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John Ruskin (8 February 1819 20 January 1900) was an English writer,
philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mi ...

philosopher
,
art critic An art critic is a person who is specialized in analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, ch ...
and
polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a substantial number of subjects, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific prob ...

polymath
of the
Victorian era In the history of the United Kingdom The history of the United Kingdom began in the early eighteenth century with the Treaty of Union A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international l ...
. He wrote on subjects as varied as
geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...

geology
,
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
,
myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the ca ...
,
ornithology Ornithology is a branch of zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the Animal, animal kingdom, including the anatomy, structure, ...

ornithology
,
literature Literature broadly is any collection of written Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share") is the act of developing Semantics, meaning among Subject (philosophy), entitie ...

literature
,
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value (ethics), values, morals, beliefs, habits, and personal development. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion ...

education
,
botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek wo ...

botany
and
political economy Political economy is the study of production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (g ...
. Ruskin's writing styles and literary forms were equally varied. He wrote essays and treatises, poetry and lectures, travel guides and manuals, letters and even a fairy tale. He also made detailed sketches and paintings of rocks, plants, birds, landscapes, architectural structures and ornamentation. The elaborate style that characterised his earliest writing on art gave way in time to plainer language designed to communicate his ideas more effectively. In all of his writing, he emphasised the connections between nature, art and society. Ruskin came to view his
critique of political economy ''Das Kapital'', also known as ''Capital: A Critique of Political Economy'' (german: Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, ; 1867–1883), is a foundational theoretical text in Historical materialism, materialist philosophy, economics a ...
as his most central work, which also inspired the famous indian leader
Mahatma Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (; ; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist Quote: "... marks Gandhi as a hybrid cosmopolitan figure who transformed ... anti-colonial nationalist politics in the ...

Mahatma Gandhi
. Ruskin was hugely influential in the latter half of the 19th century and up to the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainmen ...
. After a period of relative decline, his reputation has steadily improved since the 1960s with the publication of numerous academic studies of his work. Today, his ideas and concerns are widely recognised as having anticipated interest in
environmentalism Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical real ...
,
sustainability Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century, it refers generally to the capacity for Earth's biosphere and human civilization to co-exist. For many, sustainability is ...

sustainability
and
craft A craft or trade is a pastime or an occupation that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself wit ...
. Ruskin first came to widespread attention with the first volume of ''
Modern Painters Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recov ...
'' (1843), an extended essay in defence of the work of J. M. W. Turner in which he argued that the principal role of the artist is "truth to nature". From the 1850s, he championed the
Pre-Raphaelites The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and art critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Michael Rossetti, James ...
, who were influenced by his ideas. His work increasingly focused on social and political issues. ''
Unto This Last ''Unto This Last'' is an essay and book on economy An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), distribution a ...
'' (1860, 1862) marked the shift in emphasis. In 1869, Ruskin became the first
Slade Professor of Fine ArtThe Slade Professorship of Fine Art is the oldest professorship of art and art history at the universities of Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximat ...
at the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...

University of Oxford
, where he established the
Ruskin School of Drawing The Ruskin School of Art, known as the Ruskin, is an art school at the University of Oxford, England. It is part of Oxford's Humanities Division, University of Oxford, Humanities Division. History The Ruskin grew out the Oxford School of Art, whi ...
. In 1871, he began his monthly "letters to the workmen and labourers of Great Britain", published under the title ''
Fors Clavigera ''Fors Clavigera'' was the name given by John Ruskin to a series of letters addressed to British workmen during the 1870s. They were published in the form of pamphlets. The letters formed part of Ruskin's interest in moral intervention in the soc ...
'' (1871–1884). In the course of this complex and deeply personal work, he developed the principles underlying his ideal society. As a result, he founded the
Guild of St GeorgeThe Guild of St George is a charitable Education Trust, based in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Ir ...
, an organisation that endures today.


Early life (1819–1846)


Genealogy

Ruskin was the only child of first cousins. His father, John James Ruskin (1785–1864), was a sherry and wine importer, founding partner and ''de facto'' business manager of Ruskin, Telford and Domecq (see
Allied Domecq Allied Domecq PLC was an international , headquartered in , United Kingdom, that operated , , and businesses. It was once a constituent but has been acquired by . They had one distillery in India. History Allied Domecq was the result of a 1994 ...
). John James was born and brought up in
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...

Edinburgh
, Scotland, to a mother from Glenluce and a father originally from
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the s ...

Hertfordshire
. His wife, Margaret Cock (1781–1871), was the daughter of a publican in
Croydon Croydon is a large town in South London, England that gives its name to the London Borough of Croydon. It is one of the largest commercial districts in Greater London, with an extensive shopping district and night-time economy. The entire town ...

Croydon
. She had joined the Ruskin household when she became companion to John James's mother, Catherine. John James had hoped to practise law, and was articled as a clerk in London. His father, John Thomas Ruskin, described as a grocer (but apparently an ambitious wholesale merchant), was an incompetent businessman. To save the family from bankruptcy, John James, whose prudence and success were in stark contrast to his father, took on all debts, settling the last of them in 1832. John James and Margaret were engaged in 1809, but opposition to the union from John Thomas, and the problem of his debts, delayed the couple's wedding. They finally married, without celebration, in 1818. John James died on 3 March 1864 and is buried in the churchyard of St John the Evangelist, Shirley, Croydon.


Childhood and education

Ruskin was born on 8 February 1819 at 54 Hunter Street,
Brunswick Square Brunswick Square is a public garden and ancillary streets along two of its sides in Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London. It is considered a fashionable residential area, and is the location of numerous cultural ...
, London (demolished 1969), south of
St Pancras railway station St Pancras railway station (), also known as London St Pancras or St Pancras International and officially since 2007 as London St Pancras International, is a central London railway terminus on Euston Road Euston Road is a road in Central L ...

St Pancras railway station
.''ODNB'' (2004) "Childhood and education" His childhood was shaped by the contrasting influences of his father and mother, both of whom were fiercely ambitious for him. John James Ruskin helped to develop his son's
Romanticism Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to ...
. They shared a passion for the works of
Byron George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824) known simply as Lord Byron, was an English Peerage of the United Kingdom, peer, who was a poet and politician. He was one of the leading figures of the Romanticism ...

Byron
,
Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national p ...

Shakespeare
and especially
Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832), was a Scottish historical novelist, poet, playwright and historian. Many of his works remain classics of European and Scottish literature Scottish literature is literatu ...

Walter Scott
. They visited Scott's home,
AbbotsfordAbbotsford may refer to a place in: ;Australia * Abbotsford, New South Wales, a suburb of Sydney, Australia * Abbotsford, Picton, a heritage-listed farm in south-western Sydney * Abbotsford, Victoria, a suburb of Melbourne, Australia * Abbotsford S ...

Abbotsford
, in 1838, but Ruskin was disappointed by its appearance. Margaret Ruskin, an
evangelical Evangelicalism (), evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestant Christianity that maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salv ...

evangelical
Christian, more cautious and restrained than her husband, taught young John to read the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
from beginning to end, and then to start all over again, committing large portions to memory. Its language, imagery and parables had a profound and lasting effect on his writing. He later wrote: Ruskin's childhood was spent from 1823 at 28
Herne Hill Herne Hill is a district in South London South London is the southern part of London, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Sc ...
(demolished ), near the village of
Camberwell Camberwell () is a district of South London South London is the informally defined southern part of London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major ...
in
South London South London is the informally defined southern part of London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient ...

South London
. He had few friends of his own age, but it was not the friendless and toyless experience he later said it was in his autobiography, ''Praeterita'' (1885–89). He was educated at home by his parents and private tutors, including preacher Edward Andrews, whose daughters, Mrs Eliza Orme and
Emily Augusta Patmore Emily Augusta Patmore (1824–1862) was a British author, Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, Pre-Raphaelite muse and the inspiration for the 1854-1862 poem ''The Angel in the House''. Early life and education Emily Augusta Andrews was born on 29 Febr ...
were later credited with introducing Ruskin to the
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and art critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt File:Hunt-AwakeningConscience1853.jpg, ''The Awakening Conscience'' (1853) ...
. From 1834 to 1835 he attended the school in
Peckham Peckham () is a district of south London South London is the informally defined southern part of London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major se ...

Peckham
run by the progressive evangelical
Thomas Dale Sir Thomas Dale ( 1570 − 19 August 1619) was an English naval commander and deputy-governor of the Virginia Colony in 1611 and from 1614 to 1616. Governor Dale is best remembered for the energy and the extreme rigour of his administration in Vi ...
(1797–1870). Ruskin heard Dale lecture in 1836 at
King's College, London King's College London (informally King's or KCL) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization An organization, or ...
, where Dale was the first Professor of English Literature. Ruskin went on to enroll and complete his studies at King's College, where he prepared for
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...
under Dale's tutelage.


Travel

Ruskin was greatly influenced by the extensive and privileged travels he enjoyed in his childhood. It helped to establish his taste and augmented his education. He sometimes accompanied his father on visits to business clients at their country houses, which exposed him to English landscapes, architecture and paintings. Family tours took them to the
Lake District The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes, forests and mountains (or ''fells''), and its associations with William Wordsworth ...

Lake District
(his first long poem, ''Iteriad'', was an account of his tour in 1830) and to relatives in
Perth Perth () is the list of Australian capital cities, capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia (WA). It is Australia's list of cities in Australia by population, fourth-most populous city, with a population of 2.1 mi ...

Perth
, Scotland. As early as 1825, the family visited
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
and
Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe. The region's countries and territories vary depending on cont ...

Belgium
. Their continental tours became increasingly ambitious in scope: in 1833 they visited
Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; german: Straßburg ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Bas-Rhin (; Alsatian: ''Unterelsàss'', ' or '; traditional german: links=no, Niederrhein; en, Lower Rhine) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, divi ...

Strasbourg
,
Schaffhausen Schaffhausen (; gsw, Schafuuse; french: Schaffhouse; it, Sciaffusa; rm, Schaffusa; en, Shaffhouse) is a town with historic roots, a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division ...

Schaffhausen
,
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...

Milan
,
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
and
Turin Turin ( , Piedmontese Piedmontese (autonym: or , in it, piemontese) is a language spoken by some 700,000 people mostly in Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = ...

Turin
, places to which Ruskin frequently returned. He developed a lifelong love of the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt ...

Alps
, and in 1835 visited
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
for the first time, that 'Paradise of cities' that provided the subject and symbolism of much of his later work. These tours gave Ruskin the opportunity to observe and record his impressions of nature. He composed elegant, though mainly conventional poetry, some of which was published in ''Friendship's Offering''. His early notebooks and sketchbooks are full of visually sophisticated and technically accomplished drawings of maps, landscapes and buildings, remarkable for a boy of his age. He was profoundly affected by
Samuel Rogers Samuel Rogers (30 July 1763 – 18 December 1855) was an English poet This article focuses on poetry from the United Kingdom written in the English language. The article does not cover poetry from other countries where the English language i ...

Samuel Rogers
's poem ''Italy'' (1830), a copy of which was given to him as a 13th birthday present; in particular, he deeply admired the accompanying illustrations by J. M. W. Turner. Much of Ruskin's own art in the 1830s was in imitation of Turner, and of Samuel Prout, whose ''Sketches Made in Flanders and Germany'' (1833) he also admired. His artistic skills were refined under the tutelage of Charles Runciman,
Copley Fielding Anthony Vandyke Copley Fielding (22 November 1787 – 3 March 1855), commonly called Copley Fielding, was an England, English painter born in Sowerby, West Yorkshire, Sowerby, near Halifax, West Yorkshire, Halifax, and famous for his watercolour ...
and J. D. Harding.


First publications

Ruskin's journeys also provided inspiration for writing. His first publication was the poem "On Skiddaw and Derwent Water" (originally entitled "Lines written at the Lakes in Cumberland: Derwentwater" and published in the ''Spiritual Times'') (August 1829). In 1834, three short articles for 's ''Magazine of Natural History'' were published. They show early signs of his skill as a close "scientific" observer of nature, especially its geology. From September 1837 to December 1838, Ruskin's ''The Poetry of Architecture'' was serialised in Loudon's ''Architectural Magazine'', under the pen name "Kata Phusin" (Greek for "According to Nature"). It was a study of cottages, villas, and other dwellings centred on a Wordsworthian argument that buildings should be sympathetic to their immediate environment and use local materials. It anticipated key themes in his later writings. In 1839, Ruskin's "Remarks on the Present State of Meteorological Science" was published in ''Transactions of the Meteorological Society''.


Oxford

In
Michaelmas Michaelmas ( ; also known as the Feast of Saints Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael, the Feast of the Archangels, or the Feast of Saint Michael and All Angels) is a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a mon ...
1836, Ruskin
matriculated Matriculation is the formal process of entering a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which award ...

matriculated
at the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
, taking up residence at
Christ Church Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yeshua, Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jews, Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figu ...

Christ Church
in January of the following year. Enrolled as a
gentleman-commoner A commoner is a student at certain universities in the British Isles who historically pays for his own tuition and dining hall, commons, typically contrasted with Scholarship, scholars and exhibitioners, who were given financial emoluments towards ...
, he enjoyed equal status with his aristocratic peers. Ruskin was generally uninspired by Oxford and suffered bouts of illness. Perhaps the greatest advantage of his time there was in the few, close friendships he made. His tutor, the Rev Walter Lucas Brown, always encouraged him, as did a young senior tutor,
Henry Liddell Henry George Liddell (; 6 February 1811– 18 January 1898) was Dean (college), dean (1855–1891) of Christ Church, Oxford, List of Vice-Chancellors of the University of Oxford, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University (1870–1874), headmaster ( ...
(later the father of
Alice Liddell Alice Pleasance Hargreaves (''née'' Liddell, ; 4 May 1852 – 16 November 1934), was, in her childhood, an acquaintance and photography subject of Lewis Carroll Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (; 27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better know ...

Alice Liddell
) and a private tutor, the Rev Osborne Gordon. He became close to the geologist and natural theologian,
William Buckland William Buckland DD, FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family ...

William Buckland
. Among his fellow-undergraduates, Ruskin's most important friends were
Charles Thomas Newton Sir Charles Thomas Newton (16 September 1816 – 28 November 1894) was a British archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often consi ...
and
Henry Acland Sir Henry Wentworth Dyke Acland, 1st Baronet, (23 August 181516 October 1900) was an English physician and educator. Life Henry Acland was born in Killerton, Exeter Exeter () is a city in Devon, England, on the River Exe northeast of Ply ...
. His most noteworthy success came in 1839 when, at the third attempt, he won the prestigious
Newdigate Prize Sir Roger Newdigate's Prize, more commonly the Newdigate Prize, is awarded to students of the University of Oxford , mottoeng = Psalm 27, The Lord is my light , established = , endowment = £6.1 billion (including colleges) (as of ...
for poetry (
Arthur Hugh Clough Arthur Hugh Clough ( ; 1 January 181913 November 1861) was an English poetry, English poet, an educationalist, and the devoted assistant to Florence Nightingale. He was the brother of suffragist Anne Clough and father of Blanche Athena Clough wh ...

Arthur Hugh Clough
came second). He met
William Wordsworth William Wordsworth (7 April 177023 April 1850) was an English Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of ...

William Wordsworth
, who was receiving an honorary degree, at the ceremony. Ruskin's health was poor and he never became independent from his family during his time at Oxford. His mother took lodgings on High Street, where his father joined them at weekends. He was devastated to hear that his first love, Adèle Domecq, the second daughter of his father's business partner, had become engaged to a French nobleman. In April 1840, whilst revising for his examinations, he began to cough blood, which led to fears of consumption and a long break from Oxford travelling with his parents. Before he returned to Oxford, Ruskin responded to a challenge that had been put to him by
Effie Gray Euphemia Chalmers Millais, Lady Millais (''née'' Gray; 7 May 1828 – 23 December 1897) was a Scottish painter and the wife of Pre-Raphaelite The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painte ...

Effie Gray
, whom he later married: the twelve-year-old Effie had asked him to write a fairy story. During a six-week break at
Leamington Spa Royal Leamington Spa, commonly known as Leamington Spa or simply Leamington (), is a spa town A spa town is a based on a (a developed ). Patrons visit spas to "take the waters" for their purported health benefits. The word ''spa'' is ...
to undergo Dr Jephson's (1798–1878) celebrated salt-water cure, Ruskin wrote his only work of fiction, the fable ''
The King of the Golden River ''The King of the Golden River or The Black Brothers: A Legend of Stiria'' is a fantasy story originally written in 1841 by John Ruskin for the twelve-year-old Effie Gray, Effie (Euphemia) Gray, whom Ruskin later married. It was published in boo ...
'' (not published until December 1850 (but imprinted 1851), with illustrations by Richard Doyle). A work of Christian sacrificial morality and charity, it is set in the Alpine landscape Ruskin loved and knew so well. It remains the most translated of all his works. Back at Oxford, in 1842 Ruskin sat for a pass degree, and was awarded an uncommon honorary double fourth-class degree in recognition of his achievements.


''Modern Painters I'' (1843)

For much of the period from late 1840 to autumn 1842, Ruskin was abroad with his parents, mainly in Italy. His studies of Italian art were chiefly guided by George Richmond, to whom the Ruskins were introduced by
Joseph Severn Joseph Severn (7 December 1793 – 3 August 1879) was an English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medi ...
, a friend of
Keats John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English poet prominent in the second generation of Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18t ...

Keats
(whose son, Arthur Severn, later married Ruskin's cousin, Joan). He was galvanised into writing a defence of J. M. W. Turner when he read an attack on several of Turner's pictures exhibited at the
Royal Academy The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in Mayfair, London. It was originally a private Palladian architecture, Palladian mansion owned by the Earl of B ...

Royal Academy
. It recalled an attack by the critic Rev John Eagles in ''
Blackwood's Magazine ''Blackwood's Magazine'' was a British magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published on a regular ...
'' in 1836, which had prompted Ruskin to write a long essay. John James had sent the piece to Turner, who did not wish it to be published. It finally appeared in 1903. Before Ruskin began ''
Modern Painters Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recov ...
'', John James Ruskin had begun collecting watercolours, including works by Samuel Prout and Turner. Both painters were among occasional guests of the Ruskins at Herne Hill, and 163
Denmark Hill Denmark Hill is an area and road in Camberwell Camberwell () is a district of South London South London is the informally defined southern part of London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at ...

Denmark Hill
(demolished 1947) to which the family moved in 1842. What became the first volume of ''
Modern Painters Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recov ...
'' (1843), published by Smith, Elder & Co. under the anonymous authority of "A Graduate of Oxford", was Ruskin's answer to
Turner Turner may refer to: People and fictional characters * Turner (surname), a common surname, including a list of people and fictional characters with the name * Turner (given name), a list of people with the given name *One who uses a lathe for turni ...
's critics. Ruskin controversially argued that modern landscape painters—and in particular Turner—were superior to the so-called "
Old Masters In art history, "Old Master" (or "old master")Old Masters Dep ...
" of the post-
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
period. Ruskin maintained that, unlike Turner, Old Masters such as
Gaspard Dughet Gaspard Dughet (15 June 1615 – 25 May 1675), also known as Gaspard Poussin, was a French painter born in Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = M ...

Gaspard Dughet
(Gaspar Poussin), , and
Salvator Rosa Salvator Rosa (June 20 or July 21, 1615 – March 15, 1673) was an Italian Baroque The Baroque (, ; ) is a Style (visual arts), style of Baroque architecture, architecture, Baroque music, music, Baroque dance, dance, Baroque painting, painting ...

Salvator Rosa
favoured pictorial convention, and not "truth to nature". He explained that he meant "moral as well as material truth". The job of the artist is to observe the reality of nature and not to invent it in a studioto render imaginatively on canvas what he has seen and understood, free of any rules of composition. For Ruskin, modern landscapists demonstrated superior understanding of the "truths" of water, air, clouds, stones, and vegetation, a profound appreciation of which Ruskin demonstrated in his own prose. He described works he had seen at the
National Gallery The National Gallery is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or h ...
and
Dulwich Picture Gallery Dulwich Picture Gallery is an art gallery An art gallery is a room or a building in which visual art is displayed. Among the reasons art may be displayed are aesthetic enjoyment, cultural enrichment, or for marketing purposes. While "gallery ...

Dulwich Picture Gallery
with extraordinary verbal felicity. Although critics were slow to react and the reviews were mixed, many notable literary and artistic figures were impressed with the young man's work, including
Charlotte Brontë Charlotte Brontë (, commonly ; 21 April 1816 – 31 March 1855) was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels became classics of English literature Literature wr ...

Charlotte Brontë
and
Elizabeth Gaskell Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell (''née'' Stevenson; 29 September 1810 – 12 November 1865), often referred to as Mrs Gaskell, was an English novelist, biographer and short story writer. Her novels offer a detailed portrait of the lives of many st ...

Elizabeth Gaskell
. Suddenly Ruskin had found his métier, and in one leap helped redefine the genre of art criticism, mixing a discourse of polemic with aesthetics, scientific observation and ethics. It cemented Ruskin's relationship with Turner. After the artist died in 1851, Ruskin catalogued nearly 20,000 sketches that Turner gave to the British nation.


1845 tour and ''Modern Painters II'' (1846)

Ruskin toured the continent with his parents again in 1844, visiting
Chamonix Chamonix-Mont-Blanc ( frp, Chamôni), more commonly known as Chamonix, is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') ...

Chamonix
and
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
, studying the geology of the Alps and the paintings of
Titian Tiziano Vecelli or Vecellio (; 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian ( ), was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Ita ...
, Veronese and
Perugino Pietro Perugino (, ; – 1523), born Pietro Vannucci, was an Italian Renaissance Painting, painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance. Raphael was his most famous pupi ...

Perugino
among others at the
Louvre The Louvre ( ), or the Louvre Museum ( ), is the world's most-visited museum, and a historic landmark in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of Fr ...

Louvre
. In 1845, at the age of 26, he undertook to travel without his parents for the first time. It provided him with an opportunity to study medieval art and architecture in France, Switzerland and especially Italy. In
Lucca Lucca ( , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. ...

Lucca
he saw the Tomb of Ilaria del Carretto by
Jacopo della Quercia #REDIRECT Jacopo della Quercia Jacopo della Quercia (, ; 20 October 1438), also known as Jacopo di Pietro d'Agnolo di Guarnieri, was an Italian sculptor of the Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. was a period ...
, which Ruskin considered the exemplar of Christian sculpture (he later associated it with the then object of his love, Rose La Touche). He drew inspiration from what he saw at the in
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public ser ...

Pisa
, and in
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Al ...

Florence
. In
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
, he was particularly impressed by the works of
Fra Angelico Fra Angelico (born Guido di Pietro; February 18, 1455) was an Italians, Italian List of Italian painters, painter of the Early Italian Renaissance, Renaissance, described by Giorgio Vasari, Vasari in his ''Lives of the Artists'' as having "a ra ...
and
Giotto Giotto di Bondone (; – January 8, 1337), known mononymously A mononymous person is an individual who is known and addressed by a single name, or mononym. In some cases, that name has been selected by the individual, who may have originally ...

Giotto
in , and
Tintoretto Tintoretto ( , , ; born Jacopo Robusti; late September or early October 1518Bernari and de Vecchi 1970, p. 83.31 May 1594) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an e ...

Tintoretto
in the
Scuola di San Rocco The Scuola Grande di San Rocco is a building in Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a ...
, but he was alarmed by the combined effects of decay and modernisation on the city: "Venice is lost to me", he wrote. It finally convinced him that architectural restoration was destruction, and that the only true and faithful action was preservation and conservation. Drawing on his travels, he wrote the second volume of ''Modern Painters'' (published April 1846). The volume concentrated on Renaissance and pre-Renaissance artists rather than on Turner. It was a more theoretical work than its predecessor. Ruskin explicitly linked the aesthetic and the divine, arguing that truth, beauty and religion are inextricably bound together: "the Beautiful as a gift of God". In defining categories of beauty and imagination, Ruskin argued that all great artists must perceive beauty and, with their imagination, communicate it creatively by means of symbolic representation. Generally, critics gave this second volume a warmer reception, although many found the attack on the aesthetic orthodoxy associated with
Joshua Reynolds Sir Joshua Reynolds (16 July 1723 – 23 February 1792) was an English painter, specialising in Portrait, portraits. John Russell (art critic), John Russell said he was one of the major European painters of the 18th century. He promoted the Gra ...

Joshua Reynolds
difficult to accept. In the summer, Ruskin was abroad again with his father, who still hoped his son might become a poet, even
poet laureate A poet laureate (plural: poets laureate) is a poet A poet is a person who creates poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rhythm ...
, just one among many factors increasing the tension between them.


Middle life (1847–1869)


Marriage to Effie Gray

During 1847, Ruskin became closer to
Effie Gray Euphemia Chalmers Millais, Lady Millais (''née'' Gray; 7 May 1828 – 23 December 1897) was a Scottish painter and the wife of Pre-Raphaelite The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painte ...

Effie Gray
, the daughter of family friends. It was for her that Ruskin had written ''
The King of the Golden River ''The King of the Golden River or The Black Brothers: A Legend of Stiria'' is a fantasy story originally written in 1841 by John Ruskin for the twelve-year-old Effie Gray, Effie (Euphemia) Gray, whom Ruskin later married. It was published in boo ...
''. The couple were engaged in October. They married on 10 April 1848 at her home, Bowerswell, in
Perth Perth () is the list of Australian capital cities, capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia (WA). It is Australia's list of cities in Australia by population, fourth-most populous city, with a population of 2.1 mi ...

Perth
, once the residence of the Ruskin family. It was the site of the suicide of John Thomas Ruskin (Ruskin's grandfather). Owing to this association and other complications, Ruskin's parents did not attend. The European
Revolutions of 1848 The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Springtime of the Peoples or the Springtime of Nations, were a series of political upheaval A political revolution, in the Trotskyist Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch o ...
meant that the newlyweds' earliest travels together were restricted, but they were able to visit
Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, ...

Normandy
, where Ruskin admired the
Gothic architecture Gothic architecture (or pointed architecture) is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of sty ...
. Their early life together was spent at 31 Park Street,
Mayfair Mayfair is an affluent area in the West End of London towards the eastern edge of Hyde Park, London, Hyde Park, in the City of Westminster, between Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Park Lane. It is one of the most expensive distric ...

Mayfair
, secured for them by Ruskin's father (later addresses included nearby 6 Charles Street, and 30 Herne Hill). Effie was too unwell to undertake the European tour of 1849, so Ruskin visited the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt ...

Alps
with his parents, gathering material for the third and fourth volumes of ''
Modern Painters Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recov ...
''. He was struck by the contrast between the Alpine beauty and the poverty of Alpine peasants, stirring his increasingly sensitive social conscience. The marriage was unhappy, with Ruskin reportedly being cruel to Effie and distrustful of her. The marriage was never
consummated In many traditions and statutes of civil or religious law, the consummation of a marriage, often called simply ''consummation'', is the first (or first officially credited) act of sexual intercourse Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation ...
and was annulled six years later in 1854.


Architecture

Ruskin's developing interest in architecture, and particularly in the
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes **Gothic language, an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths **Crimean Gothic, the Gothic language spoken by ...
, led to the first work to bear his name, ''
The Seven Lamps of Architecture ''The Seven Lamps of Architecture'' is an extended essay, first published in May 1849 and written by the English art critic and theorist John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic A ...
'' (1849). It contained 14 plates etched by the author. The title refers to seven moral categories that Ruskin considered vital to and inseparable from all architecture: sacrifice, truth, power, beauty, life, memory and obedience. All would provide recurring themes in his future work. ''Seven Lamps'' promoted the virtues of a secular and Protestant form of Gothic. It was a challenge to the Catholic influence of architect A. W. N. Pugin.


''The Stones of Venice''

In November 1849, Effie and John Ruskin visited
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
, staying at the Hotel Danieli. Their different personalities are thrown into sharp relief by their contrasting priorities. For Effie, Venice provided an opportunity to socialise, while Ruskin was engaged in solitary studies. In particular, he made a point of drawing the
Ca' d'Oro The Ca' d'Oro or Palazzo Santa Sofia is a palace on the Grand Canal of Venice, Grand Canal in Venice, northern Italy. One of the older palaces in the city, its name means "golden house" due to the Gilding, gilt and polychrome external decorations w ...

Ca' d'Oro
and the Doge's Palace, or Palazzo Ducale, because he feared that they would be destroyed by the occupying Austrian troops. One of these troops, Lieutenant Charles Paulizza, became friendly with Effie, apparently with Ruskin's consent. Her brother, among others, later claimed that Ruskin was deliberately encouraging the friendship to compromise her, as an excuse to separate. Meanwhile, Ruskin was making the extensive sketches and notes that he used for his three-volume work ''The Stones of Venice'' (1851–53). Developing from a technical history of Venetian architecture from the Romanesque to the Renaissance, into a broad cultural history, ''Stones'' reflected Ruskin's view of contemporary England. It served as a warning about the moral and spiritual health of society. Ruskin argued that Venice had slowly degenerated. Its cultural achievements had been compromised, and its society corrupted, by the decline of true Christian faith. Instead of revering the divine, Renaissance artists honoured themselves, arrogantly celebrating human sensuousness. The chapter, "The Nature of Gothic" appeared in the second volume of ''Stones''. Praising Gothic ornament, Ruskin argued that it was an expression of the artisan's joy in free, creative work. The worker must be allowed to think and to express his own personality and ideas, ideally using his own hands, rather than machinery. This was both an aesthetic attack on, and a social critique of, the
division of labour The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an ...
in particular, and
industrial capitalism Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with ...

industrial capitalism
in general. This chapter had a profound impact, and was reprinted both by the
Christian socialist Christian socialism is a religious and political philosophy Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships b ...
founders of the
Working Men's College The Working Men's College (also known as the St Pancras Working Men's College or WMC, The Camden College), is among the earliest adult education Adult education, distinct from child education, is a practice in which adults engage in systematic ...
and later by the
Arts and Crafts A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by one’s hand or by using only simple, non-automated rela ...
pioneer and socialist
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of tradit ...

William Morris
.


Pre-Raphaelites

John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, ( , ; 8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter The following is a list of notable Kingdom of England, English and United Kingdom, British painters (in chronological order). English pai ...

John Everett Millais
,
William Holman Hunt William Holman Hunt (2 April 1827 – 7 September 1910) was an English painter and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His paintings were notable for their great attention to detail, vivid colour, and elaborate symbolism. ...

William Holman Hunt
and
Dante Gabriel Rossetti Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti (), was an English poet, illustrator, painter, and translator, and member of the Rossetti family. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Broth ...
had established the
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and art critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt File:Hunt-AwakeningConscience1853.jpg, ''The Awakening Conscience'' (1853) ...
in 1848. The Pre-Raphaelite commitment to 'naturalism' – "paintfrom nature only", depicting nature in fine detail, had been influenced by Ruskin. Ruskin came into contact with Millais after the artists made an approach to Ruskin through their mutual friend
Coventry Patmore Coventry Kersey Dighton Patmore (23 July 1823 – 26 November 1896) was an English poet and critic best known for ''The Angel in the House'', his narrative poem about the Victorian ideal of a happy marriage. As a young man, Patmore found employme ...

Coventry Patmore
. Initially, Ruskin had not been impressed by Millais's ''
Christ in the House of His Parents ''Christ in the House of His Parents'' (1849–50) is a painting by John Everett Millais depicting the Holy Family in Saint Joseph's carpentry workshop. The painting was extremely controversial when first exhibited, prompting many negative rev ...
'' (1849–50), a painting that was considered blasphemous at the time, but Ruskin wrote letters defending the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood to ''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its s ...
'' in May 1851. Providing Millais with artistic patronage and encouragement, in the summer of 1853 the artist (and his brother) travelled to Scotland with Ruskin and Effie where, at , he painted the closely observed landscape background of
gneiss Gneiss ( ) is a common and widely distributed type of metamorphic rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock Rock most often refers to: * Rock (geology) A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or ag ...

gneiss
rock to which, as had always been intended, he later added Ruskin's portrait. Millais had painted Effie for '' The Order of Release, 1746'', exhibited at the
Royal Academy The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in Mayfair, London. It was originally a private Palladian architecture, Palladian mansion owned by the Earl of B ...

Royal Academy
in 1852. Suffering increasingly from physical illness and acute mental anxiety, Effie was arguing fiercely with her husband and his intense and overly protective parents, and sought solace with her own parents in Scotland. The Ruskin marriage was already fatally undermined as she and Millais fell in love, and Effie left Ruskin, causing a public scandal. In April 1854, Effie filed her suit of nullity, on grounds of "non-consummation" owing to his "incurable
impotency Erectile dysfunction (ED), also called impotence, is the type of sexual dysfunction in which the Human penis, penis fails to become or stay Erection, erect during Human sexual activity, sexual activity. It is the most common sexual problem in me ...
", a charge Ruskin later disputed. Ruskin wrote, "I can prove my virility at once." The annulment was granted in July. Ruskin did not even mention it in his diary. Effie married Millais the following year. The complex reasons for the non-consummation and ultimate failure of the Ruskin marriage are a matter of enduring speculation and debate. Ruskin continued to support
Hunt Hunting is the practice of seeking, pursuing and capturing or killing wildlife Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species (biology), species, but has come to include all organisms that grow or live wild in an area ...

Hunt
and Rossetti. He also provided an annuity of £150 in 1855–57 to Elizabeth Siddal, Rossetti's wife, to encourage her art (and paid for the services of
Henry Acland Sir Henry Wentworth Dyke Acland, 1st Baronet, (23 August 181516 October 1900) was an English physician and educator. Life Henry Acland was born in Killerton, Exeter Exeter () is a city in Devon, England, on the River Exe northeast of Ply ...
for her medical care).''ODNB'': "Critic of Contemporary Art". Other artists influenced by the Pre-Raphaelites also received both critical and financial support from Ruskin, including John Brett,
John William Inchbold John William Inchbold (29 August 1830 – 23 January 1888) was an English painter who was born in Leeds, Yorkshire. His style was influenced by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. He was the son of a Yorkshire newspaper owner, Thomas Inchbold. Biogra ...
, and
Edward Burne-Jones Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet, (; 28 August 183317 June 1898) was a artist and designer associated with the , who worked with on decorative arts as a founding partner in . Burne-Jones was involved in the rejuvenation of the trad ...
, who became a good friend (he called him "Brother Ned"). His father's disapproval of such friends was a further cause of considerable tension between them. During this period Ruskin wrote regular reviews of the annual exhibitions at the
Royal Academy The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in Mayfair, London. It was originally a private Palladian architecture, Palladian mansion owned by the Earl of B ...

Royal Academy
under the title ''Academy Notes'' (1855–59, 1875). They were highly influential, capable of making or breaking reputations. The satirical magazine ''
Punch Punch commonly refers to: * Punch (combat), a strike made using the hand closed into a fist * Punch (drink), a wide assortment of drinks, non-alcoholic or alcoholic, generally containing fruit or fruit juice Punch may also refer to: Places * Pun ...
'' published the lines (24 May 1856), "I paints and paints,/hears no complaints/And sells before I'm dry,/Till savage Ruskin/He sticks his tusk in/Then nobody will buy." Ruskin was an art-philanthropist: in March 1861 he gave 48
Turner Turner may refer to: People and fictional characters * Turner (surname), a common surname, including a list of people and fictional characters with the name * Turner (given name), a list of people with the given name *One who uses a lathe for turni ...
drawings to the
Ashmolean The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology () on Beaumont Street Beaumont Street is a street in the centre of Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimat ...

Ashmolean
in
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
, and a further 25 to the
Fitzwilliam Museum The Fitzwilliam Museum is the art and antiquities museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for and displays a collection (artwork), coll ...
,
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...

Cambridge
in May. Ruskin's own work was very distinctive, and he occasionally exhibited his watercolours: in the United States in 1857–58 and 1879, for example; and in England, at the Fine Art Society in 1878, and at the Royal Society of Painters in Watercolour (of which he was an honorary member) in 1879. He created many careful studies of natural forms, based on his detailed botanical, geological and architectural observations. Examples of his work include a painted, floral pilaster decoration in the central room of
Wallington Hall Wallington is a English country house, country house and gardens located about west of Morpeth, Northumberland, Morpeth, Northumberland, England, near the village of Cambo. It has been owned by the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest o ...

Wallington Hall
in Northumberland, home of his friend Pauline Trevelyan. The
stained glass window The term stained glass refers to coloured glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, ...

stained glass window
in the ''Little Church of St Francis'' Funtley, Fareham, Hampshire is reputed to have been designed by him. Originally placed in the ''St. Peter's Church'' Duntisbourne Abbots near
Cirencester Cirencester (, ; see #Pronunciation, below for more variations) is a market town in Gloucestershire, England, west of London. Cirencester lies on the River Churn, a tributary of the River Thames, and is the largest town in the Cotswold (distr ...
, the window depicts the Ascension and the Nativity. Ruskin's theories also inspired some architects to adapt the
Gothic style Gothic architecture (or pointed architecture) is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of Sty ...
. Such buildings created what has been called a distinctive "Ruskinian Gothic". Through his friendship with
Henry Acland Sir Henry Wentworth Dyke Acland, 1st Baronet, (23 August 181516 October 1900) was an English physician and educator. Life Henry Acland was born in Killerton, Exeter Exeter () is a city in Devon, England, on the River Exe northeast of Ply ...
, Ruskin supported attempts to establish what became the
Oxford University Museum of Natural History The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum or OUMNH, is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that cares for and displays a co ...

Oxford University Museum of Natural History
(designed by
Benjamin Woodward Benjamin Woodward (16 November 1816 – 15 May 1861) was an Irish people, Irish architect who, in partnership with Sir Thomas Newenham Deane, designed a number of buildings in Dublin, Cork (city), Cork and Oxford. Life Woodward was born in Tulla ...

Benjamin Woodward
)—which is the closest thing to a model of this style, but still failed to satisfy Ruskin completely. The many twists and turns in the Museum's development, not least its increasing cost, and the University authorities' less than enthusiastic attitude towards it, proved increasingly frustrating for Ruskin.


Ruskin and education

The
Museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that cares for and displays a collection Collection or Collections may refer to: * Cash collection, the function of an accounts receivable department * Collec ...

Museum
was part of a wider plan to improve science provision at Oxford, something the University initially resisted. Ruskin's first formal teaching role came about in the mid-1850s, when he taught drawing classes (assisted by
Dante Gabriel Rossetti Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882), generally known as Dante Gabriel Rossetti (), was an English poet, illustrator, painter, and translator, and member of the Rossetti family. He founded the Pre-Raphaelite Broth ...
) at the
Working Men's College The Working Men's College (also known as the St Pancras Working Men's College or WMC, The Camden College), is among the earliest adult education Adult education, distinct from child education, is a practice in which adults engage in systematic ...
, established by the
Christian socialists Christian socialism is a Religious philosophy, religious and political philosophy that blends Christianity and socialism, endorsing left-wing politics and socialist economics on the basis of the Bible and the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Many ...
,
Frederick James Furnivall Frederick James Furnivall (4 February 1825 – 2 July 1910) was an English philologist Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and l ...
and
Frederick Denison Maurice John Frederick Denison Maurice (29 August 1805 – 1 April 1872), known as F. D. Maurice, was an English Anglican theologian, a prolific author, and one of the founders of Christian socialism. Since World War II, interest in Maurice has exp ...
. Although Ruskin did not share the founders' politics, he strongly supported the idea that through education workers could achieve a crucially important sense of (self-)fulfilment. One result of this involvement was Ruskin's ''Elements of Drawing'' (1857). He had taught several women drawing, by means of correspondence, and his book represented both a response and a challenge to contemporary drawing manuals. The WMC was also a useful recruiting ground for assistants, on some of whom Ruskin would later come to rely, such as his future publisher,
George Allen George Allen may refer to: Politics and law * George E. Allen (1896–1973), American political operative and one-time head coach of the Cumberland University football team * George Allen (Australian politician) (1800–1877), Mayor of Sydney and ...
. From 1859 until 1868, Ruskin was involved with the progressive school for girls at
Winnington Hall Winnington Hall is a former English country house, country house in Winnington, now a suburb of Northwich, Cheshire, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I Listed building#England and Wales, ...
in Cheshire. A frequent visitor, letter-writer, and donor of pictures and geological specimens to the school, Ruskin approved of the mixture of sports, handicrafts, music and dancing encouraged by its principal, Miss Bell. The association led to Ruskin's sub-Socratic work, ''The Ethics of the Dust'' (1866), an imagined conversation with Winnington's girls in which he cast himself as the "Old Lecturer". On the surface a discourse on crystallography, it is a metaphorical exploration of social and political ideals. In the 1880s, Ruskin became involved with another educational institution,
Whitelands College Whitelands College is the oldest of the four constituent colleges of the University of Roehampton. History Whitelands College is one of the oldest higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. ...
, a training college for teachers, where he instituted a
May Queen A May Queen of New Westminster, British Columbia, Canada circa 1877 The May Queen or Queen of May is a personification Personification occurs when a thing or abstraction is represented as a person, in literature or art, as an anthropomorphism, a ...
festival that endures today. (It was also replicated in the 19th century at the
Cork Cork or CORK may refer to: Materials * Cork (material), an impermeable buoyant plant product ** Cork (plug), a cylindrical or conical object used to seal a container ***Wine cork Places Ireland * Cork (city) ** Metropolitan Cork, also known as G ...
High School for Girls.) Ruskin also bestowed books and gemstones upon
Somerville College Somerville College is a Colleges of the University of Oxford, constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. It was founded in 1879 as Somerville Hall, one of its first two women's colleges. Among list of Somerville College, Oxford, ...

Somerville College
, one of
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...
's first two
women's college Women's colleges in higher education Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education, also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an optional final stage of formal ...
s, which he visited regularly, and was similarly generous to other educational institutions for women.


''Modern Painters III'' and ''IV''

Both volumes III and IV of ''
Modern Painters Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recov ...
'' were published in 1856. In ''MP'' III Ruskin argued that all great art is "the expression of the spirits of great men". Only the morally and spiritually healthy are capable of admiring the noble and the beautiful, and transforming them into great art by imaginatively penetrating their essence. ''MP'' IV presents the geology of the Alps in terms of landscape painting, and their moral and spiritual influence on those living nearby. The contrasting final chapters, "The Mountain Glory" and "The Mountain Gloom" provide an early example of Ruskin's social analysis, highlighting the poverty of the peasants living in the lower Alps.


Public lecturer

In addition to leading more formal teaching classes, from the 1850s Ruskin became an increasingly popular public lecturer. His first public lectures were given in Edinburgh, in November 1853, on architecture and painting. His lectures at the
Art Treasures Exhibition The Art Treasures of Great Britain was an exhibition of fine art held in Manchester Manchester () is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. The city has the country’s List of English districts by population, fifth-la ...
, Manchester in 1857, were collected as ''The Political Economy of Art'' and later under
Keats John Keats (31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was an English poet prominent in the second generation of Romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18t ...

Keats
's phrase, ''A Joy For Ever''. In these lectures, Ruskin spoke about how to acquire art, and how to use it, arguing that England had forgotten that true wealth is virtue, and that art is an index of a nation's well-being. Individuals have a responsibility to consume wisely, stimulating beneficent demand. The increasingly critical tone and political nature of Ruskin's interventions outraged his father and the "Manchester School" of economists, as represented by a hostile review in the '' Manchester Examiner and Times''. As the Ruskin scholar Helen Gill Viljoen noted, Ruskin was increasingly critical of his father, especially in letters written by Ruskin directly to him, many of them still unpublished. Ruskin gave the inaugural address at the Cambridge School of Art in 1858, an institution from which the modern-day
Anglia Ruskin University Anglia Ruskin University (ARU) is a university in East Anglia, United Kingdom. Its origins are in the Cambridge School of Art, founded by William John Beamont in 1858. It became a university in 1992 and was renamed after John Ruskin in 2005. It i ...

Anglia Ruskin University
has grown. In ''The Two Paths'' (1859), five lectures given in London,
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguis ...

Manchester
,
Bradford Bradford is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. It is located approximately west of Leeds and lies in the eastern foothills of the Pennines. Population within the City of Bradford M ...

Bradford
and
Tunbridge Wells Royal Tunbridge Wells is a town in Kent, England, southeast of central London, close to the border with East Sussex on the northern edge of the Weald, High Weald, whose sandstone geology is exemplified by the rock formation High Rocks. The ...
, Ruskin argued that a 'vital law' underpins art and architecture, drawing on the
labour theory of value The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory of value that argues that the economic value In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), produ ...
. (For other addresses and letters, Cook and Wedderburn, vol. 16, pp. 427–87.) The year 1859 also marked his last tour of Europe with his ageing parents, during which they visited
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
and
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
.


Turner Bequest

Ruskin had been in Venice when he heard about Turner's death in 1851. Being named an executor to Turner's will was an honour that Ruskin respectfully declined, but later took up. Ruskin's book in celebration of the sea, ''The Harbours of England'', revolving around Turner's drawings, was published in 1856. In January 1857, Ruskin's ''Notes on the Turner Gallery at
Marlborough House Marlborough House, a listed building, Grade I listed mansion in St James's, City of Westminster, London, is the headquarters of the Commonwealth of Nations and the seat of the Commonwealth Secretariat. It was built for Sarah Churchill, Duches ...

Marlborough House
, 1856'' was published. He persuaded the
National Gallery The National Gallery is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or h ...
to allow him to work on the Turner Bequest of nearly 20,000 individual artworks left to the nation by the artist. This involved Ruskin in an enormous amount of work, completed in May 1858, and involved cataloguing, framing and conserving. Four hundred watercolours were displayed in cabinets of Ruskin's own design. Recent scholarship has argued that Ruskin did not, as previously thought, collude in the destruction of Turner's erotic drawings, but his work on the Bequest did modify his attitude towards Turner. (See below, Controversies: Turner's Erotic Drawings.)


Religious "unconversion"

In 1858, Ruskin was again travelling in Europe. The tour took him from
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
to
Turin Turin ( , Piedmontese Piedmontese (autonym: or , in it, piemontese) is a language spoken by some 700,000 people mostly in Piedmont it, Piemontese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = ...

Turin
, where he saw
Paolo Veronese Paolo Caliari (152819 April 1588), known as Paolo Veronese ( , also , ), was an Italian Renaissance painter based in Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), offici ...
's ''Presentation of the
Queen of Sheba The Queen of Sheba ( he, מַלְכַּת שְׁבָא‎, ''Malkaṯ Šəḇāʾ''; ar, ملكة سبأ, Malikat Saba; gez, ንግሥተ ሳባ) is a figure first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is ...

Queen of Sheba
''. He would later claim (in April 1877) that the discovery of this painting, contrasting starkly with a particularly dull sermon, led to his "unconversion" from
Evangelical Christianity Evangelicalism (), also called evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestantism, Protestant Christianity that maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists ...
. He had, however, doubted his Evangelical Christian faith for some time, shaken by Biblical and geological scholarship that had undermined the literal truth and absolute authority of the Bible: "those dreadful hammers!" he wrote to
Henry Acland Sir Henry Wentworth Dyke Acland, 1st Baronet, (23 August 181516 October 1900) was an English physician and educator. Life Henry Acland was born in Killerton, Exeter Exeter () is a city in Devon, England, on the River Exe northeast of Ply ...
, "I hear the chink of them at the end of every cadence of the Bible verses." This "loss of faith" precipitated a considerable personal crisis. His confidence undermined, he believed that much of his writing to date had been founded on a bed of lies and half-truths. He later returned to Christianity.


Social critic and reformer: ''Unto This Last''

Although in 1877 Ruskin said that in 1860, "I gave up my art work and wrote ''
Unto This Last ''Unto This Last'' is an essay and book on economy An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), distribution a ...
'' ... the central work of my life" the break was not so dramatic or final. Following his crisis of faith, and influenced in part by his friend
Thomas Carlyle Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Sco ...

Thomas Carlyle
(whom he had first met in 1850), Ruskin shifted his emphasis in the late 1850s from art towards social issues. Nevertheless, he continued to lecture on and write about a wide range of subjects including art and, among many other matters, geology (in June 1863 he lectured on the Alps), art practice and judgement (''The Cestus of Aglaia''), botany and mythology (''Proserpina'' and ''The Queen of the Air''). He continued to draw and paint in watercolours, and to travel extensively across Europe with servants and friends. In 1868, his tour took him to
Abbeville Abbeville (, vls, Abbekerke) is a Communes of France, commune in the Somme (department), Somme Departments of France, department and in Hauts-de-France Regions of France, region in northern France. It is the chef-lieu of one of the arrondisse ...

Abbeville
, and in the following year he was in
Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ''Veròna'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia' ...

Verona
(studying tombs for the
Arundel SocietyThe Arundel Society was founded at London in 1849 and named after the Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, Earl of Arundel, the famous collector of the Arundel marbles, Arundel Marbles and one of the first great English people, English patrons and lo ...
) and
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
(where he was joined by
William Holman Hunt William Holman Hunt (2 April 1827 – 7 September 1910) was an English painter and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. His paintings were notable for their great attention to detail, vivid colour, and elaborate symbolism. ...

William Holman Hunt
). Yet increasingly Ruskin concentrated his energies on fiercely attacking
industrial capitalism Capitalism is an economic system based on the private ownership Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with ...

industrial capitalism
, and the
utilitarian Utilitarianism is a family of normative Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard. Normativity is the phenomenon in human societies of designating some actions or outcomes as good or desirable or permissible and others as ba ...
theories of
political economy Political economy is the study of production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ( ...
underpinning it. He repudiated his sometimes grandiloquent style, writing now in plainer, simpler language, to communicate his message straightforwardly. Ruskin's social view broadened from concerns about the dignity of labour to consider issues of citizenship and notions of the ideal community. Just as he had questioned aesthetic orthodoxy in his earliest writings, he now dissected the orthodox political economy espoused by
John Stuart Mill John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 7 May 1873), also cited as J. S. Mill, was an English philosopher, Political economy, political economist, Member of Parliament (United Kingdom), Member of Parliament (MP) and civil servant. One of the most i ...
, based on theories of
laissez-faire ''Laissez-faire'' ( ; from french: laissez faire , ) is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects hav ...
and competition drawn from the work of
Adam Smith Adam Smith ( 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher as well as a moral philosopher Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and ...

Adam Smith
,
David Ricardo David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus Thomas Robert Malthus (; 13/14 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) w ...

David Ricardo
and
Thomas Malthus Thomas Robert Malthus (; 13/14 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanit ...

Thomas Malthus
. In his four essays ''
Unto This Last ''Unto This Last'' is an essay and book on economy An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), distribution a ...
'', Ruskin rejected the
division of labour The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an ...
as dehumanising (separating the labourer from the product of his work), and argued that the false "science" of
political economy Political economy is the study of production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ( ...
failed to consider the social affections that bind communities together. He articulated an extended metaphor of household and family, drawing on
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher during the Classical Greece, Classical period in Ancient Greece, founder of the Platonist school of thought and the Platoni ...

Plato
and
Xenophon Xenophon of Athens (; grc, Ξενοφῶν Xenophon of Athens (; grc-gre, Ξενοφῶν, , ''Xenophōn''; – 354 BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens mont ...

Xenophon
to demonstrate the communal and sometimes sacrificial nature of true economics. For Ruskin, all economies and societies are ideally founded on a politics of
social justice Social justice is justice in terms of the distribution of wealth Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial asset A financial asset is a non-physical asset whose value is derived from a contractual claim, such as deposit (finance), ban ...
. His ideas influenced the concept of the " social economy", characterised by networks of charitable, co-operative and other
non-governmental organisations upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the "Europe in a suitcase" project by two NGOs (the EGI and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation), which aims to increase ...
. The essays were originally published in consecutive monthly instalments of the new ''
Cornhill Magazine ''The Cornhill Magazine'' (1860–1975) was a monthly and named after the street address of the founding publisher at 65 in .Laurel Brake and Marysa Demoor, ''Dictionary of nineteenth-century journalism in Great Britain and Ireland''. Ge ...
'' between August and November 1860 (and published in a single volume in 1862). However, the ''Cornhills editor,
William Makepeace Thackeray William Makepeace Thackeray (; 18 July 1811 – 24 December 1863) was a British novelist, author and illustrator. He is known for his Satire, satirical works, particularly his 1848 novel ''Vanity Fair (novel), Vanity Fair'', a panoramic portra ...

William Makepeace Thackeray
, was forced to abandon the series by the outcry of the magazine's largely conservative readership and the fears of a nervous publisher ( Smith, Elder & Co.). The reaction of the national press was hostile, and Ruskin was, he claimed, "reprobated in a violent manner". Ruskin's father also strongly disapproved. Others were enthusiastic, including Ruskin's friend
Thomas Carlyle Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Sco ...

Thomas Carlyle
, who wrote, "I have read your paper with exhilaration... such a thing flung suddenly into half a million dull British heads... will do a great deal of good." Ruskin's political ideas, and ''
Unto This Last ''Unto This Last'' is an essay and book on economy An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), distribution a ...
'' in particular, later proved highly influential. The essays were praised and paraphrased in Gujarati by
Mohandas Gandhi Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian lawyer, anti-colonial nationalist, Quote: "... marks Gandhi as a hybrid cosmopolitan figure who transformed ... anti-colonial nationalist politics in the t ...

Mohandas Gandhi
, a wide range of autodidacts cited their positive impact, the economist John A. Hobson and many of the founders of the
British Labour party The Labour Party is a centre-left Centre-left politics (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in Histo ...
credited them as an influence. Ruskin believed in a hierarchical social structure. He wrote "I was, and my father was before me, a violent Tory of the old school." He believed in man's duty to God, and while he sought to improve the conditions of the poor, he opposed attempts to level social differences and sought to resolve social inequalities by abandoning capitalism in favour of a co-operative structure of society based on obedience and benevolent philanthropy, rooted in the agricultural economy. Ruskin's explorations of nature and aesthetics in the fifth and final volume of ''
Modern Painters Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recov ...
'' focused on
Giorgione Giorgione (, , ; born Giorgio Barbarelli da Castelfranco; 1477/78–1510) was an Italian painter of the Venetian school during the High Renaissance In art history, the High Renaissance was a short period of the most exceptional artistic pro ...

Giorgione
, Veronese,
Titian Tiziano Vecelli or Vecellio (; 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian ( ), was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Ita ...
and
Turner Turner may refer to: People and fictional characters * Turner (surname), a common surname, including a list of people and fictional characters with the name * Turner (given name), a list of people with the given name *One who uses a lathe for turni ...
. Ruskin asserted that the components of the greatest artworks are held together, like human communities, in a quasi-organic unity. Competitive struggle is destructive. Uniting ''
Modern Painters Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recov ...
'' V and ''
Unto This Last ''Unto This Last'' is an essay and book on economy An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), distribution a ...
'' is Ruskin's "Law of Help": Ruskin's next work on political economy, redefining some of the basic terms of the discipline, also ended prematurely, when ''
Fraser's Magazine ''Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country'' was a general and literary journal A journal, from the Old French ''journal'' (meaning "daily"), may refer to: *Bullet journal, a method of personal organizations *Diary, a record of what happened over the ...
'', under the editorship of
James Anthony Froude James Anthony Froude ( ; 23 April 1818 – 20 October 1894) was an English historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who st ...
, cut short his ''Essays on Political Economy'' (1862–63) (later collected as ''Munera Pulveris'' (1872)). Ruskin further explored political themes in ''Time and Tide'' (1867), his letters to Thomas Dixon, a cork-cutter in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear who had a well-established interest in literary and artistic matters. In these letters, Ruskin promoted honesty in work and exchange, just relations in employment and the need for co-operation. Ruskin's sense of politics was not confined to theory. On his father's death in 1864, he inherited a considerable fortune of between £120,000 and £157,000 (the exact figure is disputed). This considerable fortune, inherited from the father he described on his tombstone as "an entirely honest merchant", gave him the means to engage in personal philanthropy and practical schemes of social amelioration. One of his first actions was to support the housing work of
Octavia Hill Octavia Hill (3 December 1838 – 13 August 1912) was an English social reformer A reform movement is a type of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered s ...

Octavia Hill
(originally one of his art pupils): he bought property in
Marylebone Marylebone (usually , also , , , ) is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is th ...
to aid her philanthropic housing scheme. But Ruskin's endeavours extended to the establishment of a shop selling pure tea in any quantity desired at 29 Paddington Street,
Paddington Paddington is an List of areas of London, area within the City of Westminster, in central London. First a medieval parish then a Metropolitan Borough of Paddington, metropolitan borough, it was integrated with Westminster and Greater London in 1 ...

Paddington
(giving employment to two former Ruskin family servants) and crossing-sweepings to keep the area around the
British Museum The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of Lond ...

British Museum
clean and tidy. Modest as these practical schemes were, they represented a symbolic challenge to the existing state of society. Yet his greatest practical experiments would come in his later years.


Lectures in the 1860s

Ruskin lectured widely in the 1860s, giving the
Rede lectureThe Sir Robert Rede's Lecturer is an annual appointment to give a public lecture, the Sir Robert Rede's Lecture (usually Rede Lecture) at the University of Cambridge. It is named for Sir Robert Rede, who was Chief Justice of the Common Pleas in the ...
at the
University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge. , established = , other_name = The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of ...
in 1867, for example. He spoke at the
British Institution The British Institution (in full, the British Institution for Promoting the Fine Arts in the United Kingdom; founded 1805, disbanded 1867) was a private 19th-century society in London London is the capital Capital most commonly refer ...
on 'Modern Art', the Working Men's Institute,
Camberwell Camberwell () is a district of South London South London is the informally defined southern part of London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major ...
on "Work" and the
Royal Military Academy, Woolwich The Royal Military Academy (RMA) at Woolwich, in south-east London, was a British Army military academy for the training of Officer (armed forces), commissioned officers of the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers. It later also trained officers of ...
on 'War.'Ruskin's widely admired lecture, ''Traffic'', on the relation between taste and morality, was delivered in April 1864 at
Bradford Bradford is a City status in the United Kingdom, city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. It is located approximately west of Leeds and lies in the eastern foothills of the Pennines. Population within the City of Bradford M ...

Bradford
Town Hall, to which he had been invited because of a local debate about the style of a new Exchange building. "I do not care about this Exchange", Ruskin told his audience, "because ''you'' don't!" These last three lectures were published in ''The Crown of Wild Olive'' (1866). The lectures that comprised ''Sesame and Lilies'' (published 1865), delivered in December 1864 at the town halls at
Rusholme Rusholme () is an area of Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or ...
and
Manchester Manchester () is the most-populous city and metropolitan borough A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguis ...

Manchester
, are essentially concerned with education and ideal conduct. "Of Kings' Treasuries" (in support of a library fund) explored issues of reading practice, literature (books of the hour vs. books of all time), cultural value and public education. "Of Queens' Gardens" (supporting a school fund) focused on the role of women, asserting their rights and duties in education, according them responsibility for the household and, by extension, for providing the human compassion that must balance a social order dominated by men. This book proved to be one of Ruskin's most popular, and was regularly awarded as a
Sunday School #REDIRECT Sunday school#REDIRECT Sunday school A Sunday school is an educational institution, usually (but not always) Christianity, Christian in character. Sunday school classes usually precede a Sunday church service and are used to provide cat ...

Sunday School
prize. Its reception over time, however, has been more mixed, and twentieth-century feminists have taken aim at "Of Queens' Gardens" in particular, as an attempt to "subvert the new heresy" of
women's rights Women's rights are the and s claimed for and s worldwide. They formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the 19th century and the s during the 20th and 21st centuries. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supp ...
by confining women to the domestic sphere. Although indeed subscribing to the Victorian belief in "separate spheres" for men and women, Ruskin was however unusual in arguing for parity of esteem, a case based on his philosophy that a nation's political economy should be modelled on that of the ideal household.


Later life (1869–1900)


Oxford's first Slade Professor of Fine Art

Ruskin was unanimously appointed the first
Slade Professor of Fine ArtThe Slade Professorship of Fine Art is the oldest professorship of art and art history at the universities of Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a College town, university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximat ...
at
Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London, southeast of Birmingham, and northeast of Bristol. The city is home to the Unive ...

Oxford University
in August 1869, though largely through the offices of his friend,
Henry Acland Sir Henry Wentworth Dyke Acland, 1st Baronet, (23 August 181516 October 1900) was an English physician and educator. Life Henry Acland was born in Killerton, Exeter Exeter () is a city in Devon, England, on the River Exe northeast of Ply ...
. He delivered his inaugural lecture on his 51st birthday in 1870, at the
Sheldonian Theatre The Sheldonian Theatre, located in Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London London is the capital city, cap ...
to a larger-than-expected audience. It was here that he said, "The art of any country is the exponent of its social and political virtues." It has been claimed that
Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British mining magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or ...
cherished a long-hand copy of the lecture, believing that it supported his own view of the British Empire. In 1871, John Ruskin founded his own art school at
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
, The Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art. It was originally accommodated within the
Ashmolean Museum The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology () on Beaumont Street, Oxford, England, is the world's second university museum (after the establishment of the Kunstmuseum Basel by the University of Basel in 1661) and Britain's first public museum. I ...
but now occupies premises on High Street. Ruskin endowed the drawing mastership with £5000 of his own money. He also established a large collection of drawings, watercolours and other materials (over 800 frames) that he used to illustrate his lectures. The School challenged the orthodox, mechanical methodology of the government art schools (the "South Kensington System").See Robert Hewison, ''Ruskin and Oxford: The Art of Education'' (Clarendon Press, 1996) Ruskin's lectures were often so popular that they had to be given twice—once for the students, and again for the public. Most of them were eventually published (see Select Bibliography below). He lectured on a wide range of subjects at Oxford, his interpretation of "Art" encompassing almost every conceivable area of study, including wood and metal engraving (''Ariadne Florentina''), the relation of science to art (''The Eagle's Nest'') and sculpture (''Aratra Pentelici''). His lectures ranged through myth, ornithology, geology, nature-study and literature. "The teaching of Art...", Ruskin wrote, "is the teaching of all things." Ruskin was never careful about offending his employer. When he criticised
Michelangelo Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (; 6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564), known simply as Michelangelo (), was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance In art history, the High Renaissance was ...

Michelangelo
in a lecture in June 1871 it was seen as an attack on the large collection of that artist's work in the
Ashmolean Museum The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology () on Beaumont Street, Oxford, England, is the world's second university museum (after the establishment of the Kunstmuseum Basel by the University of Basel in 1661) and Britain's first public museum. I ...
. Most controversial, from the point of view of the University authorities, spectators and the national press, was the digging scheme on Ferry Hinksey Road at
North Hinksey North Hinksey is a village and Civil parishes in England, civil parish in Oxfordshire, England, immediately west of Oxford. The civil parish includes the large settlement of Botley, Oxfordshire, Botley, effectively a suburb of Oxford. North Hink ...
, near
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
, instigated by Ruskin in 1874, and continuing into 1875, which involved undergraduates in a road-mending scheme. The scheme was motivated in part by a desire to teach the virtues of wholesome manual labour. Some of the diggers, who included
Oscar Wilde Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of the most popular playwrights in London in the early 1890s. He is ...

Oscar Wilde
,
Alfred Milner Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner, (23 March 185413 May 1925) was a British statesman A statesman or stateswoman typically is a politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization tha ...
and Ruskin's future secretary and biographer W. G. Collingwood, were profoundly influenced by the experience: notably
Arnold Toynbee Arnold Toynbee (; 23 August 18529 March 1883) was a British economic historian also noted for his social commitment and desire to improve the living conditions of the working classes. Life and career Toynbee was born in London, the son of the ...
, Leonard Montefiore and Alexander Robertson MacEwen. It helped to foster a public service ethic that was later given expression in the settlement movement, university settlements, and was keenly celebrated by the founders of Ruskin College, Ruskin Hall, Oxford. In 1879, Ruskin resigned from Oxford, but resumed his Professorship in 1883, only to resign again in 1884. He gave his reason as opposition to vivisection, but he had increasingly been in conflict with the University authorities, who refused to expand his Ruskin School of Drawing, Drawing School. He was also suffering from increasingly poor health.


''Fors Clavigera'' and the Whistler libel case

In January 1871, the month before Ruskin started to lecture the wealthy undergraduates at
Oxford University Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town and only city of Oxfordshire. In 2017, its population was estimated at 152,450. It is northwest of London, southeast of Birmingham, and northeast of Bristol. The city is home to the Unive ...

Oxford University
, he began his series of 96 (monthly) "letters to the workmen and labourers of Great Britain" under the title ''
Fors Clavigera ''Fors Clavigera'' was the name given by John Ruskin to a series of letters addressed to British workmen during the 1870s. They were published in the form of pamphlets. The letters formed part of Ruskin's interest in moral intervention in the soc ...
'' (1871–84). (The letters were published irregularly after the 87th instalment in March 1878.) These letters were personal, dealt with every subject in his oeuvre, and were written in a variety of styles, reflecting his mood and circumstances. From 1873, Ruskin had full control over all his publications, having established
George Allen George Allen may refer to: Politics and law * George E. Allen (1896–1973), American political operative and one-time head coach of the Cumberland University football team * George Allen (Australian politician) (1800–1877), Mayor of Sydney and ...
as his sole publisher (see Allen & Unwin). In the July 1877 letter of ''
Fors Clavigera ''Fors Clavigera'' was the name given by John Ruskin to a series of letters addressed to British workmen during the 1870s. They were published in the form of pamphlets. The letters formed part of Ruskin's interest in moral intervention in the soc ...
'', Ruskin launched a scathing attack on paintings by James McNeill Whistler exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery. He found particular fault with Nocturne in Black and Gold – The Falling Rocket, ''Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket'', and accused Whistler of asking two hundred guineas for "flinging a pot of paint in the public's face". Whistler filed a libel suit against Ruskin, but Ruskin was ill when the case went to trial in November 1887, so the artist
Edward Burne-Jones Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet, (; 28 August 183317 June 1898) was a artist and designer associated with the , who worked with on decorative arts as a founding partner in . Burne-Jones was involved in the rejuvenation of the trad ...
and John Holker, Attorney General Sir John Holker represented him. The trial took place on 25 and 26 November, and many major figures of the art world at the time appeared at the trial. Artist Albert Joseph Moore, Albert Moore appeared as a witness for Whistler, and artist William Powell Frith appeared for Ruskin. Frith said "the nocturne in black in gold is not in my opinion worth two hundred guineas". Frederic Leighton also agreed to give evidence for Whistler, but in the end could not attend as he had to go to Windsor to be knighted. Edward Burne-Jones, representing Ruskin, also asserted that ''Nocturne in Black and Gold'' was not a serious work of art. When asked to give reasons, Burne-Jones said he had never seen one painting of night that was successful, but also acknowledged that he saw marks of great labour and artistic skill in the painting. In the end, Whistler won the case, but the jury awarded damages of only a derisory British farthing coin, farthing (the smallest coin of the realm) to the artist. Court costs were split between the two parties. Ruskin's were paid by public subscription organised by the Fine Art Society, but Whistler was bankrupt within six months, and was forced to sell his studio. The episode tarnished Ruskin's reputation, and may have accelerated his mental decline. It did nothing to mitigate Ruskin's exaggerated sense of failure in persuading his readers to share in his own keenly felt priorities.


Guild of St George

Ruskin founded his utopian society, the
Guild of St GeorgeThe Guild of St George is a charitable Education Trust, based in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Ir ...
, in 1871 (although originally it was called St George's Fund, and then St George's Company, before becoming the Guild in 1878). Its aims and objectives were articulated in ''
Fors Clavigera ''Fors Clavigera'' was the name given by John Ruskin to a series of letters addressed to British workmen during the 1870s. They were published in the form of pamphlets. The letters formed part of Ruskin's interest in moral intervention in the soc ...
''. A communitarian protest against nineteenth-century industrial capitalism, it had a hierarchical structure, with Ruskin as its Master, and dedicated members called "Companions". Ruskin wished to show that contemporary life could still be enjoyed in the countryside, with land being farmed by traditional means, in harmony with the environment, and with the minimum of mechanical assistance. He also sought to educate and enrich the lives of industrial workers by inspiring them with beautiful objects. As such, with a tithe (or personal donation) of £7,000, Ruskin acquired land and a collection of art treasures. Ruskin purchased land initially in Totley, near Sheffield, but the agricultural scheme established there by local communists met with only modest success after many difficulties. Donations of land from wealthy and dedicated Companions eventually placed land and property in the Guild's care: in the Wyre Forest, near Bewdley, Worcestershire, called Ruskin Land today; Barmouth, in Gwynedd, north-west Wales; Cloughton, in North Yorkshire; Westmill in Hertfordshire; and Sheepscombe, Gloucestershire. In principle, Ruskin worked out a scheme for different grades of "Companion", wrote codes of practice, described styles of dress and even designed the Guild's own coins. Ruskin wished to see St George's Schools established, and published various volumes to aid its teaching (his ''Bibliotheca Pastorum'' or ''Shepherd's Library''), but the schools themselves were never established. (In the 1880s, in a venture loosely related to the ''Bibliotheca'', he supported Francesca Alexander's publication of some of her tales of peasant life.) In reality, the Guild, which still exists today as a charitable education trust, has only ever operated on a small scale. Ruskin also wished to see traditional rural handicrafts revived. St. George's Mill was established at Laxey, Isle of Man, producing cloth goods. The Guild also encouraged independent but allied efforts in spinning and weaving at Langdale, in other parts of the
Lake District The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes, forests and mountains (or ''fells''), and its associations with William Wordsworth ...

Lake District
and elsewhere, producing linen and other goods exhibited by the Home Arts and Industries Association and similar organisations. The Guild's most conspicuous and enduring achievement was the creation of a remarkable collection of art, minerals, books, medieval manuscripts, architectural casts, coins and other precious and beautiful objects. Housed in a cottage museum high on a hill in the Sheffield district of Walkley, it opened in 1875, and was curated by Henry and Emily Swan. Ruskin had written in ''
Modern Painters Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recov ...
'' III (1856) that, "the greatest thing a human soul ever does in this world is to ''see'' something, and to tell what it ''saw'' in a plain way." Through the Museum, Ruskin aimed to bring to the eyes of the working man many of the sights and experiences otherwise reserved for those who could afford to travel across Europe. The original Museum has been digitally recreated online. In 1890, the Museum relocated to Meersbrook Park. The collection is now on display at Sheffield's Millennium Galleries, Millennium Gallery.


Rose La Touche

Ruskin had been introduced to the wealthy Irish La Touche family by Louisa, Marchioness of Waterford. Maria La Touche, a minor Irish poet and novelist, asked Ruskin to teach her daughters drawing and painting in 1858. Rose La Touche was ten. His first meeting came at a time when Ruskin's own religious faith was under strain. This always caused difficulties for the staunchly Protestant La Touche family who at various times prevented the two from meeting. A chance meeting at the
Royal Academy The Royal Academy of Arts (RA) is an art institution based in Burlington House Burlington House is a building on Piccadilly in Mayfair, London. It was originally a private Palladian architecture, Palladian mansion owned by the Earl of B ...

Royal Academy
in 1869 was one of the few occasions they came into personal contact. After a long illness, she died on 25 May 1875, at the age of 27. These events plunged Ruskin into despair and led to increasingly severe bouts of mental illness involving a number of breakdowns and delirious visions. The first of these had occurred in 1871 at Matlock, Derbyshire, a town and a county that he knew from his boyhood travels, whose flora, fauna, and minerals helped to form and reinforce his appreciation and understanding of nature. Ruskin turned to spiritualism. He attended seances at Broadlands. Ruskin's increasing need to believe in a meaningful universe and a life after death, both for himself and his loved ones, helped to revive his Christian faith in the 1870s.


Travel guides

Ruskin continued to travel, studying the landscapes, buildings and art of Europe. In May 1870 and June 1872 he admired Vittore Carpaccio, Carpaccio's ''St Ursula'' in
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
, a vision of which, associated with Rose La Touche would haunt him, described in the pages of ''Fors Clavigera, Fors''. In 1874, on his tour of Italy, Ruskin visited Sicily, the furthest he ever travelled. Ruskin embraced the emerging literary forms, the travel guide (and gallery guide), writing new works, and adapting old ones "to give", he said, "what guidance I may to travellers..." ''The Stones of Venice'' was revised, edited and issued in a new "Travellers' Edition" in 1879. Ruskin directed his readers, the would-be traveller, to look with his cultural gaze at the landscapes, buildings and art of France and Italy: ''Mornings in Florence'' (1875–77), ''The Bible of Amiens'' (1880–85) (a close study of its sculpture and a wider history), ''St Mark's Rest'' (1877–84) and ''A Guide to the Principal Pictures in ... Venice'' (1877).


Final writings

In the 1880s, Ruskin returned to some literature and themes that had been among his favourites since childhood. He wrote about Walter Scott, Scott, Lord Byron, Byron and William Wordsworth, Wordsworth in ''Fiction, Fair and Foul'' (1880) in which, as Seth Reno argues, he describes the devastating effects on the landscape caused by industrialization, a vision Reno sees as a realization of the Anthropocene. He returned to meteorological observations in his lectures, ''The Storm-Cloud of the Nineteenth-Century'' (1884), describing the apparent effects of industrialisation on weather patterns. Ruskin's ''Storm-Cloud'' has been seen as foreshadowing environmentalism and related concerns in the 20th and 21st centuries. Ruskin's prophetic writings were also tied to his emotions, and his more general (ethical) dissatisfaction with the modern world with which he now felt almost completely out of sympathy. His last great work was his autobiography, ''Praeterita'' (1885–89) (meaning, 'Of Past Things'), a highly personalised, selective, eloquent but incomplete account of aspects of his life, the preface of which was written in his childhood nursery at
Herne Hill Herne Hill is a district in South London South London is the southern part of London, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Sc ...
. The period from the late 1880s was one of steady and inexorable decline. Gradually it became too difficult for him to travel to Europe. He suffered a complete mental collapse on his final tour, which included Beauvais, Sallanches and
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
, in 1888. The emergence and dominance of the Aesthetic movement and Impressionism distanced Ruskin from the modern art world, his ideas on the social utility of art contrasting with the doctrine of "l'art pour l'art" or "art for art's sake" that was beginning to dominate. His later writings were increasingly seen as irrelevant, especially as he seemed to be more interested in book illustrators such as Kate Greenaway than in modern art. He also attacked aspects of Darwinism, Darwinian theory with increasing violence, although he knew and respected Charles Darwin, Darwin personally.


Brantwood and final years

In August 1871, Ruskin purchased, from W. J. Linton, the then somewhat dilapidated Brantwood house, on the shores of Coniston Water, in the English
Lake District The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes, forests and mountains (or ''fells''), and its associations with William Wordsworth ...

Lake District
, paying £1500 for it. Brantwood was Ruskin's main home from 1872 until his death. His estate provided a site for more of his practical schemes and experiments: he had an ice house built, and the gardens comprehensively rearranged. He oversaw the construction of a larger harbour (from where he rowed his boat, the ''Jumping Jenny''), and he altered the house (adding a dining room, a turret to his bedroom to give him a panoramic view of the lake, and he later extended the property to accommodate his relatives). He built a reservoir, and redirected the waterfall down the hills, adding a slate seat that faced the tumbling stream and craggy rocks rather than the lake, so that he could closely observe the fauna and flora of the hillside. Although Ruskin's 80th birthday was widely celebrated in 1899 (various Ruskin societies presenting him with an elaborately illuminated congratulatory address), Ruskin was scarcely aware of it. He died at Brantwood from influenza on 20 January 1900 at the age of 80. He was buried five days later in the churchyard at Coniston, Cumbria, Coniston, according to his wishes. As he had grown weaker, suffering prolonged bouts of mental illness, he had been looked after by his second cousin, Joan(na) Severn (formerly "companion" to Ruskin's mother) and she and her family inherited his estate. ''Joanna's Care'' was the eloquent final chapter of Ruskin's memoir, which he dedicated to her as a fitting tribute. Joan Severn, together with Ruskin's secretary, W. G. Collingwood, and his eminent American friend Charles Eliot Norton, were executors to his will. E. T. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn edited the monumental 39-volume ''Library Edition'' of Ruskin's ''Works'', the last volume of which, an index, attempts to demonstrate the complex interconnectedness of Ruskin's thought. They all acted together to guard, and even control, Ruskin's public and personal reputation. The centenary of Ruskin's birth was keenly celebrated in 1919, but his reputation was already in decline and sank further in the fifty years that followed. The contents of Ruskin's home were dispersed in a series of sales at auction, and Brantwood itself was bought in 1932 by the educationist and Ruskin enthusiast, collector and memorialist, John Howard Whitehouse. Brantwood was opened in 1934 as a memorial to Ruskin and remains open to the public today. The
Guild of St GeorgeThe Guild of St George is a charitable Education Trust, based in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Ir ...
continues to thrive as an educational charity, and has an international membership. The Ruskin Society organises events throughout the year. A series of public celebrations of Ruskin's multiple legacies took place in 2000, on the centenary of his death, and events are planned throughout 2019, to mark the bicentenary of his birth.


Note on Ruskin's personal appearance

In middle age, and at his prime as a lecturer, Ruskin was described as slim, perhaps a little short, with an aquiline nose and brilliant, piercing blue eyes. Often sporting a double-breasted waistcoat, a high collar and, when necessary, a frock coat, he also wore his trademark blue neckcloth. From 1878 he cultivated an increasingly long beard, and took on the appearance of an "Old Testament" prophet.


Ruskin in the eyes of a student

The following description of Ruskin as a lecturer was written by an eyewitness, who was a student at the time (1884): An incident where the
Arts and Crafts A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by one’s hand or by using only simple, non-automated rela ...
master
William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of tradit ...

William Morris
had aroused the anger of James Franck BDr Bright, Master of University College, Oxford, served to demonstrate Ruskin's charisma:


Legacy


International

Ruskin's influence reached across the world. Leo Tolstoy, Tolstoy described him as "one of the most remarkable men not only of England and of our generation, but of all countries and times" and quoted extensively from him, rendering his ideas into Russian. Marcel Proust, Proust not only admired Ruskin but helped translate his works into French. Mahatma Gandhi, Gandhi wrote of the "magic spell" cast on him by ''
Unto This Last ''Unto This Last'' is an essay and book on economy An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), distribution a ...
'' and paraphrased the work in Gujarati, calling it ''Sarvodaya'', "The Advancement of All". In Japan, Ryuzo Mikimoto actively collaborated in Ruskin's translation. He commissioned sculptures and sundry commemorative items, and incorporated Ruskinian rose motifs in the jewellery produced by his cultured pearl empire. He established the Ruskin Society of Tokyo and his children built a dedicated library to house his Ruskin collection. A number of utopian socialist Ruskin Colonies attempted to put his political ideals into practice. These communities included Ruskin, Florida, Ruskin, British Columbia and the Ruskin Colony, Ruskin Commonwealth Association, a colony in Dickson County, Tennessee in existence from 1894 to 1899. Ruskin's work has been translated into numerous languages including, in addition to those already mentioned (Russian, French, Japanese): German, Italian, Catalan, Spanish, Portuguese, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Swedish, Danish, Dutch, Czech, Chinese, Welsh, several Indian languages like Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ), Esperanto and Gikuyu language, Gikuyu.


Art, architecture and literature

Theorists and practitioners in a broad range of disciplines acknowledged their debt to Ruskin. Architects including Le Corbusier, Louis Sullivan, Frank Lloyd Wright and Walter Gropius incorporated his ideas in their work. Writers as diverse as
Oscar Wilde Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 185430 November 1900) was an Irish poet and playwright. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of the most popular playwrights in London in the early 1890s. He is ...

Oscar Wilde
, G. K. Chesterton, Hilaire Belloc, T. S. Eliot, W. B. Yeats and Ezra Pound felt Ruskin's influence. The American poet Marianne Moore was an enthusiastic Ruskin reader. Art historians and critics, among them Herbert Read, Roger Fry and Wilhelm Worringer, knew Ruskin's work well. Admirers ranged from the British-born American watercolourist and engraver John William Hill to the sculptor-designer, printmaker and utopianist Eric Gill. Aside from E. T. Cook, Ruskin's editor and biographer, other leading British journalists influenced by Ruskin include J. A. Spender, and the war correspondent H. W. Nevinson.


Craft and conservation

William Morris William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was a British textile designer, poet, novelist, translator and socialist activist associated with the British Arts and Crafts Movement. He was a major contributor to the revival of tradit ...

William Morris
and C. R. Ashbee (of the Guild of Handicraft) were keen disciples, and through them Ruskin's legacy can be traced in the arts and crafts movement. Ruskin's ideas on the preservation of open spaces and the conservation of historic buildings and places inspired his friends
Octavia Hill Octavia Hill (3 December 1838 – 13 August 1912) was an English social reformer A reform movement is a type of social movement Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered s ...

Octavia Hill
and Hardwicke Rawnsley to help found the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, National Trust.


Society, education and sport

Pioneers of urban planning, town planning such as Thomas Coglan Horsfall and Patrick Geddes called Ruskin an inspiration and invoked his ideas in justification of their own social interventions; likewise the founders of the garden city movement, Ebenezer Howard and Raymond Unwin. Edward Carpenter's community in Millthorpe, Derbyshire was partly inspired by Ruskin, and John Kenworthy's colony at Purleigh, Essex, which was briefly a refuge for the Doukhobors, combined Ruskin's ideas and Tolstoy's. The most prolific collector of Ruskiniana was John Howard Whitehouse, who saved Ruskin's home, Brantwood, and opened it as a permanent Ruskin memorial. Inspired by Ruskin's educational ideals, Whitehouse established Bembridge School, on the Isle of Wight, and ran it along Ruskinian lines. Educationists from William Jolly to Michael Ernest Sadler wrote about and appreciated Ruskin's ideas. Ruskin College, an educational establishment in Oxford originally intended for working men, was named after him by its American founders, Walter Vrooman and Charles A. Beard. Ruskin's innovative publishing experiment, conducted by his one-time
Working Men's College The Working Men's College (also known as the St Pancras Working Men's College or WMC, The Camden College), is among the earliest adult education Adult education, distinct from child education, is a practice in which adults engage in systematic ...
pupil
George Allen George Allen may refer to: Politics and law * George E. Allen (1896–1973), American political operative and one-time head coach of the Cumberland University football team * George Allen (Australian politician) (1800–1877), Mayor of Sydney and ...
, whose business was eventually merged to become Allen & Unwin, anticipated the establishment of the Net Book Agreement. Ruskin's Drawing Collection, a collection of 1470 works of art he gathered as learning aids for the Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art (which he founded at Oxford), is at the
Ashmolean Museum The Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology () on Beaumont Street, Oxford, England, is the world's second university museum (after the establishment of the Kunstmuseum Basel by the University of Basel in 1661) and Britain's first public museum. I ...
. The Museum has promoted Ruskin's art teaching, utilising the collection for in-person and online drawing courses. Pierre de Coubertin, the innovator of the modern Olympic Games, cited Ruskin's principles of beautification, asserting that the games should be "Ruskinised" to create an aesthetic identity that transcended mere championship competitions.


Politics and critique of political economy

Ruskin was an inspiration for many Christian socialism, Christian socialists, and his ideas informed the work of economists such as William Smart (economist), William Smart and J. A. Hobson, and the positivist Frederic Harrison. Ruskin was discussed in university extension classes, and in reading circles and societies formed in his name. He helped to inspire the settlement movement in Britain and the United States. Resident workers at Toynbee Hall such as the future civil servants Hubert Llewellyn Smith and William Beveridge (author of the Beveridge Report, Report ... on Social Insurance and Allied Services), and the future Prime Minister Clement Attlee acknowledged their debt to Ruskin as they helped to found the British welfare state. More of the Labour Party (UK), British Labour Party's earliest MPs acknowledged Ruskin's influence than mentioned Karl Marx or the Bible. More recently, Ruskin's works have also influenced Phillip Blond and the Red Tory movement.


Ruskin in the 21st century

In 2019, Ruskin200 was inaugurated as a year-long celebration marking the bicentenary of Ruskin's birth. Admirers and scholars of Ruskin can visit the Ruskin Library at Lancaster University, Ruskin's home, Brantwood, and the Ruskin Museum, both in Coniston, Cumbria, Coniston in the English
Lake District The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes, forests and mountains (or ''fells''), and its associations with William Wordsworth ...

Lake District
. All three mount regular exhibitions open to the public all the year round. Barony House in Edinburgh is home to a descendant of John Ruskin. She has designed and hand painted various friezes in honour of her ancestor and it is open to the public. Ruskin's
Guild of St GeorgeThe Guild of St George is a charitable Education Trust, based in England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Ir ...
continues his work today, in education, the arts, crafts, and the rural economy. Many streets, buildings, organisations and institutions bear his name: The Priory Ruskin Academy in Grantham, Lincolnshire; John Ruskin College, South Croydon; and
Anglia Ruskin University Anglia Ruskin University (ARU) is a university in East Anglia, United Kingdom. Its origins are in the Cambridge School of Art, founded by William John Beamont in 1858. It became a university in 1992 and was renamed after John Ruskin in 2005. It i ...

Anglia Ruskin University
in Chelmsford and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...

Cambridge
, which traces its origins to the Cambridge School of Art, at the foundation of which Ruskin spoke in 1858. Also, the Ruskin Literary and Debating Society, (founded in 1900 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada), the oldest surviving club of its type, and still promoting the development of literary knowledge and public speaking today; and the Ruskin Art Club in Los Angeles, which still exists. In addition, there is the Ruskin Pottery, Ruskin House, Croydon and Ruskin Hall at the University of Pittsburgh. Ruskin, Florida, United States—site of one of the short-lived American Ruskin Colleges—is named after John Ruskin. There is a mural of Ruskin titled "Head, Heart and Hands" on a building across from the Ruskin Post Office. Since 2000, scholarly research has focused on aspects of Ruskin's legacy, including his impact on the sciences; John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury, John Lubbock and Oliver Lodge admired him. Two major academic projects have looked at Ruskin and cultural tourism (investigating, for example, Ruskin's links with Thomas Cook); the other focuses on Ruskin and the theatre. The sociologist and media theorist David Gauntlett argues that Ruskin's notions of craft can be felt today in online communities such as YouTube and throughout Web 2.0. Similarly, architectural theorist Lars Spuybroek has argued that Ruskin's understanding of the Gothic as a combination of two types of variation, rough savageness and smooth changefulness, opens up a new way of thinking leading to digital and so-called parametric design. Notable Ruskin enthusiasts include the writers Geoffrey Hill and Charles Tomlinson, and the politicians Patrick Cormack, Frank Judd, Frank Field (British politician), Frank Field and Tony Benn. In 2006, Chris Smith, Baron Smith of Finsbury, Raficq Abdulla, Jonathon Porritt and Nicholas Wright (playwright), Nicholas Wright were among those to contribute to the symposium, ''There is no wealth but life: Ruskin in the 21st Century''. Jonathan Glancey at ''The Guardian'' and Andrew Hill at the ''Financial Times'' have both written about Ruskin, as has the broadcaster Melvyn Bragg. In 2015, inspired by Ruskin's philosophy of education, Marc Turtletaub founded ''Meristem'' in Fair Oaks, California. The centre educates adolescents with developmental differences using Ruskin's "land and craft" ideals, transitioning them so they will succeed as adults in an evolving post-industrial society.


Theory and criticism

Ruskin wrote over 250 works, initially art criticism and history, but expanding to cover topics ranging over science, geology, ornithology, literary criticism, the environmental effects of pollution, mythology, travel, political economy and social reform. After his death Ruskin's works were collected in the 39-volume "Library Edition", completed in 1912 by his friends Edward Tyas Cook and Alexander Wedderburn. The range and quantity of Ruskin's writing, and its complex, allusive and associative method of expression, cause certain difficulties. In 1898, John A. Hobson observed that in attempting to summarise Ruskin's thought, and by extracting passages from across his work, "the spell of his eloquence is broken". Clive Wilmer has written, further, that, "The anthologising of short purple passages, removed from their intended contexts [... is] something which Ruskin himself detested and which has bedevilled his reputation from the start." Nevertheless, some aspects of Ruskin's theory and criticism require further consideration.


Art and design criticism

Ruskin's early work defended the reputation of J. M. W. Turner. He believed that all great art should communicate an understanding and appreciation of nature. Accordingly, inherited artistic conventions should be rejected. Only by means of direct observation can an artist, through form and colour, represent nature in art. He advised artists in ''
Modern Painters Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recov ...
'' I to: "go to Nature in all singleness of heart... rejecting nothing, selecting nothing and scorning nothing." By the 1850s. Ruskin was celebrating the Pre-Raphaelites, whose members, he said, had formed "a new and noble school" of art that would provide a basis for a thoroughgoing reform of the art world. For Ruskin, art should communicate truth above all things. However, this could not be revealed by mere display of skill, and must be an expression of the artist's whole moral outlook. Ruskin rejected the work of James McNeill Whistler, Whistler because he considered it to epitomise a reductive mechanisation of art. Ruskin's strong rejection of Classicism, Classical tradition in ''The Stones of Venice (book), The Stones of Venice'' typifies the inextricable mix of aesthetics and morality in his thought: "Pagan in its origin, proud and unholy in its revival, paralysed in its old age... an architecture invented, as it seems, to make plagiarists of its architects, slaves of its workmen, and sybarites of its inhabitants; an architecture in which intellect is idle, invention impossible, but in which all luxury is gratified and all insolence fortified." Rejection of mechanisation and standardisation informed Ruskin's theories of architecture, and his emphasis on the importance of the Medieval Gothic style. He praised the Gothic for what he saw as its reverence for nature and natural forms; the free, unfettered expression of artisans constructing and decorating buildings; and for the organic relationship he perceived between worker and guild, worker and community, worker and natural environment, and between worker and God. Attempts in the 19th century to reproduce Gothic forms (such as pointed arches), attempts he had helped inspire, were not enough to make these buildings expressions of what Ruskin saw as true Gothic feeling, faith, and organicism. For Ruskin, the Gothic style in architecture embodied the same moral truths he sought to promote in the visual arts. It expressed the 'meaning' of architecture—as a combination of the values of strength, solidity and aspiration—all written, as it were, in stone. For Ruskin, creating true Gothic architecture involved the whole community, and expressed the full range of human emotions, from the wikt:sublime, sublime effects of soaring spires to the comically ridiculous carved grotesques and gargoyles. Even its crude and "savage" aspects were proof of "the liberty of every workman who struck the stone; a freedom of thought, and rank in scale of being, such as no laws, no charters, no charities can secure." Classical architecture, in contrast, expressed a morally vacuous and repressive standardisation. Ruskin associated Classical values with modern developments, in particular with the demoralising consequences of the industrial revolution, resulting in buildings such as The Crystal Palace, which he criticised. Although Ruskin wrote about architecture in many works over the course of his career, his much-anthologised essay "The Nature of Gothic" from the second volume of ''The Stones of Venice (book), The Stones of Venice'' (1853) is widely considered to be one of his most important and evocative discussions of his central argument. Ruskin's theories indirectly encouraged a revival of Gothic styles, but Ruskin himself was often dissatisfied with the results. He objected that forms of mass-produced ''faux'' Gothic did not exemplify his principles, but showed disregard for the true meaning of the style. Even the
Oxford University Museum of Natural History The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum or OUMNH, is a museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that cares for and displays a co ...

Oxford University Museum of Natural History
, a building designed with Ruskin's collaboration, met with his disapproval. The O'Shea and Whelan, O'Shea brothers, freehand stone carvers chosen to revive the creative "freedom of thought" of Gothic craftsmen, disappointed him by their lack of reverence for the task. Ruskin's distaste for oppressive standardisation led to later works in which he attacked ''
laissez-faire ''Laissez-faire'' ( ; from french: laissez faire , ) is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects hav ...
'' capitalism, which he thought was at its root. His ideas provided inspiration for the Arts and Crafts Movement, the founders of the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, National Trust, the National Art Collections Fund, and the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings. Ruskin's views on art, wrote Kenneth Clark, "cannot be made to form a logical system, and perhaps owe to this fact a part of their value." Ruskin's accounts of art are descriptions of a superior type that conjure images vividly in the mind's eye. Clark neatly summarises the key features of Ruskin's writing on art and architecture:
# Art is not a matter of taste, but involves the whole man. Whether in making or perceiving a work of art, we bring to bear on it feeling, intellect, morals, knowledge, memory, and every other human capacity, all focused in a flash on a single point. Aesthetic man is a concept as false and dehumanising as economic man. # Even the most superior mind and the most powerful imagination must found itself on facts, which must be recognised for what they are. The imagination will often reshape them in a way which the prosaic mind cannot understand; but this recreation will be based on facts, not on formulas or illusions. # These facts must be perceived by the senses, or felt; not learnt. # The greatest artists and schools of art have believed it their duty to impart vital truths, not only about the facts of vision, but about religion and the conduct of life. # Beauty of form is revealed in organisms which have developed perfectly according to their laws of growth, and so give, in his own words, 'the appearance of felicitous fulfilment of function.' # This fulfilment of function depends on all parts of an organism cohering and co-operating. This was what he called the 'Law of Help,' one of Ruskin's fundamental beliefs, extending from nature and art to society. # Good art is done with enjoyment. The artist must feel that, within certain reasonable limits, he is free, that he is wanted by society, and that the ideas he is asked to express are true and important. # Great art is the expression of epochs where people are united by a common faith and a common purpose, accept their laws, believe in their leaders, and take a serious view of human destiny.


Historic preservation

Ruskin's belief in preservation of ancient buildings had a significant influence on later thinking about the distinction between conservation and restoration. He was a strong proponent of the former, while his contemporary, Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, promoted the latter. In ''
The Seven Lamps of Architecture ''The Seven Lamps of Architecture'' is an extended essay, first published in May 1849 and written by the English art critic and theorist John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic A ...
'', (1849) Ruskin wrote: This abhorrence of restoration is in marked contrast to Viollet-le-Duc, who wrote that restoration is a "means to reestablish [a building] to a finished state, which may in fact never have actually existed at any given time." For Ruskin, the "age" of a building was crucially significant as an aspect in its preservation: "For, indeed, the greatest glory of a building is not in its stones, not in its gold. Its glory is in its Age, and in that deep sense of voicefulness, of stern watching, of mysterious sympathy, nay, even of approval or condemnation, which we feel in walls that have long been washed by the passing waves of humanity."


Critique of political economy

Ruskin wielded a
critique of political economy ''Das Kapital'', also known as ''Capital: A Critique of Political Economy'' (german: Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, ; 1867–1883), is a foundational theoretical text in Historical materialism, materialist philosophy, economics a ...
of orthodox, 19th-century
political economy Political economy is the study of production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the outline of industrial organization, the act of making products ( ...
principally on the grounds that it failed to acknowledge complexities of human desires and motivations (broadly, "social affections"). He began to express such ideas in ''The Stones of Venice'', and increasingly in works of the later 1850s, such as ''The Political Economy of Art'' (''A Joy for Ever''), but he gave them full expression in the influential essays, ''Unto This Last''. At the root of his theory, was Ruskin's dissatisfaction with the role and position of the worker, and especially the artisan or craftsman, in modern capitalism, industrial capitalist society. Ruskin believed that the economic theories of
Adam Smith Adam Smith ( 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher as well as a moral philosopher Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and ...

Adam Smith
, expressed in ''The Wealth of Nations'' had led, through the
division of labour The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an ...
to the alienation of the worker not merely from the process of work itself, but from his fellow workmen and other classes, causing increasing resentment. (See ''#The_Stones_of_Venice, The Stones of Venice'' above.) Ruskin argued that one remedy would be to pay work at a fixed rate of wages, because human need is consistent and a given quantity of work justly demands a certain return. The best workmen would remain in employment because of the quality of their work (a focus on quality growing out of his writings on art and architecture). The best workmen could not, in a fixed-wage economy, be undercut by an inferior worker or product. In the preface to ''Unto This Last'' (1862), Ruskin recommended that the state should underwrite standards of service and production to guarantee social justice. This included the recommendation of government youth-training schools promoting employment, health, and 'gentleness and justice'; government manufactories and workshops; government schools for the employment at fixed wages of the unemployed, with idlers compelled to toil; and pensions provided for the elderly and the destitute, as a matter of right, received honourably and not in shame. Many of these ideas were later incorporated into the welfare state.


Controversies


Turner's erotic drawings

Until 2005, biographies of both J. M. W. Turner and Ruskin had claimed that in 1858 Ruskin burned bundles of erotic paintings and drawings by Turner to protect Turner's posthumous reputation. Ruskin's friend Ralph Nicholson Wornum, who was Keeper of the
National Gallery The National Gallery is an art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art, usually from the museum's own Collection (artwork), collection. It might be in public or private ownership and may be accessible to all or h ...
, was said to have colluded in the alleged destruction of Turner's works. In 2005, these works, which form part of the Turner Bequest held at Tate Britain, were re-appraised by Turner Curator Ian Warrell, who concluded that Ruskin and Wornum had not destroyed them.


Sexuality

Ruskin's sexuality has been the subject of a great deal of speculation and critical comment. His one marriage, to
Effie Gray Euphemia Chalmers Millais, Lady Millais (''née'' Gray; 7 May 1828 – 23 December 1897) was a Scottish painter and the wife of Pre-Raphaelite The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painte ...

Effie Gray
, was annulled after six years owing to non-consummation. Effie, in a letter to her parents, claimed that Ruskin found her "person" repugnant:
He alleged various reasons, hatred of children, religious motives, a desire to preserve my beauty, and finally this last year he told me his true reason... that he had imagined women were quite different to what he saw I was, and that the reason he did not make me his Wife was because he was disgusted with my person the first evening 10th April [1848].
Ruskin told his lawyer during the annulment proceedings:
It may be thought strange that I could abstain from a woman who to most people was so attractive. But though her face was beautiful, her person was not formed to excite passion. On the contrary, there were certain circumstances in her person which completely checked it.
The cause of Ruskin's "disgust" has led to much conjecture. Mary Lutyens speculated that he rejected Effie because he was horrified by the sight of her pubic hair. Lutyens argued that Ruskin must have known the female form only through Greek statues and paintings of nudes which lacked pubic hair. However, Peter Fuller wrote, "It has been said that he was frightened on the wedding night by the sight of his wife's pubic hair; more probably, he was perturbed by her menstrual blood." Ruskin's biographers Tim Hilton and John Batchelor also took the view that menstruation was the more likely explanation, though Batchelor also suggests that body-odour may have been the problem. There is no evidence to support any of these theories. William Ewart Gladstone said to his daughter Mary, "should you ever hear anyone blame Millais or his wife, or Mr. Ruskin [for the breakdown of the marriage], remember that there is no fault; there was misfortune, even tragedy. All three were perfectly blameless." The fullest story of the Ruskins' marriage to date has been told by the scholar Robert Brownell. Ruskin's later relationship with Rose La Touche has led to claims that he started a correspondence with her when he met her at the age of nine. In fact, he did not approach her as a suitor until on or near her eighteenth birthday. She asked him to wait for her until she was 21. Receiving no answer, he repeated his proposal. Ruskin is not known to have had any sexually intimate relationships. During an episode of mental derangement after Rose died, he wrote a letter in which he insisted that Rose's spirit had instructed him to marry a girl who was visiting him at the time. It is also true that in letters from Ruskin to Kate Greenaway he asked her to draw her "girlies" (as he called her child figures) without clothing:
Will you – (it's all for your own good – !) make her stand up and then draw her for me without a cap – and, without her shoes, – (because of the heels) and without her mittens, and without her – frock and frills? And let me see exactly how tall she is – and – how – round. It will be so good of and for you – And to and for me.
In a letter to his physician John Simon (pathologist), John Simon on 15 May 1886, Ruskin wrote:
I like my girls from ten to sixteen—allowing of 17 or 18 as long as they're not in love with anybody but me.—I've got some darlings of 8—12—14—just now, and my Pigwiggina here—12—who fetches my wood and is learning to play my bells.
Ruskin's biographers disagree about the allegation of "paedophilia". Tim Hilton, in his two-volume biography, asserts that Ruskin "was a paedophile" but leaves the claim unexplained, while John Batchelor argues that the term is inappropriate because Ruskin's behaviour does not "fit the profile". Others point to a definite pattern of "Nympholepsy, nympholeptic" behaviour with regard to his interactions with girls at a Winnington Hall, Winnington school. However, there is no evidence that Ruskin ever engaged in any sexual activity with anyone at all. According to one interpretation, what Ruskin valued most in pre-pubescent girls was their innocence; the fact that they were not (yet) fully developed sexual beings is what attracted him. An exploration of this topic by James L. Spates declares that "whatever idiosyncratic qualities his erotic expressions may have possessed, when it comes to matters of sexual capability and interest, there is every reason to conclude that John Ruskin was physically and emotionally normal."


Common law of business balance

Ruskin was not a fan of buying low and selling high. In the "Veins of Wealth" section of ''Unto This Last'', he wrote: "So far as I know, there is not in history record of anything so disgraceful to the human intellect as the modern idea that the commercial text, 'Buy in the cheapest market and sell in the dearest,' represents, or under any circumstances could represent, an available principle of national economy." Perhaps due to such passages, Ruskin is frequently identified as the originator of the "common law of business balance"—a statement about the relationships of price and quality as they pertain to manufactured goods, and often summarised as: "The common law of business balance prohibits paying a little and getting a lot." This is the core of a longer statement usually attributed to Ruskin, although Ruskin's authorship is disputed among Ruskin scholars. Fred Shapiro maintains that the statement does not appear anywhere in Ruskin's works, and George Landow is likewise sceptical of the claim of Ruskin's authorship. In a posting of the ''Ruskin Library News'', a blog associated with the Ruskin Library (a major collection of Ruskiniana located at Lancaster University), an anonymous library staff member briefly mentions the statement and its widespread use, saying that, "This is one of many quotations ascribed to Ruskin, without there being any trace of them in his writings – although someone, somewhere, thought they sounded like Ruskin." In an issue of the journal ''Heat Transfer Engineering'', Kenneth Bell quotes the statement and mentions that it has been attributed to Ruskin. While Bell believes in the veracity of its content, he adds that the statement does not appear in Ruskin's published works. Early in the 20th century, this statement appeared—without any authorship attribution—in magazine advertisements, in a business catalogue, in student publications, and, occasionally, in editorial columns. Later in the 20th century, however, magazine advertisements, student publications, business books, technical publications, scholarly journals, and business catalogues often included the statement with attribution to Ruskin. In the 21st century, and based upon the statement's applicability of the issues of quality and price, the statement continues to be used and attributed to Ruskin—despite the questionable nature of the attribution. For many years, various Baskin-Robbins ice cream parlours prominently displayed a section of the statement in framed signs. ("There is hardly anything in the world that someone cannot make a little worse and sell a little cheaper, and the people who consider price alone are that man's lawful prey.") The signs listed Ruskin as the author of the statement, but the signs gave no information on where or when Ruskin was supposed to have written, spoken, or published the statement. Due to the statement's widespread use as a promotional slogan, and despite questions of Ruskin's authorship, it is likely that many people who are otherwise unfamiliar with Ruskin now associate him with this statement.


Definitions

* Pathetic fallacy: Ruskin coined this term in ''Modern Painters'' III (1856) to describe the ascription of human emotions to inanimate objects and impersonal natural forces, as in "Nature must be gladsome when I was so happy" (Charlotte Brontë, ''Jane Eyre''). *
Fors Clavigera ''Fors Clavigera'' was the name given by John Ruskin to a series of letters addressed to British workmen during the 1870s. They were published in the form of pamphlets. The letters formed part of Ruskin's interest in moral intervention in the soc ...
: Ruskin gave this title to a series of letters he wrote "to the workmen and labourers of Great Britain" (1871–84). The name was intended to signify three great powers that fashion human destiny, as Ruskin explained at length in Letter 2 (February 1871). These were: ''force'', symbolised by the club (''clava'') of Hercules; ''For''titude, symbolised by the key (''clavis'') of Ulysses; and ''For''tune, symbolised by the nail (''clavus'') of Lycurgus of Sparta, Lycurgus. These three powers (the "fors") together represent human talents and abilities to choose the right moment and then to strike with energy. The concept is derived from
Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national p ...

Shakespeare
's phrase "There is a tide in the affairs of men/ Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune" (Brutus in ''Julius Caesar''). Ruskin believed that the letters were inspired by the Third Fors: striking out at the right moment. * Theoria: Ruskin's 'theoretic' faculty – theoretic, as opposed to aesthetic – enables a vision of the beautiful as intimating a reality deeper than the everyday, at least in terms of the kind of transcendence generally seen as immanent in things of this world. For an example of the influence of Ruskin's concept of theoria, see Peter Fuller. * Modern Atheism: Ruskin applied this label to "the unfortunate persistence of the clergy in teaching children what they cannot understand, and in employing young consecrate persons to assert in pulpits what they do not know." * Illth: Used by Ruskin as the antithesis of wealth, which he defined as life itself; broadly, where wealth is 'well-being', illth is "ill-being". * Excrescence: Ruskin defined an "excrescence" as an outgrowth of the main body of a building that does not harmonise well with the main body. He originally used the term to describe certain gothic revival features also for later additions to cathedrals and various other public buildings, especially from the Gothic architecture, Gothic period.


Fictional portrayals

* Ruskin figures as Mr Herbert in ''The New Republic (novel), The New Republic'' (1878), a novel by one of his Oxford undergraduates, William Hurrell Mallock, William Mallock (1849–1923). * ''The Love of John Ruskin'' (1912) a Silent film, silent movie about Ruskin, Effie and Millais. * Edith Wharton's ''False Dawn'' novella, the first in the 1924 ''Old New York (novellas), Old New York'' series has the protagonist meet John Ruskin. * Ruskin was the inspiration for either the Drawling Master or the Gryphon in ''Alice's Adventures in Wonderland''. * ''Dante's Inferno (1967 film), Dante's Inferno'' (1967) Ken Russell's biopic for television of Rossetti, in which Ruskin is played by Clive Goodwin * ''The Love School'' (1975) a BBC Television, BBC TV series about the Pre-Raphaelites, starring David Collings (Ruskin), Anne Kidd (Effie), Peter Egan (Millais). * A novel about the marriage of John Ruskin. * ''Dear Countess'' (1983) a radio play by Elizabeth Morgan (actress), Elizabeth Morgan, with Derek Jacobi (Ruskin), Bridget McCann (Gray), Timothy West (Old Mr Ruskin) Michael Fenner (Millais). The author played Ruskin's mother. * Peter Hoyle's novel, ''Brantwood: The Story of an Obsession'' (1986, ) is about two cousins who pursue their interest in Ruskin to his Coniston home. * ''The Passion of John Ruskin'' (1994), a film directed by Alex Chapple. * ''Modern Painters'' (1995) an opera about Ruskin by David Lang (composer), David Lang. * '' Parrots and Owls'' (1994) a radio play by John Purser about Ruskin's attempt to revive Gothic architecture and his connection to the O'Shea brothers. * ''The Countess (play), The Countess'' (1995), a play written by Gregory Murphy, dealing with Ruskin's marriage. * A novel in which Ruskin makes his last visit to Amiens cathedral in 1879. * ''The Order of Release'' (1998), a radio play by Robin Brooks about Ruskin (Bob Peck), Effie (Sharon Small) and Millais (David Tennant). * Ruskin and the Hinksey diggings form the backdrop to Ann Harries' novel, ''Manly Pursuits'' (1999). * A collection of short stories that includes ''Come, Gentle Night''about Ruskin and Effie's wedding night. * ''Mrs Ruskin'' (2003), a play by Kim Morrissey dealing with Ruskin's marriage. * "Sesame and Roses" (2007), a short story by Grace Andreacchi that explores Ruskin's twin obsessions with Venice and Rose La Touche. * ''Desperate Romantics'' (2009), a six-part BBC drama serial about the
Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and art critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt File:Hunt-AwakeningConscience1853.jpg, ''The Awakening Conscience'' (1853) ...
. Ruskin is played by Tom Hollander. * Melanie Benjamin (author), Benjamin, Melanie (2010). ''Alice I Have Been''. . A fictionalized account of the life of Alice Liddell, Alice Liddell Hargreaves, the inspiration for Lewis Carroll's ''Alice's Adventures in Wonderland'' and ''Through the Looking-Glass, Through the Looking Glass''. * ''Mr. Turner (film), Mr. Turner'' (2014), a biopic of J. M. W. Turner with Ruskin portrayed as a precocious prig by Joshua McGuire. * ''Effie Gray (film), Effie Gray'' (2014), a biopic about the Ruskin-Gray-Millais love triangle, written by Emma Thompson and featuring Greg Wise (Ruskin), Dakota Fanning (Gray) and Tom Sturridge (Millais). * ''Light, Descending'' (2014) is a biographical novel about John Ruskin by Octavia Randolph.


Gallery


Paintings

File:Lion's profile from life Ruskin.jpg, ''Lion's profile'' File:View of Amalfi.jpeg, ''View of Amalfi'' File:Ruskin Self Portrait with Blue Neckcloth.jpg, ''Self Portrait with Blue Neckcloth'' File:River Seine and its Islands, by John Ruskin.jpg, ''River Seine and its Islands'' File:Falls of Schaffhausen Ruskin.jpg, ''Falls of Schaffhausen'' File:Rocks in Unrest.jpg, ''Rocks in Unrest'' File:Fribourg Suisse Ruskin.jpg, ''Fribourg Suisse'' File:Zermatt Ruskin.jpeg, ''Zermatt''


Drawings

File:Naples MET DP806039.jpg, ''Naples'' File:John Ruskin - Turner’s Sunset seen from Goldau. 1855.jpg, ''Sunset seen from Goldau (after J. M. W. Turner)'' File:The Aiguille Blaitiere.jpg, ''Aiguille de Blaitière'' File:Lauffenbourg - c 1863 corrected.jpg, ''Laufenburg, Germany, Lauffenbourg''


Select bibliography

* It is the standard scholarly edition of Ruskin's work, the ''Library Edition'', sometimes called simply ''Cook and Wedderburn''. The volume in which the following works can be found is indicated in the form: (''Works'' [followed by the volume number]).


Works by Ruskin

* ''Poems'' (written 1835–46; collected 1850) (''Works'' 2) * ''The Poetry of Architecture'' (serialised ''The Architectural Magazine'' 1837–38; authorised book, 1893) (''Works'' 1) * ''Letters to a College Friend'' (written 1840–45; published 1894) (''Works'' 1) * ''The King of the Golden River, The King of the Golden River, or the Black Brothers. A Legend of Stiria'' (written 1841; published 1850) (''Works'' 1) * ''
Modern Painters Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recov ...
'' (5 vols.) (1843–60) (''Works'' 3–7) ** Vol. I (1843) (Parts I and II) ''Of General Principles and of Truth'' (''Works'' 3) ** Vol. II (1846) (Part III) ''Of the Imaginative and Theoretic Faculties'' (''Works'' 4) ** Vol. III (1856) (Part IV) ''Of Many Things'' (''Works'' 5) ** Vol. IV (1856) (Part V) ''Mountain Beauty'' (''Works'' 6) ** Vol. V (1860) (Part VI) ''Of Leaf Beauty'' (Part VII) ''Of Cloud Beauty'' (Part VIII) ''Of Ideas of Relation (1) Of Invention Formal'' (Part IX) ''Of Ideas of Relation (2) Of Invention Spiritual'' (''Works'' 7) * ''
The Seven Lamps of Architecture ''The Seven Lamps of Architecture'' is an extended essay, first published in May 1849 and written by the English art critic and theorist John Ruskin John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic A ...
'' (1849) (''Works'' 8) * ''The Stones of Venice (book), The Stones of Venice'' (3 vols) (1851–53) ** Vol. I. ''The Foundations'' (1851) (''Works'' 9) ** Vol. II. ''The Sea–Stories'' (1853) (''Works'' 10) – containing the chapter "The Nature of Gothic" ** Vol. III. ''The Fall'' (1853) (''Works'' 11) * ''Notes on the Construction of Sheepfolds'' (1851) (''Works'' 12) * ''Pre-Raphaelitism'' (1851) (''Works'' 12) * Letters to the ''Times'' on the Pre-Raphaelite Artists (1851, 1854) (''Works'' 12) * ''Lectures on Architecture and Painting (Edinburgh, 1853)'' (1854) (''Works'' 12) * ''Academy Notes'' (Annual Reviews of the June Royal Academy Exhibitions) (1855–59, 1875) (''Works'' 14) * ''The Harbours of England'' (1856) (''Works'' 13) * ''The Elements of Drawing, in Three Letters to Beginners'' (1857) (''Works'' 15) * A Joy Forever' and Its Price in the Market: being the substance (with additions) of two lectures on The Political Economy of Art'' (1857, 1880) (''Works'' 16) * ''The Two Paths: being Lectures on Art, and Its Application to Decoration and Manufacture, Delivered in 1858–9'' (1859) (''Works'' 16) * ''The Elements of Perspective, Arranged for the Use of Schools and Intended to be Read in Connection with the First Three Books of Euclid'' (1859) (''Works'' 15) * ''
Unto This Last ''Unto This Last'' is an essay and book on economy An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), distribution a ...
: Four Essays on the First Principles of Political Economy'' (serialised ''
Cornhill Magazine ''The Cornhill Magazine'' (1860–1975) was a monthly and named after the street address of the founding publisher at 65 in .Laurel Brake and Marysa Demoor, ''Dictionary of nineteenth-century journalism in Great Britain and Ireland''. Ge ...
'' 1860, book 1862) (''Works'' 17) * ''Munera Pulveris: Six Essays on the Elements of Political Economy'' (serialised ''
Fraser's Magazine ''Fraser's Magazine for Town and Country'' was a general and literary journal A journal, from the Old French ''journal'' (meaning "daily"), may refer to: *Bullet journal, a method of personal organizations *Diary, a record of what happened over the ...
'' 1862–63, book 1872) (''Works'' 17) * ''The Cestus of Aglaia'' (serialised The Art Journal, ''Art Journal'' 1864–64, incorporated (revised) in ''On the Old Road'' (1882) (''Works'' 19) * ''Sesame and Lilies: Two Lectures delivered at Manchester in 1864'' (1865) (i.e., "Of Queens' Gardens" and "Of Kings' Treasuries" to which was added, in a later edition of 1871, "The Mystery of Life and Its Arts") (''Works'' 18) * ''The Ethics of the Dust: Ten Lectures to Little Housewives on the Elements of Crystallisation'' (1866) (''Works'' 18) * ''The Crown of Wild Olive: Three Lectures on Work, Traffic and War'' (1866) (to a later edition was added a fourth lecture (delivered 1869), called "The Future of England") (1866) (''Works'' 18) * ''Time and Tide, by Weare and Tyne: Twenty-five Letters to a Working Man of Sunderland on the Laws of Work'' (1867) (''Works'' 17) * ''The Queen of the Air: A Study of the Greek Myths of Cloud and Storm'' (1869) (''Works'' 19) * ''Lectures on Art, Delivered before the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
in Hilary term, 1870'' (''Works'' 20) * ''Aratra Pentelici'': ''Six Lectures on the Elements of Sculpture Given before the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
in Michaelmas term, 1870'' (1872) (''Works'' 20) * ''Lectures on Landscape'', Delivered at
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...
in [Lent term, Lent Term], 1871 (1898) ("Works" 22) * ''
Fors Clavigera ''Fors Clavigera'' was the name given by John Ruskin to a series of letters addressed to British workmen during the 1870s. They were published in the form of pamphlets. The letters formed part of Ruskin's interest in moral intervention in the soc ...
: Letters to the Workmen and Labourers of Great Britain'' (1871–84) ("Works" 27–29) (originally collected in 8 vols., vols. 1–7 covering annually 1871–1877, and vol. 8, Letters 85–96, covering 1878–84) ** Volume I. Letters 1–36 (1871–73) (''Works'' 27) ** Volume II. Letters 37–72 (1874–76) (''Works'' 28) ** Volume III. Letters 73–96 (1877–84) (''Works'' 29) * ''The Eagle's Nest: Ten Lectures on the Relation of Natural science to Art, Given before the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
in Lent term, 1872'' (1872) (''Works'' 22) * ''Ariadne Florentina': Six Lectures on Wood and Metal Engraving, with Appendix, Given before the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
, in Michaelmas Term, 1872'' (1876) (''Works'' 22) * ''Love's Meinie: Lectures on Greek and English Birds'' (1873–81) (''Works'' 25) * ''Val d'Arno: Ten Lectures on the Tuscan Art, directly antecedent to the Florentine Year of Victories, given before the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
in Michaelmas Term, 1873'' (1874) (''Works'' 23) * ''The Aesthetic and Mathematic School of Art in Florence: Lectures Given before the
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
in Michaelmas Term, 1874'' (first published 1906) (''Works'' 23) * ''Mornings in Florence: Simple Studies of Christian Art, for English Travellers'' (1875–77) (''Works'' 23) * ''Deucalion: Collected Studies of the Lapse of Waves, and Life of Stones'' (1875–83) (''Works'' 26) * ''Proserpina: Studies of Wayside Flowers, While the Air was Yet Pure Among the Alps, and in the Scotland and England Which My Father Knew'' (1875–86) (''Works'' 25) * ''Bibliotheca Pastorum'' (i.e., 'Shepherd's Library', consisting ofmultiple volumes) (ed. John Ruskin) (1876–88) (''Works'' 31–32) * ''Laws of Fésole: A Familiar Treatise on the Elementary Principles and Practice of Drawing and Painting as Determined by the Tuscan Masters (arranged for the use of schools)'' (1877–78) (''Works'' 15) * ''St Mark's Rest'' (1877–84, book 1884) (''Works'' 24) * ''Fiction, Fair and Foul'' (serialised Nineteenth Century (periodical), ''Nineteenth Century'' 1880–81, incorporated in ''On the Old Road'' (1885)) (''Works'' 34) * ''The Bible of Amiens'' (the first part of ''Our Fathers Have Told Us'') (1880–85) (''Works'' 33) * ''The Art of England: Lectures Given in
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...
, During his Second Tenure of the Slade Professorship'' (delivered 1883, book 1884) (''Works'' 33) * ''The Storm-Cloud of the Nineteenth Century: Two Lectures Delivered at the London Institution, 4 and 11 February 1884'' (1884) (''Works'' 34) * ''The Pleasures of England: Lectures Given in
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...
, During his Second Tenure of the Slade Professorship'' (delivered 1884, published 1884–85) (''Works'' 33) * ''Præterita: Outlines of Scenes and Thoughts Perhaps Worthy of Memory in My Past Life'' (3 vols.) (1885–89) (''Works'' 35) * ''Dilecta: Correspondence, Diary Notes, and Extracts from Books, Illustrating 'Praeterita (1886, 1887, 1900) (''Works'' 35)


Selected diaries and letters

* ''The Diaries of John Ruskin'' eds. Joan Evans and John Howard Whitehouse (Clarendon Press, 1956–59) * ''The Brantwood Diary of John Ruskin'' ed. Helen Gill Viljoen (Yale University Press, 1971) * ''A Tour of the Lakes in Cumbria. John Ruskin's Diary for 1830'' eds. Van Akin Burd and James S. Dearden (Scolar, 1990) * ''The Winnington Letters: John Ruskin's correspondence with Margaret Alexis Bell and the children at Winnington Hall'' ed. Van Akin Burd (Harvard University Press, 1969) * ''The Ruskin Family Letters: The Correspondence of John James Ruskin, his wife, and their son John, 1801–1843'' ed. Van Akin Burd (2 vols.) (Cornell University Press, 1973) * ''The Correspondence of John Ruskin and Charles Eliot Norton'' ed. John Lewis Bradley and Ian Ousby (Cambridge University Press, 1987) * ''The Correspondence of Thomas Carlyle and John Ruskin'' ed. George Allen Cate (Stanford University Press, 1982) * ''John Ruskin's Correspondence with Joan Severn: Sense and Nonsense Letters'' ed. Rachel Dickinson (Legenda, 2008)


Selected editions of Ruskin still in print

* ''Praeterita'' [Ruskin's autobiography] ed. Francis O' Gorman (Oxford University Press, 2012) * ''Unto this Last: Four essays on the First Principles of Political Economy'' intro. Andrew Hill (Pallas Athene, 2010) * ''Unto This Last And Other Writings'' ed. Clive Wilmer (Penguin, 1986) * ''Fors Clavigera: Letters to the Workmen and Labourers of Great Britain'' ed. Dinah Birch (Edinburgh University Press, 1999) * ''The Storm-Cloud of the Nineteenth-Century'' preface by Clive Wilmer and intro. Peter Brimblecombe (Pallas Athene, 2012) * ''The Nature of Gothic'' (Pallas Athene, 2011) [facsimile reprint of Morris's Kelmscott Edition with essays by Robert Hewison and Tony Pinkney] * ''Selected Writings'' ed. Dinah Birch (Oxford University Press, 2009) * ''Selected Writings'' (originally ''Ruskin Today'') ed. Kenneth Clark (Penguin, 1964 and later impressions) * ''The Genius of John Ruskin: Selections from his Writings'' ed. John D. Rosenberg (George Allen and Unwin, 1963) * ''Athena: Queen of the Air (Annotated)'' (originally ''The Queen of the Air: A Study of the Greek Myths of Cloud and Storm'') ed. Na Ding, foreword by Tim Kavi, brief literary bio by Kelli M. Webert (TiLu Press, 2013 electronic book version, paper forthcoming) *''Ruskin on Music'' ed Mary Augusta Wakefield (Creative Media Partners LLC, 2015)


See also

* John Henry Devereux * Ruskin, Nebraska * Ruskin's diggers in Ferry Hinksey (1874) * Ruskin's Ride, a bridleway in Oxford * Trenton, Missouri, home of the first Ruskin College in the United States * Charles Augustus Howell * ''The English House'' * Mount Ruskin


References


Sources

* Robert Hewison, "Ruskin, John (1819–1900)", ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'' (ODNB) Oxford University Press, 2004; online edition. * Francis O'Gorman (1999) ''John Ruskin (Pocket Biographies)'' (Sutton Publishing) * James S. Dearden (2004), ''John Ruskin'' (Shire Publications)


Further reading


General

*Barringer, Tim. et al., ed. ''Unto This Last: Two Hundred Years of John Ruskin''. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2019. ISBN (identifier), ISBN Special:BookSources/978-0-300-24641-4, 978-0-300-24641-4. *Conner, Patrick. ''Savage Ruskin''. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, Macmillan Press, 1979. *Cook, E. T. ''wikisource:Dictionary_of_National_Biography,_1901_supplement/Ruskin,_John, Ruskin, John.'' Dictionary of National Biography (1st supplement). London: Smith, Elder & Co, 1901. *Dearden, James S. ''John Ruskin's Bookplates.'' The Book Collector (1964) 13 no 3 (autumn): 335-339. *Dearden, J. S. ''The Production and Distribution of John Ruskin's ''Poems'' 1850.'' The Book Collector (1968)17 no 2 (summer): 151-167. *Dearden, J. S. ''Wise and Ruskin.'' The Book Collector (1969) 18.no.1 (spring): 45-56. *Freeman, Kelly; Hughes, Thomas. et al. eds
''Ruskin’s Ecologies: Figures of Relation from Modern Painters to The Storm-Cloud''
The Courtauld Institute of Art, The Courtauld, 2021. ISBN 978-1-907485-13-8. * Hanley, K; Hull, C. S. eds. ''John Ruskin's Continental Tour 1835: The Written Records and Drawings.'' Cambridge: Legenda, 2016. ISBN (identifier), ISBN Special:BookSources/978-1-906540-85-2, 978-1-906540-85-2. * Robert Hewison, Hewison, Robert. ''John Ruskin: The Argument of the Eye''. Thames & Hudson, Thames and Hudson, 1976. *Hugh, Chriholm. ed. ''Ruskin, John.'' Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Encyclopædia Britannica (Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, 11th ed.). Cambridge University Press, 1911. * Jackson, Kevin. ''The Worlds of John Ruskin''. Pallas Athene, 2010. * Quill, Sarah. ''Ruskin's Venice: The Stones Revisited''. Ashgate, 2000. * Carroll Quigley, Quigley Carroll. ''Tragedy and Hope: A History Of The World In Our Time''. GSG & Associates, 1966. * Rosenberg, J. G. ''The Darkening Glass: A Portrait of Ruskin's Genius''. Columbia University Press, 1961. * Viljoen, Helen Gill. ''Ruskin's Scottish Heritage: A Prelude''. University of Illinois Press, 1956. * Waldstein, C. iarchive:89WaldsteinWorkofjohnruskin, ''The Work of John Ruskin: Its Influence Upon Modern Thought and Life'', Harper's Magazine, Harper's magazine vol. 78, no. 465 (Feb. 1889), pp. 382–418.


Biographies of Ruskin

* W. G. Collingwood (1893)
The Life and Work of John Ruskin 1–2
'. Methuen. (''The Life of John Ruskin'', sixth edition (1905).) – Note that the title was slightly changed for the 1900 2nd edition and later editions. * Edward Tyas Cook, E. T. Cook (1911) ''The Life of John Ruskin 1–2''. George Allen. (''The Life of John Ruskin'', vol. 1 of the second edition (1912); ''The Life of John Ruskin'', vol. 2 of the second edition (1912)) * Derrick Leon (1949) ''Ruskin: The Great Victorian'' (Routledge & Kegan Paul) * Tim Hilton (1985) ''John Ruskin: The Early Years'' (Yale University Press) * Tim Hilton (2000) ''John Ruskin: The Later Years'' (Yale University Press) * John Batchelor (2000) ''John Ruskin: No Wealth But Life'' (Chatto & Windus) * Robert Hewison (2007) ''John Ruskin'' (Oxford University Press)


External links


Ruskin Today

''The Eighth Lamp, Ruskin Studies Today''
Ruskin journal *


Library collections


UK Museum, Library and Archive collections relating to Ruskin
at Cornucopia.org.uk. Retrieved
John Ruskin texts
in the Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature Digital Collection. Retrieved 2010-10-19


Electronic editions

* * * *
Liverpool Museums audio files on Ruskin


Archival material





*
Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery's online biography and gallery
Retrieved 2010-10-19
Sources for the Study of John Ruskin and the Guild of St George
Produced by Sheffield City Council's Libraries and Archives. * * * Archival material at
Finding aid to John Ruskin letters at Columbia University. Rare Book & Manuscript Library.
* hdl:10079/fa/beinecke.ruskin, John Ruskin Collection. General Collection, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University. {{DEFAULTSORT:Ruskin, John John Ruskin, Architectural theoreticians Arts and Crafts movement artists English architecture writers English academics English environmentalists English essayists English philosophers English art critics Conchologists People associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood Alumni of Christ Church, Oxford People associated with Anglia Ruskin University Painters from London Anti-consumerists English people of Scottish descent Alumni of King's College London 1819 births 1900 deaths 19th-century English people 19th-century British philosophers 19th-century economists English watercolourists Burials in Cumbria 19th-century British journalists British male journalists Slade Professors of Fine Art (University of Oxford) Male essayists 19th-century English painters English male painters Guild of St George Romantic critics of political economy