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The Johns Hopkins University (Johns Hopkins, Hopkins, or JHU) is a
private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two decades from the charts. Both "In Pri ...
research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in va ...
in
Baltimore, Maryland Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city prop ...

Baltimore, Maryland
. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist
Johns Hopkins Johns Hopkins (May 19, 1795 – December 24, 1873) was an American entrepreneur Entrepreneurship is the creation or extraction of value. With this definition, entrepreneurship is viewed as change, generally entailing risk beyond what is norm ...
. Today, the university is ranked among the most prestigious academic institutions in the world. Johns Hopkins is considered the first research university in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
. Hopkins' $7 million bequest to establish the university was the largest
philanthropic Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life". Philanthropy contrasts with business initiatives, which are private initiatives for private good, focusing on material gain, and with government en ...

philanthropic
gift in the history of the United States up to that time.
Daniel Coit Gilman Daniel Coit Gilman (; July 6, 1831 – October 13, 1908) was an American educator and academic. Gilman was instrumental in founding the Sheffield Scientific School Sheffield Scientific School was founded in 1847 as a school of Yale College in New H ...

Daniel Coit Gilman
, who was inaugurated as Johns Hopkins' first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U.S. by integrating teaching and research. In 1900, Johns Hopkins became a founding member of the
American Association of Universities The Association of American Universities (AAU) is an organization of American research university, research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education. Founded in 1900, it consists of 63 universities in ...
. The university has since led all U.S. universities in annual research expenditures. Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware a ...

Maryland
and
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
, with international centers in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides with the . Italy is located in the centre of th ...

Italy
and
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
. The two undergraduate divisions, the and the
Whiting School of Engineering The G.W.C. Whiting School of Engineering, is a division of the Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was na ...
, are located on the
Homewood campusThe Homewood Campus is the main academic and administrative center of the Johns Hopkins University. It is located at 3400 North Charles Street in Baltimore, Maryland. It houses the two major undergraduate schools: the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts an ...
in Baltimore's Charles Village neighborhood. The
medical school A medical school is a tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowled ...
,
nursing school Nursing is a profession within the health care Health care, health-care, or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the preventive healthcare, prevention, diagnosis, therapy, treatment, recovery, or cure of disease, illne ...
, and
Bloomberg School of Public Health The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) is part of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the List of municipalities in Maryland, most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as we ...
, and
Johns Hopkins Children’s Center Johns Hopkins Children's Center (JHCC) is a nationally ranked, pediatric acute care children's Biologically, a child (plural children) is a human being between the stages of childbirth, birth and puberty, or between the Development of the hum ...
are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university also consists of the
Peabody Institute Image:PeabodyInstitute.jpg, Peabody Institute, East Mount Vernon Place, c. 1902 The Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University, The Johns Hopkins University (JHU) is a music and dance conservatory and university-preparatory school in the Mo ...
,
Applied Physics Laboratory The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (Applied Physics Laboratory, or APL) is a not-for-profit University Affiliated Research Center, university-affiliated research center (UARC) in Howard County, Maryland. It is affiliated wi ...
,
Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) is a division of Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the ...
,
School of EducationIn the United States and Canada, a school of education (or college of education; ed school) is a division within a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Te ...
,
Carey Business School The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School (also Carey Business School or Carey) is the graduate business school A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. A business school may ...
, and various other facilities. The university also has graduate campuses in Italy, China, and
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
As of October 2019, 39 Nobel laureates and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins' faculty and alumni. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men's lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and plays in the
Big Ten Conference The Big Ten Conference (stylized B1G, formerly the Western Conference and the Big Nine Conference) is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference in the United States. It is based in Rosemont, Illinois. For many decades this conferenc ...
as an affiliate member. The university's other sports teams compete in Division III of the NCAA as members of the
Centennial Conference The Centennial Conference is an athletic conference which competes in the NCAA The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a nonprofit organization that regulates student athletes from up to 1,268 North American institutions and co ...
.


History


The philanthropist and the founding

On his death in 1873,
Johns Hopkins Johns Hopkins (May 19, 1795 – December 24, 1873) was an American entrepreneur Entrepreneurship is the creation or extraction of value. With this definition, entrepreneurship is viewed as change, generally entailing risk beyond what is norm ...
, a
Quaker Quakers are people who belong to a historically Protestant Christian Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Criticism of the Catholi ...

Quaker
entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million (approximately $ million today adjusted for consumer price inflation) to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At the time, this donation, generated primarily from the
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was the first common carrier A common carrier in common law countries (corresponding to a public carrier in some civil law (legal system), civil law systems,Encyclopædia Britannica CD 2000 "Civil-law public ca ...
, was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States, and endowment was then the largest in America. Until 2020, Hopkins was assumed to be a fervent
abolitionist Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and liberate the enslaved people. The British ...
, until research done by the school into his
United States Census The United States Census (plural censuses or census) is a census A census is the procedure of systematically enumerating, and acquiring and recording information about the members of a given Statistical population, population. This term is used ...
records revealed he claimed to own at least five household slaves in the 1840 and 1850 decennial censuses. The first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins comes from the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins, who named his own son Samuel Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons for his father, and that son became the university's benefactor.
Milton Eisenhower Milton Stover Eisenhower (September 15, 1899 – May 2, 1985) was an American academic administrator. He served as president of three major American universities: Kansas State University, Pennsylvania State University, and Johns Hopkins Universi ...
, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh ( ) is a city in the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States and the county seat of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, Allegheny County. A population of 302,971 residents lives within the city limit ...

Pittsburgh
where the
master of ceremonies A master of ceremonies, abbreviated MC or emcee, is the official host of a ceremony A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gesture A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication or non-voca ...
introduced him as "President of ''John'' Hopkins." Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in ''Pitt''burgh." The original board opted for an entirely novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Building on the
Humboldtian model of higher education The Humboldtian model of higher education (German: ''Humboldtsches Bildungsideal'', literally: Humboldtian education ideal) or just Humboldt's Ideal is a concept of academic education that emerged in the early 19th century and whose core idea is a ...
, the
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
education model of
Wilhelm von Humboldt Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (, also , ; ; 22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a philosopher, , , diplomat, and founder of the , which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, , a ). He is espe ...

Wilhelm von Humboldt
, it became dedicated to research. It was especially
Heidelberg University } Heidelberg University, officially the Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, (german: Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg; la, Universitas Ruperto Carola Heidelbergensis) is a public university, public research university in Heidelberg, B ...

Heidelberg University
and its long academic research history on which the new institution tried to model itself. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States. Its success eventually shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge.


Early years and Daniel Coit Gilman

The trustees worked alongside four notable university presidents – of
Harvard Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...

Harvard
, Andrew D. White of
Cornell Cornell University ( ) is a private, statutory, Ivy League The Ivy League (also known as The Ancient Eight) is an American collegiate athletic conference comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United Stat ...
,
Noah Porter Noah Thomas Porter III (December 14, 1811 – March 4, 1892)''Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University'', Yale University, 1891-2, New Haven, pp. 82-83. was an American academic, philosopher, author, lexicographer Lexicography is divid ...

Noah Porter
of
Yale College Yale College is the undergraduate college of Yale University. Founded in 1701, it is the original school of the university. Although other Yale schools were founded as early as 1810, all of Yale was officially known as Yale College until 1887, w ...
and of
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
. They each vouched for
Daniel Coit Gilman Daniel Coit Gilman (; July 6, 1831 – October 13, 1908) was an American educator and academic. Gilman was instrumental in founding the Sheffield Scientific School Sheffield Scientific School was founded in 1847 as a school of Yale College in New H ...

Daniel Coit Gilman
to lead the new University and he became the university's first president. Gilman, a
Yale Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
-educated scholar, had been serving as president of the
University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public university, public land-grant university, land-grant research university in Berkeley, California. Established in 1868 as the University of California ...

University of California, Berkeley
prior to this appointment. In preparation for the university's founding, visited
University of Freiburg The University of Freiburg (colloquially german: Uni Freiburg), officially the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg (german: Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg), is a public university, public research university located in Freiburg im Breisga ...
and other German universities. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research. He dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are usually those who are free, competent and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known researchers including the mathematician
James Joseph Sylvester James Joseph Sylvester (3 September 1814 – 15 March 1897) was an United Kingdom, English mathematician. He made fundamental contributions to Matrix (mathematics), matrix theory, invariant theory, number theory, Integer partition, partitio ...

James Joseph Sylvester
; the biologist H. Newell Martin; the physicist (the first president of the
American Physical Society The American Physical Society (APS) is a not-for-profit membership organization of professionals in physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , ...
), the classical scholars
Basil Gildersleeve Basil Lanneau Gildersleeve (October 23, 1831January 9, 1924) was an American classics, classical scholar. Biography He was born in Charleston, South Carolina to Emma Louisa Lanneau (daughter of Bazille Lanneau and Hannah Vinyard) and Benjamin Gilde ...
and Charles D. Morris; the economist Richard T. Ely; and the chemist
Ira Remsen Ira Remsen (February 10, 1846 – March 4, 1927) was an American chemist who discovered the artificial sweetener saccharin along with Constantin Fahlberg. He was the second president of Johns Hopkins University. Biography Ira Remsen was born ...

Ira Remsen
, who became the second president of the university in 1901. Gilman focused on the expansion of graduate education and support of faculty research. The new university fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in
doctoral The cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine">Claude_Bernard.html" ;"title="thesis presented by Claude Bernard">thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine degree (1843) A doctorat ...
programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations. The
Johns Hopkins University Press The Johns Hopkins University Press (also referred to as JHU Press'' or ''JHUP) is the publishing division of Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Baltimore, Mar ...
, founded in 1878, is the oldest American
university press A university press is an academic publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of pri ...
in continuous operation. With the completion of
Johns Hopkins Hospital The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. It was founded in 1889 using money from a bequest of over $7 million (1873 mon ...

Johns Hopkins Hospital
in 1889 and the
medical school A medical school is a tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowled ...
in 1893, the university's research-focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of academic medicine, including
William Osler Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet, (; July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian physician and one of the four founding professors of Johns Hopkins Hospital The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) is the teaching hospital and biomedical researc ...
, William Halsted, Howard Kelly, and William Welch. Students came from all over the world to study at Johns Hopkins and returned to their sending country to serve their nation, including Dr Harry Chung (b. 1872) who served as a diplomat in the Manchu Dynasty and First Secretary to the United States. During this period Hopkins made more history by becoming the first medical school to admit women on an equal basis with men and to require a
Bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
, based on the efforts of Mary E. Garrett, who had endowed the school at Gilman's request. The
school of medicine A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons. Such medical degrees include the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surge ...
was America's first coeducational, graduate-level medical school, and became a prototype for academic medicine that emphasized bedside learning, research projects, and laboratory training. In his will and in his instructions to the trustees of the university and the hospital, Hopkins requested that both institutions be built upon the vast grounds of his Baltimore estate, Clifton. When Gilman assumed the presidency, he decided that it would be best to use the university's endowment for recruiting faculty and students, deciding to, as it has been paraphrased, "build men, not buildings." In his will Hopkins stipulated that none of his endowment should be used for construction; only interest on the principal could be used for this purpose. Unfortunately, stocks in The
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was the first common carrier A common carrier in common law countries (corresponding to a public carrier in some civil law (legal system), civil law systems,Encyclopædia Britannica CD 2000 "Civil-law public ca ...
, which would have generated most of the interest, became virtually worthless soon after Hopkins's death. The university's first home was thus in Downtown Baltimore delaying plans to site the university in Clifton.


Move to Homewood and early 20th century history

In the early 20th century, the university outgrew its buildings and the trustees began to search for a new home. Developing Clifton for the university was too costly, and of the estate had to be sold to the city as public park. A solution was achieved by a team of prominent locals who acquired the estate in north Baltimore known as Homewood. On February 22, 1902, this land was formally transferred to the university. The flagship building, Gilman Hall, was completed in 1915. The School of Engineering relocated in Fall of 1914 and the School of Arts and Sciences followed in 1916. These decades saw the ceding of lands by the university for the public Wyman Park and Wyman Park Dell and the
Baltimore Museum of Art Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the 30th most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 593,490 in 2019. Baltimore was designated an independent city by ...
, coalescing in the contemporary area of . Prior to becoming the main Johns Hopkins campus, the Homewood estate had initially been the gift of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, a Maryland planter and signer of the
Declaration of Independence#REDIRECT Declaration of independence {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation ...

Declaration of Independence
, to his son Charles Carroll Jr. The original structure, the 1801 Homewood House, still stands and serves as an on-campus museum. The brick and marble
Federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of government characterized by both a central (federal) government and states or ...
style of Homewood House became the architectural inspiration for much of the university campus versus the
Collegiate Gothic Collegiate Gothic is an architectural style subgenre of Gothic Revival architecture, popular in the late-19th and early-20th centuries for college and high school buildings in the United States and Canada, and to a certain extent Europe. ...
style of other historic American universities. In 1909, the university was among the first to start adult
continuing education Continuing education (similar to further education in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Brit ...
programs and in 1916 it founded the US' first
school of public health Public health has been defined as "the science and art of Preventive healthcare, preventing disease”, prolonging life and improving quality of life through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations (public and private), ...
. Since the 1910s, Johns Hopkins University has famously been a "fertile cradle" to
Arthur Lovejoy Arthur Oncken Lovejoy (October 10, 1873 – December 30, 1962) was an United States, American philosophy, philosopher and intellectual history, intellectual historian, who founded the discipline known as the history of ideas with his book ''The ...
's
history of ideas Intellectual history (also the history of ideas) is the study of the history of human thought and of intellectuals, people who conceptualize, discuss, write about, and concern themselves with ideas. The investigative premise of intellectual history ...
.


The post-war era

Since 1942, the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has served as a major governmental defense contractor. In tandem with on-campus research, Johns Hopkins has every year since 1979 had the highest federal research funding of any American university. Professional schools of international affairs and music were established in 1950 and 1977, respectively, when the
Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) is a division of Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the ...
in Washington D.C and the
Peabody Institute Image:PeabodyInstitute.jpg, Peabody Institute, East Mount Vernon Place, c. 1902 The Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University, The Johns Hopkins University (JHU) is a music and dance conservatory and university-preparatory school in the Mo ...
in Baltimore were incorporated into the university.


In the 21st century

The early decades of the 21st century saw expansion across the university's institutions in both physical and population sizes. Notably, a planned 88-acre expansion to the medical campus began in 2013. Completed construction on the
Homewood campusThe Homewood Campus is the main academic and administrative center of the Johns Hopkins University. It is located at 3400 North Charles Street in Baltimore, Maryland. It houses the two major undergraduate schools: the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts an ...
has included a new biomedical engineering building in the Johns Hopkins University Department of Biomedical Engineering, a new library, a new biology wing, an extensive renovation of the flagship Gilman Hall, and the reconstruction of the main university entrance. These years also brought about the rapid development of the university's professional schools of education and business. From 1999 until 2007, these disciplines had been joined together within the School of Professional Studies in Business and Education (SPSBE), itself a reshuffling of several earlier ventures. The 2007 split, combined with new funding and leadership initiatives, has led to the simultaneous emergence of the Johns Hopkins School of Education and the
Carey Business School The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School (also Carey Business School or Carey) is the graduate business school A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. A business school may ...
. On November 18, 2018, it was announced that
Michael Bloomberg Michael Rubens Bloomberg (born February 14, 1942) is an American businessman, politician, philanthropist, and author. He is the majority owner and co-founder of Bloomberg L.P. Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, ...
would make a donation to his alma mater of $1.8 billion, marking the largest private donation in modern history to an institution of
higher education Higher education is tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge ...
and bringing Bloomberg's total contribution to the school in excess of $3.3 billion. Bloomberg's $1.8 billion gift allows the school to practice
need-blind admission Need-blind admission is a term used in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists ...
and meet the full financial need of admitted students. In January 2019, the university announced an agreement to purchase the
Newseum The Newseum was an interactiveAcross the many fields concerned with interactivity, including information science, computer science, human-computer interaction, communication, and industrial design, there is little agreement over the meaning of th ...

Newseum
, located at 555 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, in the heart of Washington, D.C., with plans to locate all of its D.C.-based graduate programs there. In an interview with
The Atlantic ''The Atlantic'' is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher. It was founded in 1857 in Boston, as ''The Atlantic Monthly'', a literary and cultural magazine that published leading writers' commentary on education, the abolition of sl ...

The Atlantic
, the president of Johns Hopkins stated that “the purchase is an opportunity to position the university, literally, to better contribute its expertise to national- and international-policy discussions.” In late 2019, the university's Coronavirus Research Center began tracking worldwide cases of the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
by compiling data from hundreds of sources around the world. This led to the university becoming one of the most cited sources for data about the pandemic.


Civil rights


African-Americans

Hopkins was a prominent
abolitionist Abolitionism, or the abolitionist movement, was the movement to end slavery. In Western Europe and the Americas, abolitionism was a historic movement that sought to end the Atlantic slave trade and liberate the enslaved people. The British ...
who supported
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln (; February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of governme ...

Abraham Lincoln
during the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
. After his death, reports said his conviction was a decisive factor in enrolling Hopkins' first
African-American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being t ...
student, Kelly Miller, a graduate student in physics, astronomy and mathematics.MDhistoryonline.net
Medicine in Maryland 1752–1920
As time passed, the university adopted a "separate but equal" stance more like other Baltimore institutions. The first black undergraduate entered the school in 1945 and graduate students followed in 1967. James Nabwangu, a British-trained Kenyan, was the first black graduate of the medical school. African-American instructor and laboratory supervisor
Vivien Thomas Vivien Theodore Thomas (August 29, 1910 – November 26, 1985) was an American laboratory supervisor who developed a procedure used to treat blue baby syndrome Blue baby syndrome can refer to a number of conditions that affect oxygen transpo ...

Vivien Thomas
was instrumental in developing and conducting the first successful blue baby operation in 1944. Despite such cases, racial diversity did not become commonplace at Johns Hopkins institutions until the 1960s and 1970s.


Women

Hopkins' most well-known battle for women's rights was the one led by daughters of trustees of the university; Mary E. Garrett, M. Carey Thomas, Mamie Gwinn, Elizabeth King, and Julia Rogers. They donated and raised the funds needed to open the medical school, and required Hopkins' officials to agree to their stipulation that women would be admitted. The
nursing school Nursing is a profession within the health care Healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being Well-being, also known as ''wellness'', ''prudential value'' or ''qua ...
opened in 1889 and accepted women and men as students. Other graduate schools were later opened to women by president
Ira Remsen Ira Remsen (February 10, 1846 – March 4, 1927) was an American chemist who discovered the artificial sweetener saccharin along with Constantin Fahlberg. He was the second president of Johns Hopkins University. Biography Ira Remsen was born ...

Ira Remsen
in 1907.
Christine Ladd-Franklin Christine Ladd-Franklin (December 1, 1847 – March 5, 1930) was an American psychologist A psychologist is a person who studies normal and abnormal mental states, perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by ...

Christine Ladd-Franklin
was the first woman to earn a PhD at Hopkins, in mathematics in 1882. The trustees denied her the degree for decades and refused to change the policy about admitting women. In 1893, Florence Bascomb became the university's first female PhD. The decision to admit women at undergraduate level was not considered until the late 1960s and was eventually adopted in October 1969. As of 2009–2010, the undergraduate population was 47% female and 53% male. In 2020, the undergraduate population of Hopkins was 53% female.


Freedom of speech

On September 5, 2013, cryptographer and Johns Hopkins university professor Matthew Green posted a blog entitled, "On the NSA", in which he contributed to the ongoing debate regarding the role of
NIST The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is a physical sciences Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies abiotic component, non-living systems, in contrast to life science. It in turn has many branches, e ...

NIST
and
NSA The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency An intelligence agency is a government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the m ...

NSA
in formulating U.S.
cryptography Cryptography, or cryptology (from grc, , translit=kryptós "hidden, secret"; and ''graphein'', "to write", or ''-logia ''-logy'' is a suffix in the English language, used with words originally adapted from Ancient Greek ending in (''- ...

cryptography
standards. On September 9, 2013, Green received a take-down request for the "On the NSA" blog from interim Dean Andrew Douglas from the Johns Hopkins University
Whiting School of Engineering The G.W.C. Whiting School of Engineering, is a division of the Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was na ...
. The request cited concerns that the blog had links to sensitive material. The blog linked to already published news articles from ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
'', ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
'' and ProPublica.org. Douglas subsequently issued a personal on-line apology to Green. The event raised concern over the future of academic freedom of speech within the cryptologic research community.


Campuses


Homewood

* : The Krieger School offers more than 60 undergraduate majors and minors and more than 40 graduate programs. * Whiting School of Engineering, G.W.C. Whiting School of Engineering: The Whiting School contains 14 undergraduate and graduate engineering programs and 12 additional areas of study. * Johns Hopkins University School of Education, School of Education: Originally established in 1909 as The School of Professional Studies in Business and Education, the divisions of Education and Business became separate schools in 2007. The first campus was located on Howard Street. Eventually, they relocated to Homewood, in northern Baltimore, the estate of Charles Carroll, son of the oldest surviving signer of the
Declaration of Independence#REDIRECT Declaration of independence {{Redirect category shell, {{R from other capitalisation ...

Declaration of Independence
. Carroll's Homewood House is considered one of the finest examples of Federal residential architecture. The estate then came to the Wyman family, which participated in making it the park-like main campus of the schools of arts and sciences and engineering at the start of the 20th century. Most of its architecture was modeled after the Federal architecture, Federal style of Homewood House. Homewood House is preserved as a museum. Most undergraduate programs are on this campus.


East Baltimore

Collectively known as Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI) campus, the East Baltimore facility occupies several city blocks spreading from the
Johns Hopkins Hospital The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. It was founded in 1889 using money from a bequest of over $7 million (1873 mon ...

Johns Hopkins Hospital
trademark dome. * Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, School of Medicine: The School of Medicine is widely regarded as one of the best medical schools and biomedical research institutes in the world. *
Bloomberg School of Public Health The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) is part of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland Baltimore ( , locally: ) is the List of municipalities in Maryland, most populous city in the U.S. state of Maryland, as we ...
: The Bloomberg School was founded in 1916 and is the world's oldest and largest school of public health. It has consistently been ranked first in its field by U.S. News & World Report. * Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, School of Nursing: The School of Nursing is one of America's oldest and pre-eminent schools for nursing education. It has consistently ranked first in the nation.


Downtown Baltimore

*
Carey Business School The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School (also Carey Business School or Carey) is the graduate business school A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. A business school may ...
: The Carey Business School was established in 2007, incorporating divisions of the former School of Professional Studies in Business and Education. It was originally located on Maryland Route 139, Charles Street, but relocated to the Legg Mason building in Harbor East in 2011. *
Peabody Institute Image:PeabodyInstitute.jpg, Peabody Institute, East Mount Vernon Place, c. 1902 The Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University, The Johns Hopkins University (JHU) is a music and dance conservatory and university-preparatory school in the Mo ...
: founded in 1857, is the oldest continuously active music conservatory in the United States; it became a division of Johns Hopkins in 1977. The Conservatory retains its own student body and grants degrees in musicology and performance, though both Hopkins and Peabody students may take courses at both institutions. It is located on East Mount Vernon Place.


Washington, D.C.

The Washington, D.C. campus is on Massachusetts Avenue (Washington, D.C.), Massachusetts Avenue, towards the Southeastern end of Embassy Row. *
Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) is a division of Johns Hopkins University The Johns Hopkins University is a private university, private research university in Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the ...
(SAIS) is located on the Washington D.C. campus near Dupont Circle. In a 2005 survey 65% of respondents ranked SAIS as the nation's top Master's Degree program in international relations. * Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences#Advanced Academic Programs, The Krieger School of Arts and Sciences' Advanced Academic Programs (AAP) **Center for Advanced Governmental Studies **Center for Biotechnology Education *
Carey Business School The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School (also Carey Business School or Carey) is the graduate business school A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management. A business school may ...
In 2019, Hopkins announced its purchase of the
Newseum The Newseum was an interactiveAcross the many fields concerned with interactivity, including information science, computer science, human-computer interaction, communication, and industrial design, there is little agreement over the meaning of th ...

Newseum
building on Pennsylvania Avenue, three blocks from the United States Capitol to house its D.C. programs and centers.


Laurel, Maryland

* Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL): The APL in Laurel, Maryland, specializes in research for the United States Department of Defense, U.S. Department of Defense, NASA and other government and civilian research agencies. Among other projects, it has designed, built, and flown spacecraft for NASA to the asteroid Eros, and the planets Mercury and Pluto. It has developed more than 100 biomedical devices, many in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. Akin to the Washington, D.C. campus for the School of Arts & Sciences, the APL also is the primary campus for master's degrees in a variety of STEM fields.


Other campuses


Domestic

* Columbia, Maryland, Columbia, Maryland Center (Branches of Carey Business School, The Carey Business School and Johns Hopkins University School of Education, The School of Education) * Montgomery County, Maryland, Montgomery County, Maryland Campus (Part-time programs in Biosciences, Engineering, Business & Education)


International

* Bologna Center, The SAIS Bologna Center, Italy * Johns Hopkins University in Malaysia, Perdana University-Johns Hopkins (Discontinued) * Hopkins-Nanjing Center, The SAIS Hopkins-Nanjing Center for Chinese and American Studies, China * National University of Singapore#Yong Siew Toh Conservatory of Music, Yong Siew Toh Conservatory of Music (Collaboration between the
Peabody Institute Image:PeabodyInstitute.jpg, Peabody Institute, East Mount Vernon Place, c. 1902 The Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University, The Johns Hopkins University (JHU) is a music and dance conservatory and university-preparatory school in the Mo ...
and the National University of Singapore)


Organization

The Johns Hopkins entity is structured as two corporations, the university and The Johns Hopkins Health System, formed in 1986. The President is JHU's chief executive officer, and the university is organized into nine academic divisions. JHU's bylaws specify a Board of Trustees of between 18 and 65 voting members. Trustees serve six-year terms subject to a two-term limit. The alumni select 12 trustees. Four recent alumni serve 4-year terms, one per year, typically from the graduating class. The bylaws prohibit students, faculty or administrative staff from serving on the Board, except the President as an ex-officio trustee. The Johns Hopkins Health System has a separate Board of Trustees, many of whom are doctors or health care executives.


Academics

The full-time, four-year undergraduate program is "most selective" with low transfer-in and a high graduate co-existence. The cost of attendance per year is approximately $77,400. However, 51% of full-time undergraduates receive financial aid covering 100% of their need. The admit rate of Hopkins undergraduates to medical school is 80% and to law school is 97%, some of the highest rates in the US. The university is one of fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities (AAU); it is also a member of the Consortium on Financing Higher Education (COFHE) and the Universities Research Association (URA).


Rankings

Johns Hopkins University was ranked No. 9 overall both in the U.S and globally by ''U.S. News & World Report'' for 2022.


Undergraduate admissions

The university's undergraduate programs are highly selective: in 2021, the Office of Admissions accepted about 4.9% of its 33,236 Regular Decision applicants and about 6.4% of its total 38,725 applicants. In 2020, 99% of admitted students graduated in the top 10% of their high school class. Over time, applications to Johns Hopkins University have risen steadily; as a result, the selectivity of Johns Hopkins University has also increased. Early Decision is an option at Johns Hopkins University for students who wish to demonstrate that the university is their first choice. These students, if admitted, are required to enroll. This application is due November 2. Most students, however, apply Regular Decision, which is a traditional non-binding round. These applications are due January 1 and students are notified in late March. In 2014, Johns Hopkins ended legacy preference in admissions. Johns Hopkins practices
need-blind admission Need-blind admission is a term used in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists ...
and meets the full financial need of all admitted students.


Libraries

The Johns Hopkins University Library system houses more than 3.6 million volumes and includes ten main divisions across the university's campuses. The largest segment of this system is the Sheridan Libraries, encompassing the Milton S. Eisenhower Library (the main library of the
Homewood campusThe Homewood Campus is the main academic and administrative center of the Johns Hopkins University. It is located at 3400 North Charles Street in Baltimore, Maryland. It houses the two major undergraduate schools: the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts an ...
), the Brody Learning Commons, the Hutzler Reading Room ("The Hut") in Gilman Hall, the John Work Garrett Library at Evergreen House, and the George Peabody Library at the
Peabody Institute Image:PeabodyInstitute.jpg, Peabody Institute, East Mount Vernon Place, c. 1902 The Peabody Institute of Johns Hopkins University, The Johns Hopkins University (JHU) is a music and dance conservatory and university-preparatory school in the Mo ...
campus. The main library, constructed in the 1960s, was named for Milton S. Eisenhower, former president of the university and brother of former U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower. The university's stacks had previously been housed in Gilman Hall and departmental libraries. Only two of the Eisenhower library's six stories are above ground, though the building was designed so that every level receives natural light. The design accords with campus lore that no structure can be taller than Gilman Hall, the flagship academic building. A four-story expansion to the library, known as the Brody Learning Commons, opened in August 2012. The expansion features an energy-efficient, state-of-the-art technology infrastructure and includes study spaces, seminar rooms, and a rare books collection.


Johns Hopkins University Press

The Johns Hopkins University Press is the publishing division of the Johns Hopkins University. It was founded in 1878 and holds the distinction of being the oldest continuously running
university press A university press is an academic publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of pri ...
in the United States. To date the Press has published more than 6,000 titles and currently publishes 65 scholarly periodicals and over 200 new books each year. Since 1993, the Johns Hopkins University Press has run Project MUSE, an online collection of over 250 full-text, peer-reviewed journals in the humanities and social sciences. The Press also houses the Hopkins Fulfilment Services (HFS), which handles distribution for a number of university presses and publishers. Taken together, the three divisions of the Press—Books, Journals (including MUSE) and HFS—make it one of the largest of America's university presses.


Center for Talented Youth

The Johns Hopkins University also offers the "Center for Talented Youth" program—a nonprofit organization dedicated to identifying and developing the talents of the most promising K-12 grade students worldwide. As part of the Johns Hopkins University, the "Center for Talented Youth" or CTY helps fulfill the university's mission of preparing students to make significant future contributions to the world. The Johns Hopkins Digital Media Center (DMC) is a multimedia lab space as well as an equipment, technology and knowledge resource for students interested in exploring creative uses of emerging media and use of technology.


Degrees offered

Johns Hopkins offers a number of degrees in various undergraduate majors leading to the BA and BS and various majors leading to the MA, MS and Ph.D. for graduate students. Because Hopkins offers both undergraduate and graduate areas of study, many disciplines have multiple degrees available. Biomedical engineering, perhaps one of Hopkins' best-known programs, offers bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees.


Research

The opportunity to participate in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Hopkins' undergraduate education. About 80 percent of undergraduates perform independent research, often alongside top researchers. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research—more than any other U.S. university for the 38th consecutive year. Johns Hopkins has had seventy-seven members of the Institute of Medicine, forty-three Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigators, seventeen members of the National Academy of Engineering, and sixty-two members of the National Academy of Sciences. As of October 2019, 39 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni, faculty members or researchers, with the most recent winners being Gregg L. Semenza, Gregg Semenza and William Kaelin Jr., William G. Kaelin. Between 1999 and 2009, Johns Hopkins was among the most cited institutions in the world. It attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and produced 54,022 papers under its name, ranking No. 3 globally (after Harvard University and the Max Planck Society) in the number of ''total'' citations published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over 22 fields in America. In 2020, Johns Hopkins University ranked 5 in number of utility patents granted out of all institutions in the world. In FY 2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million in research grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), making it the leading recipient of NASA research and development funding. In FY 2002, Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored research. In FY 2008, Johns Hopkins University performed $1.68 billion in science, medical and engineering research, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 30th year in a row, according to a National Science Foundation (NSF) ranking. These totals include grants and expenditures of JHU's Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland. In 2013, the Bloomberg Distinguished Professorships program was established by a $250 million gift from
Michael Bloomberg Michael Rubens Bloomberg (born February 14, 1942) is an American businessman, politician, philanthropist, and author. He is the majority owner and co-founder of Bloomberg L.P. Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, ...
. This program enables the university to recruit fifty researchers from around the world to joint appointments throughout the nine divisions and research centers. Each professor must be a leader in interdisciplinary research and be active in undergraduate education.Anderson, Nick
" Bloomberg pledges $350 million to Johns Hopkins University "
, ''The Washington Post'', Washington, D.C., January 23, 2013. Retrieved on March 12, 2015.
Directed by Vice Provost for Research Denis Wirtz, there are currently thirty two Bloomberg Distinguished Professors at the university, including three Nobel Prize, Nobel Laureates, eight fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, ten members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and thirteen members of the National Academies.


Research centers and institutes


Divisional

* Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, School of Medicine (28) * Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, School of Public Health (70) * Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, School of Nursing (2) * School of Arts and Sciences (27) * Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, School of Advanced International Studies (17) * School of Engineering (16) *
School of EducationIn the United States and Canada, a school of education (or college of education; ed school) is a division within a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Te ...
(3) * Carey Business School, School of Business *
Applied Physics Laboratory The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (Applied Physics Laboratory, or APL) is a not-for-profit University Affiliated Research Center, university-affiliated research center (UARC) in Howard County, Maryland. It is affiliated wi ...


Others

* Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, Berman Institute of Bioethics * Center for a Livable Future * Center for Talented Youth * Graduate Program in Public Management * Johns Hopkins Institute for Policy Studies * Institute for Applied Economics, Global Health, and the Study of Business Enterprise * Space Telescope Science Institute


Student life

Charles Village, the region of North Baltimore surrounding the university, has undergone several restoration projects, and the university has gradually bought the property around the school for additional student housing and dormitories. ''The Charles Village Project'', completed in 2008, brought new commercial spaces to the neighborhood. The project included Charles Commons, a new, modern residence hall that includes popular retail franchises. In 2015, the University began development of new commercial properties, including a modern upperclassmen apartment complex, restaurants and eateries, and a CVS retail store. Hopkins invested in improving campus life with an arts complex in 2001, the Mattin Center, and a three-story sports facility, the O'Connor Recreation Center. The large on-campus dining facilities at Homewood were renovated in the summer of 2006. The Mattin Center was demolished in 2021 to make room for the new Student Center scheduled to open in the fall of 2024. Quality of life is enriched by the proximity of neighboring academic institutions, including Loyola College in Maryland, Loyola College, Maryland Institute College of Art, Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA), UMBC, Goucher College, and Towson University, as well as the nearby neighborhoods of Hampden, Baltimore, Hampden, the Inner Harbor, Fells Point, and Mount Vernon, Baltimore, Mount Vernon.


Student organizations


Fraternity and sorority life

Fraternities and sororities, Fraternity and sorority life came to Hopkins in 1876 with the chartering of Beta Theta Pi Fraternity, which still exists on campus today. Since, Johns Hopkins has become home to nine sororities and 11 fraternities. Of the nine sororities, five belong to the National Panhellenic Conference and four to the Multicultural Greek Council Sororities. Of the fraternities, all 11 belong to the Inter-Fraternity Council. Over 1,000 students participate in Fraternity and Sorority Life, with 23% of women and 20% of men taking part. Fraternity and Sorority Life has expanded its reach at Hopkins in recent decades, as only 15% of the student body participated in 1989. Alpha Phi Alpha, a historically black fraternity, was founded in 1991 and Lambda Phi Epsilon, an Asian-interest fraternity, was founded in 1994 Rush for all students occurs in the spring. Most fraternities keep houses in Charles Village while sororities do not.


Spring Fair

Spring Fair has been a Johns Hopkins tradition since 1972 and has since grown to be the largest student-run festival in the country. Popular among Hopkins students and Baltimore inhabitants alike, Spring Fair features carnival rides, vendors, food and a beer garden. Since its beginning, Spring Fair has decreased in size, both in regard to attendance and utilization of space. While one point, the Fair attracted upwards of 100,000 people, it became unruly and, for a variety of reasons including safety concerns and a campus beautification project in the early 2000s, had to be scaled back.


Traditions

While it has been speculated that Johns Hopkins has relatively few traditions for a school of its age and that many past traditions have been forgotten, a handful of myths and customs are ubiquitous knowledge among the community. One such long-standing myth surrounds the university seal that is embedded into the floor of the Gilman Hall foyer. The myth holds that any current student to step on the seal will never graduate. In reverence for this tradition, the seal has been fenced off from the rest of the room. An annual event is the ''Lighting of the Quad'', a ceremony each winter during which the campus is lit up in holiday lights. Recent years have included singing and fireworks.


Housing

Living on campus is typically required for first- and second-year undergraduates. Freshman housing is centered around Freshman Quad, which consists of three residence hall complexes: The two Alumni Memorial Residences (AMR I and AMR II) plus Buildings A and B. The AMR dormitories are each divided into ''houses'', subunits named for figures from the university's early history. Freshmen are also housed in Wolman Hall and in certain wings of McCoy Hall, both located slightly outside the campus. Dorms at Hopkins are generally co-ed with same-gender rooms, though a new policy has allowed students to live in mixed-gender rooms since Fall 2014. Students determine where they will live during sophomore year through a housing lottery. Most juniors and seniors move into nearby apartments or row-houses. Non-freshmen in university housing occupy one of four buildings: McCoy Hall, the Bradford Apartments, the Homewood Apartments, and Charles Commons. All are located in Charles Village within a block from the
Homewood campusThe Homewood Campus is the main academic and administrative center of the Johns Hopkins University. It is located at 3400 North Charles Street in Baltimore, Maryland. It houses the two major undergraduate schools: the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts an ...
. Forty-five percent of the student body lives off-campus while 55% lives on campus.


Athletics

Athletic teams are called Blue Jays. Even though sable (heraldry), sable and or (heraldry), gold are used for academic dress, academic robes, the university's athletic colors are Columbia blue (PMS 284) and black. Hopkins celebrates Homecoming in the spring to coincide with the height of the lacrosse season. The men's and women's lacrosse teams are in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) NCAA Division I, Division I and are affiliate members of the
Big Ten Conference The Big Ten Conference (stylized B1G, formerly the Western Conference and the Big Nine Conference) is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference in the United States. It is based in Rosemont, Illinois. For many decades this conferenc ...
. Other teams are in Division III and participate in the
Centennial Conference The Centennial Conference is an athletic conference which competes in the NCAA The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a nonprofit organization that regulates student athletes from up to 1,268 North American institutions and co ...
. JHU is also home to the Lacrosse Museum and National Hall of Fame, maintained by US Lacrosse.


Men's lacrosse

The school's most prominent team is its men's lacrosse team. The team has won 44 national titles – nine Division I (2007, 2005, 1987, 1985, 1984, 1980, 1979, 1978, 1974), 29 United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association, USILA), and six Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (ILA) titles. Hopkins' primary national rivals are Princeton Tigers men's lacrosse, Princeton University, Syracuse Orange men's lacrosse, Syracuse University, and the Virginia Cavaliers men's lacrosse, University of Virginia; its primary intrastate rivals are Loyola Greyhounds men's lacrosse, Loyola University Maryland (competing in what is called the "Charles Street Massacre"), Towson Tigers men's lacrosse, Towson University, the Navy Midshipmen men's lacrosse, United States Naval Academy, and the Maryland Terrapins men's lacrosse, University of Maryland. The Johns Hopkins—Maryland rivalry, rivalry with Maryland is the oldest. The schools have met 111 times since 1899, three times in playoff matches. On June 3, 2013, it was announced that the Blue Jays would join the
Big Ten Conference The Big Ten Conference (stylized B1G, formerly the Western Conference and the Big Nine Conference) is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference in the United States. It is based in Rosemont, Illinois. For many decades this conferenc ...
for men's lacrosse when that league begins sponsoring the sport in the 2015 season (2014–15 school year).


Women's lacrosse

The women's team is a member of the
Big Ten Conference The Big Ten Conference (stylized B1G, formerly the Western Conference and the Big Nine Conference) is the oldest Division I collegiate athletic conference in the United States. It is based in Rosemont, Illinois. For many decades this conferenc ...
and a former member of the American Lacrosse Conference (ALC). The Lady Blue Jays were ranked number 18 in the 2015 Inside Lacrosse Women's DI Media Poll. They ranked number 8 in the 2007 Intercollegiate Women's Lacrosse Coaches Association (IWLCA) Poll Division I. The team finished the 2012 season with a 9–9 record and finished the 2013 season with a 10–7 record. They finished the 2014 season 15–5. On June 17, 2015, it was announced that the Blue Jays would join the Big Ten Conference for women's lacrosse in the 2017 season (2016–17 school year).


Other teams

Hopkins has notable Division III Athletic teams. JHU Men's Swimming won three consecutive NCAA Championships in 1977, 1978, and 1979. In 2009–2010, Hopkins won 8 Centennial Conference titles in Women's Cross Country, Women's Track & Field, Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Football, and Men's and Women's Tennis. The Women's Cross Country team became the first women's team at Hopkins to achieve a #1 National ranking. In 2006–2007 teams won Centennial Conference titles in Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Men's and Women's Tennis and Men's Basketball. Women's soccer won their Centennial Conference title for 7 consecutive years from 2005 to 2011. In the 2013–2014 school year, Hopkins earned 12 Centennial Conference titles, most notably from the cross country and track & field teams, which accounted for six. Hopkins has an acclaimed fencing team, which ranked in the top three Division III teams in the past few years and in both 2008 and 2007 defeated the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina, a Division I team. In 2008, they defeated UNC and won the MACFA championship. The swimming team ranked highly in NCAA Division III for the last 10 years, most recently placing second at DIII Nationals in 2008. The water polo team was number one in Division III for several of the past years, playing a full schedule against Division I opponents. Hopkins also has a century-old rivalry with McDaniel College (formerly Western Maryland College), playing the Green Terrors 83 times in football since the first game in 1894. In 2009 the football team reached the quarterfinals of the NCAA Division III tournament, with three tournament appearances since 2005. In 2008, the baseball team ranked second, losing in the final game of the DIII College World Series to Trinity College, Hartford, Trinity College. The Johns Hopkins squash team plays in the College Squash Association as a club team along with Division I and III varsity programs. In 2011–12 the squash team finished 30th in the ranking.


Noted people


Nobel laureates

, there have been 39 Nobel Laureates who either attended the university as undergraduate or graduate students, or were faculty members. Woodrow Wilson, who received his PhD from Johns Hopkins in 1886, was Hopkins' first affiliated laureate, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919. Twenty-three laureates were faculty members, five earned PhDs, eight earned Doctor of Medicine, M.D.s, and Francis Peyton Rous and Martin Rodbell earned undergraduate degrees. As of October 2019, eighteen Johns Hopkins laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Four Nobel Prizes were shared by Johns Hopkins laureates: George Minot and George Whipple won the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Four Johns Hopkins laureates won Nobel Prizes in Physics, including Riccardo Giacconi in 2002 and Bloomberg Distinguished Professorships, Bloomberg Distinguished Professor Adam Riess in 2011. Bloomberg Distinguished Professorships, Bloomberg Distinguished Professor Peter Agre was awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (which he shared with Roderick MacKinnon) for his discovery of aquaporins. Bloomberg Distinguished Professorships, Bloomberg Distinguished Professor Carol Greider was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Blackburn and Jack W. Szostak, for their discovery that telomeres are protected from progressive shortening by the enzyme telomerase.


Scandals

Bristol-Myers Squibb, Johns Hopkins University and the Rockefeller Foundation are currently the subject of a $1 billion lawsuit from Guatemala for "roles in a 1940s U.S. government experiment that infected hundreds of Guatemalans with syphilis. A previous suit against the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
government was dismissed in 2011 for the Guatemala syphilis experiments when a judge determined that the U.S. government could not be held liable for actions committed outside of the U.S.


See also

* Johns Hopkins University in popular culture * '''' * ''''


References


External links

* {{Authority control Johns Hopkins University, Educational institutions established in 1876 Universities and colleges in Baltimore 1876 establishments in Maryland Private universities and colleges in Maryland