her comfort. Swift could not bear to be present at the end, but on the night of her death he began to write his ''The Death of Mrs Johnson''. He was too ill to attend the funeral at St Patrick's. Many years later, a lock of hair, assumed to be Johnson's, was found in his desk, wrapped in a paper bearing the words, "Only a woman's hair".


= Death

= Death became a frequent feature of Swift's life from this point. In 1731 he wrote ''Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift'', his own obituary, published in 1739. In 1732, his good friend and collaborator John Gay died. In 1735, John Arbuthnot, another friend from his days in London, died. In 1738 Swift began to show signs of illness, and in 1742 he may have suffered a stroke, losing the ability to speak and realising his worst fears of becoming mentally disabled. ("I shall be like that tree", he once said, "I shall die at the top.") He became increasingly quarrelsome, and long-standing friendships, like that with Thomas Sheridan, ended without sufficient cause. To protect him from unscrupulous hangers on, who had begun to prey on the great man, his closest companions had him declared of "unsound mind and memory". However, it was long believed by many that Swift was actually insane at this point. In his book '' Literature and Western Man'', author even cites the final chapters of ''Gulliver's Travels'' as proof of Swift's approaching "insanity". Bewley attributes his decline to 'terminal dementia'. In part VIII of his series, ''
The Story of Civilization ''The Story of Civilization'' (1935–1975), by husband and wife Will Will may refer to: Common meanings * Will and testament A will or testament is a legal document that expresses a person's ( testator) wishes as to how their property (esta ...
'',
Will Durant William James Durant (; November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1981) was an Americans, American writer, historian, and philosopher. He became best known for his work ''The Story of Civilization'', 11 volumes written in collaboration with his wife, A ...

Will Durant
describes the final years of Swift's life as such:
"Definite symptoms of madness appeared in 1738. In 1741, guardians were appointed to take care of his affairs and watch lest in his outbursts of violence he should do himself harm. In 1742, he suffered great pain from the inflammation of his left eye, which swelled to the size of an egg; five attendants had to restrain him from tearing out his eye. He went a whole year without uttering a word."
In 1744, Alexander Pope died. Then on 19 October 1745, Swift, at nearly 80, died.Stephen ''DNB'', p. 222 After being laid out in public view for the people of Dublin to pay their last respects, he was buried in his own cathedral by Esther Johnson's side, in accordance with his wishes. The bulk of his fortune (£12,000) was left to found a hospital for the mentally ill, originally known as St Patrick's Hospital for Imbeciles, which opened in 1757, and which still exists as a psychiatric hospital. :''(Text extracted from the introduction to ''The Journal to Stella'' by George A. Aitken and from other sources).'' Jonathan Swift wrote his own
epitaph An epitaph (; ) is a short text honoring a deceased person. Strictly speaking, it refers to text that is inscribed on a tombstone or plaque, but it may also be used in a figurative sense. Some epitaphs are specified by the person themselves be ...

epitaph
: W. B. Yeats poetically translated it from the Latin as: : Swift has sailed into his rest; : Savage indignation there : Cannot lacerate his breast. : Imitate him if you dare, : World-besotted traveller; he : Served human liberty.


Works

Swift was a prolific writer, notable for his satires. The most recent collection of his prose works (Herbert Davis, ed. Basil Blackwell, 1965–) comprises fourteen volumes. A recent edition of his complete poetry (Pat Rodges, ed. Penguin, 1983) is 953 pages long. One edition of his correspondence (David Woolley, ed. P. Lang, 1999) fills three volumes.


Major prose works

Swift's first major prose work, ''
A Tale of a Tub ''A Tale of a Tub. Written for the Universal Improvement of Mankind.'' was the first major work written by Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (fi ...
'', demonstrates many of the themes and stylistic techniques he would employ in his later work. It is at once wildly playful and funny while being pointed and harshly critical of its targets. In its main thread, the ''Tale'' recounts the exploits of three sons, representing the main threads of Christianity, who receive a bequest from their father of a coat each, with the added instructions to make no alterations whatsoever. However, the sons soon find that their coats have fallen out of current fashion, and begin to look for loopholes in their father's will that will let them make the needed alterations. As each finds his own means of getting around their father's admonition, they struggle with each other for power and dominance. Inserted into this story, in alternating chapters, the narrator includes a series of whimsical "digressions" on various subjects. In 1690, Sir
William TempleWilliam Temple may refer to: * Sir William Temple (logician) (1555–1627), English Ramist logician and Provost of Trinity College, Dublin * Sir William Temple, 1st Baronet (1628–1699), English diplomat, politician and essayist, employer of Jonath ...
, Swift's patron, published ''An Essay upon Ancient and Modern Learning'' a defence of classical writing (see
Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns The quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns (french: querelle des Anciens et des Modernes) began overtly as a literary and artistic debate that heated up in the early 17th century and shook the Académie française An academy (Attic Greek: Ἀ ...
), holding up the ''Epistles of Phalaris'' as an example. William Wotton responded to Temple with ''Reflections upon Ancient and Modern Learning'' (1694), showing that the ''Epistles'' were a later forgery. A response by the supporters of the Ancients was then made by
Charles BoyleCharles Boyle may refer to: * Charles Boyle, 3rd Viscount Dungarvan (1639–1694), British politician * Charles Boyle, 2nd Earl of Burlington (died 1704), British politician * Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery (1674–1731), author, soldier and sta ...
(later the 4th Earl of Orrery and father of Swift's first biographer). A further retort on the Modern side came from
Richard Bentley Richard Bentley FRS (; 27 January 1662 – 14 July 1742) was an English classical scholar, critic, and theologian. Considered the "founder of historical philology Philology is the study of language A language is a structured system ...

Richard Bentley
, one of the pre-eminent scholars of the day, in his essay ''Dissertation upon the Epistles of Phalaris'' (1699). The final words on the topic belong to Swift in his ''
Battle of the Books "The Battle of the Books" is the name of a short satire written by Jonathan Swift and published as part of the prolegomenon, prolegomena to his ''A Tale of a Tub'' in 1704. It depicts a literal battle between books in the King's Library (housed in ...
'' (1697, published 1704) in which he makes a humorous defence on behalf of Temple and the cause of the Ancients. In 1708, a cobbler named
John PartridgeJohn Partridge may refer to: *John Partridge (artist) (1789–1872), British portrait painter *John Partridge (astrologer) (1644–1710s), English astrologer *John Partridge (actor) (born 1971), English actor, singer and dancer *John Bernard Partridg ...
published a popular
almanac An almanac (also spelled ''almanack'' and ''almanach'') is an annual publication Annual publications, more often simply called annuals, are periodical publications appearing regularly once per year."Annuals", in ''Encyclopedia of library and info ...
of
astrological Astrology is a pseudoscience Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that claim to be both scientific and factual but are incompatible with the scientific method The scientific method is an Empirical evidenc ...
predictions. Because Partridge falsely determined the deaths of several church officials, Swift attacked Partridge in ''Predictions for the Ensuing Year'' by
Isaac Bickerstaff Isaac Bickerstaff Esq was a pseudonym used by Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 – 19 October 1745) was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and Anglican c ...
, a parody predicting that Partridge would die on 29 March. Swift followed up with a pamphlet issued on 30 March claiming that Partridge had in fact died, which was widely believed despite Partridge's statements to the contrary. According to other sources,
Richard Steele Sir Richard Steele (bap. 12 March 1672 – 1 September 1729) was an Irish writer, playwright, and politician, remembered as co-founder, with his friend Joseph Addison Joseph Addison (1 May 1672 – 17 June 1719) was an English essayist, p ...
used the persona of Isaac Bickerstaff, and was the one who wrote about the "death" of John Partridge and published it in ''
The Spectator ''The Spectator'' is a weekly British magazine on politics, culture, and current affairs. It was first published in July 1828, making it the oldest weekly magazine in the world. It is owned by Frederick Barclay, who also owns ''The Daily T ...
'', not Jonathan Swift. The ''Drapier's Letters'' (1724) was a series of pamphlets against the monopoly granted by the English government to William Wood to mint copper coinage for Ireland. It was widely believed that Wood would need to flood Ireland with debased coinage in order to make a profit. In these "letters" Swift posed as a shop-keeper—a draper—to criticise the plan. Swift's writing was so effective in undermining opinion in the project that a reward was offered by the government to anyone disclosing the true identity of the author. Though hardly a secret (on returning to Dublin after one of his trips to England, Swift was greeted with a banner, "Welcome Home, Drapier") no one turned Swift in, although there was an unsuccessful attempt to prosecute the publisher John Harding. Thanks to the general outcry against the coinage, Wood's patent was rescinded in September 1725 and the coins were kept out of circulation. In "Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift" (1739) Swift recalled this as one of his best achievements. ''
Gulliver's Travels ''Gulliver's Travels'', or ''Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World. In Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of Several Ships'' is a 1726 prose satire Satire is a genre Genre () is any form or ...

Gulliver's Travels
'', a large portion of which Swift wrote at Woodbrook House in County Laois, was published in 1726. It is regarded as his masterpiece. As with his other writings, the ''Travels'' was published under a pseudonym, the fictional Lemuel Gulliver, a ship's surgeon and later a sea captain. Some of the correspondence between printer Benj. Motte and Gulliver's also-fictional cousin negotiating the book's publication has survived. Though it has often been mistakenly thought of and published in
bowdlerised Expurgation, also known as bowdlerization, is a form of censorship Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information. This may be done on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sens ...
form as a children's book, it is a great and sophisticated satire of human nature based on Swift's experience of his times. ''Gulliver's Travels'' is an anatomy of human nature, a sardonic looking-glass, often criticised for its apparent
misanthropy Misanthropy is the general hatred, dislike, distrust or contempt of the human species, human behavior Human behavior is the potential and expressed capacity ( mentally, physically, and socially) of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') ar ...
. It asks its readers to refute it, to deny that it has adequately characterised human nature and society. Each of the four books—recounting four voyages to mostly fictional exotic lands—has a different theme, but all are attempts to deflate human pride. Critics hail the work as a satiric reflection on the shortcomings of Enlightenment thought. In 1729, Swift's '' A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland Being a Burden on Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Publick'' was published in Dublin by Sarah Harding. It is a satire in which the narrator, with intentionally grotesque arguments, recommends that Ireland's poor escape their poverty by selling their children as food to the rich: "I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious nourishing and wholesome food ..." Following the satirical form, he introduces the reforms he is actually suggesting by deriding them:
Therefore let no man talk to me of other expedients ... taxing our absentees ... using othingexcept what is of our own growth and manufacture ... rejecting ... foreign luxury ... introducing a vein of parsimony, prudence and temperance ... learning to love our country ... quitting our animosities and factions ... teaching landlords to have at least one degree of mercy towards their tenants. ... Therefore I repeat, let no man talk to me of these and the like expedients, till he hath at least some glympse of hope, that there will ever be some hearty and sincere attempt to put them into practice.


Essays, tracts, pamphlets, periodicals

* "A Meditation upon a Broom-stick" (1703–10): Full text
Project Gutenberg
* "A Tritical Essay upon the Faculties of the Mind" (1707–11): Full text

* The Bickerstaff-Partridge Papers (1708–09): Full text
U of Adelaide
* "
An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity ''An Argument to Prove that the Abolishing of Christianity in England May, as Things Now Stand Today, be Attended with Some Inconveniences, and Perhaps not Produce Those Many Good Effects Proposed Thereby'', commonly referred to as ''An Argument ...
" (1708–11): Full text
U of Adelaide
* ''The Intelligencer'' (with
Thomas SheridanThomas Sheridan may refer to: *Thomas Sheridan (divine) (1687–1738), Anglican divine *Thomas Sheridan (actor) (1719–1788), Irish actor and teacher of elocution *Thomas Sheridan (soldier) (1775–1817/18) *Thomas B. Sheridan (born 1931), American ...
(1719–1788)): Text
Project Gutenberg
* ''The Examiner'' (1710): Texts
Project Gutenberg
* "A Proposal for Correcting, Improving and Ascertaining the English Tongue" (1712): Full texts
U of Virginia
* "On the Conduct of the Allies" (1711) * "Hints Toward an Essay on Conversation" (1713): Full text

* "A Letter to a Young Gentleman, Lately Entered into Holy Orders" (1720) * "A Letter of Advice to a Young Poet" (1721): Full text

* ''
Drapier's Letters ''Drapier's Letters'' is the collective name for a series of seven pamphlet A pamphlet is an unbound book (that is, without a Hardcover, hard cover or Bookbinding, binding). Pamphlets may consist of a single sheet of paper that is printed on ...
'' (1724, 1725): Full text
Project Gutenberg
* "Bon Mots de Stella" (1726): a curiously irrelevant appendix to "Gulliver's Travels" * "
A Modest Proposal ''A Modest Proposal For preventing the Children of Poor People From being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country, and For making them Beneficial to the Publick'', commonly referred to as ''A Modest Proposal'', is a Juvenalian satirical essay wri ...
", perhaps the most notable satire in English, suggesting that the Irish should engage in cannibalism. (Written in 1729) * "An Essay on the Fates of Clergymen" * "A Treatise on Good Manners and Good Breeding": Full text
Bartleby.com
* "A modest address to the wicked authors of the present age. Particularly the authors of Christianity not founded on argument; and of The resurrection of Jesus considered" (1743–45?)


Poems

* "Ode to the Athenian Society", Swift's first publication, printed in The Athenian Mercury in th
supplement of Feb 14, 1691.
* Poems of Jonathan Swift, D.D. Texts at Project Gutenberg
Volume OneVolume Two
* "Baucis and Philemon" (1706–09): Full text

* "A Description of the Morning" (1709): Full annotated text

Another text
U of Virginia
* "A Description of a City Shower" (1710): Full text
U of Virginia
* " Cadenus and Vanessa" (1713): Full text
Munseys
* "Phillis, or, the Progress of Love" (1719): Full text

* Stella's birthday poems: ** 1719. Full annotated text

** 1720. Full text
U of Virginia
** 1727. Full text

* "The Progress of Beauty" (1719–20): Full text

* "The Progress of Poetry" (1720): Full text

* "A Satirical Elegy on the Death of a Late Famous General" (1722): Full text

* "To Quilca, a Country House not in Good Repair" (1725): Full text

* "Advice to the Grub Street Verse-writers" (1726): Full text

* "The Furniture of a Woman's Mind" (1727) * "On a Very Old Glass" (1728): Full text

* "A Pastoral Dialogue" (1729): Full text

* "The Grand Question debated Whether Hamilton's Bawn should be turned into a Barrack or a Malt House" (1729): Full text

* "On Stephen Duck, the Thresher and Favourite Poet" (1730): Full text

* "Death and Daphne" (1730): Full text

* "The Place of the Damn'd" (1731): * "A Beautiful Young Nymph Going to Bed" (1731): Full annotated text

Another text
U of Virginia
* "Strephon and Chloe" (1731): Full annotated text

Another text
U of Virginia
* "Helter Skelter" (1731): Full text

* "Cassinus and Peter: A Tragical Elegy" (1731): Full annotated text

* "The Day of Judgment" (1731)

* "Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift, D.S.P.D." (1731–32): Full annotated texts

Non-annotated text:
U of Virginia
* "An Epistle to a Lady" (1732): Full text

* "The Beasts' Confession to the Priest" (1732): Full annotated text

* " The Lady's Dressing Room" (1732): Full annotated text
Jack Lynch
* "On Poetry: A Rhapsody" (1733) * "The Puppet Show" Full text

* "The Logicians Refuted" Full text


Correspondence, personal writings

* "When I Come to Be Old" – Swift's resolutions. (1699): Full text

* '' A Journal to Stella'' (1710–13): Full text (presented as daily entries)
The Journal to Stella
Extracts

* Letters: ** Selected Letters

** To Oxford and Pope

* ''The Correspondence of Jonathan Swift, D.D''. Edited by David Woolley. In four volumes, plus index volume. Frankfurt am Main; New York : P. Lang, c. 1999–c. 2007.


Sermons, prayers

* Three Sermons and Three Prayers. Full text
Project Gutenberg
* Three Sermons: I. on mutual subjection. II. on conscience. III. on the trinity. Text
Project Gutenberg
* Writings on Religion and the Church. Text at Project Gutenberg
Volume OneVolume Two
* "The First He Wrote Oct. 17, 1727." Full text

* "The Second Prayer Was Written Nov. 6, 1727." Full text


Miscellany

* '' Directions to Servants'' (1731): Full text
Jonathon Swift Archive
* '' A Complete Collection of Genteel and Ingenious Conversation'' (1738) * "Thoughts on Various Subjects." Full text
U of Adelaide
* Historical Writings
Project Gutenberg
* Swift quotes at Bartleby

– 59 quotations, with notes


Legacy

John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 20 January 1900) was an English writer, philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, ...

John Ruskin
named him as one of the three people in history who were the most influential for him.
George Orwell Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950) known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym (or, in some cases, a variant form of a real name) adopted by an author and printed ...

George Orwell
named him as one of the writers he most admired, despite disagreeing with him on almost every moral and political issue. Modernist poet
Edith Sitwell Dame Edith Louisa Sitwell (7 September 1887 – 9 December 1964) was a British poet and critic and the eldest of The Sitwells, the three literary Sitwells. She reacted badly to her eccentric, unloving parents and lived much of her life with her ...
wrote a fictional biography of Swift, titled '' I Live Under a Black Sun'' and published in 1937. Swift crater, a
crater Crater may refer to: Landforms *Impact crater, a depression caused by two celestial bodies impacting each other, such as a meteorite hitting a planet *Explosion crater, a hole formed in the ground produced by an explosion near or below the surface ...

crater
on
Mars Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, being larger than only Mercury (planet), Mercury. In English, Mars carries the name of the Mars (mythology), Roman god of war and is often referred to ...

Mars
's
moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia (continent), Australia), it is the largest natural satellite in the Solar System relative to the size of its plane ...

moon
Deimos, is named after Jonathan Swift, who predicted the existence of the
moons of Mars The two moons of Mars Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, being larger than only Mercury (planet), Mercury. In English, Mars carries the name of the Mars (mythology), Roman god of war ...
. In 1982, Soviet playwright
Grigory Gorin Grigori Gorin (russian: Григо́рий Го́рин), real name Grigori Israilevich Ofshtein (russian: Григо́рий Изра́илевич Офштейн; March 12, 1940, Moscow — June 15, 2000, Moscow) was a Soviet Union, Soviet and ...
wrote a theatrical fantasy called ''The House That Swift Built'' based on the last years of Jonathan Swift's life and episodes of his works. The play was filmed by director
Mark Zakharov Mark Anatolyevich Zakharov (russian: Марк Анатольевич Захаров; 13 October 1933 – 28 September 2019) was a Soviet The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist s ...

Mark Zakharov
in the 1984 two-part television movie of the same name. In honour of Swift's long-time residence in
Trim Trim or TRIM may refer to: Cutting * Cutting or wiktionary:trim#English, trimming small pieces off something to remove them ** Book trimming, a stage of the publishing process ** Pruning, trimming as a form of pruning often used on trees Decorat ...
, there are several monuments in the town marking his legacy. Most notable is Swift's Street, named after him. Trim also holds a recurring festival in honour of Swift, called the 'Trim Swift Festival'.
Jake Arnott Jake Arnott (born 11 March 1961) is a British novelist and dramatist, author of ''The Long Firm'' and six other novels. Life Arnott was born in Buckinghamshire. Having left Aylesbury Grammar School at 17, he had various jobs including labourer ...
features him in his 2017 novel ''The Fatal Tree''. A 2017 analysis of library holdings data revealed that Swift is the most popular Irish author, and that ''Gulliver’s Travels'' is the most widely held work of Irish literature in libraries globally.


See also

* '''' *
Sweetness and light Sweetness and light is an English idiom that can be used in common speech, either as statement of personal happy consciousness, (though this may be viewed by natives as being a trifle in earnest) or as literal report on another person. Depending upo ...


Notes


References

* . Includes almost 100 illustrations. * * * . ** ** ** * * * Noted biographer succinctly critiques (pp. v–vii) biographical works by Lord Orrery, Patrick Delany, Deane Swift, John Hawkesworth, Samuel Johnson, Thomas Sheridan, Walter Scott, William Monck Mason, John Forester, John Barrett, and W.R. Wilde. * * *
Samuel Johnson Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709  – 13 December 1784), often called Dr Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions as a poet, playwright, essayist, moralist, critic A critic is a person who communicates an asse ...
's "Life of Swift"
JaffeBros
. From his ''Lives of the Poets''. *
William Makepeace Thackeray William Makepeace Thackeray (; 18 July 1811 – 24 December 1863) was a British novelist, author and illustrator. He is known for his Satire, satirical works, particularly his 1848 novel ''Vanity Fair (novel), Vanity Fair'', a panoramic portra ...

William Makepeace Thackeray
's influential vitriolic biography
JaffeBros
. From his ''English Humourists of The Eighteenth Century''. * Sir
Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832), was a Scottish historical novelist, poet, playwright and historian. Many of his works remain classics of European and Scottish literature Scottish literature is literatu ...

Walter Scott
br>Memoirs of Jonathan Swift, D.D., Dean of St. Patrick's, Dublin
Paris: A. and W. Galignani, 1826. *


External links


Jonathan Swift
at th
Eighteenth-Century Poetry Archive (ECPA)
*
BBC audio file
"Swift's ''A modest Proposal''". BBC discussion. ''In our time''. *
Jonathan Swift
at the
National Portrait Gallery, London The National Portrait Gallery (NPG) is an art gallery An art gallery is a room or a building in which visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented li ...

National Portrait Gallery, London

Swift, Jonathan (1667–1745) Dean of St Patrick's Dublin Satirist
at the National Register of Archives Online works * * * * *
Works by Jonathan Swift
at The Online Books Page {{DEFAULTSORT:Swift, Jonathan 1667 births 1745 deaths 18th-century Anglo-Irish people 18th-century English novelists 18th-century Irish Anglican priests 18th-century Irish novelists 18th-century Irish writers 18th-century Irish male writers Alumni of Hart Hall, Oxford Alumni of Trinity College Dublin Anglo-Irish artists British male poets Burials at St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin Christian writers Deans of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin Doctors of Divinity English Anglicans English fantasy writers English male novelists English male poets English male short story writers English pamphleteers English political writers English satirists English short story writers Irish fantasy writers Irish male poets Irish poets Irish political writers Irish satirists Irish science fiction writers Neoclassical writers People educated at Kilkenny College People from County Dublin 18th-century pseudonymous writers