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John Glover Roberts Jr. (born January 27, 1955) is an American lawyer and jurist serving as the 17th
chief justice of the United States The chief justice of the United States is the chief judge A chief judge (also known as chief justice The chief justice is the Chief judge, presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on English comm ...
since 2005. Roberts has authored the majority opinion in several
landmark case Landmark court decisions, in present-day common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or ) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ' is ...
s, including '' Shelby County v. Holder'', ''
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius ''National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius'', 567 U.S. 519 (2012), was a landmark United States Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States ...
'', '' King v. Burwell'', '' Department of Commerce v. New York'', and '' Department of Homeland Security v. Regents of the University of California''. He has been described as having a conservative judicial philosophy but has shown a willingness to work with the
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
's liberal bloc, and since the retirement of
Anthony Kennedy Anthony McLeod Kennedy (born July 23, 1936) is a retired American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the Supreme court, highe ...
in 2018 has come to be regarded as a key
swing vote A swing vote is a vote that is seen as potentially going to any of a number of candidates in an election, or, in a two-party system In politics, a two-party system is a party system in which two major party, major political parties consisten ...
on the Court. Roberts presided over the first impeachment trial of Donald Trump in early 2020; however, he declined to preside over the second impeachment trial of Trump, who was impeached as president, but whose term had expired by the time of the trial. Roberts grew up in northwestern
Indiana Indiana () is a U.S. state in the Midwestern The midwestern United States, often referred to simply as the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officiall ...

Indiana
and was educated in
Catholic schools A Catholic school is a parochial school A parochial school is a private primary or secondary school affiliated with a religious organization, and whose curriculum includes general religious education In secular usage, religious education is the ...

Catholic schools
. He studied history at
Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the History of the Puritans in North America, Puritan cler ...

Harvard University
and then attended
Harvard Law School Harvard Law School (HLS) is the of in . Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the country. Each class in the three-year program has approximately 560 st ...
, where he was
managing editor A managing editor (ME) is a senior member of a publication To publish is to make content available to the general public.The Seattle Times">The Seattle Daily Times—Editorial Department". Editing is the process of selecting and preparing w .. ...
of the ''
Harvard Law Review The ''Harvard Law Review'' is a law review A law review (or law journal) is a scholarly journal or publication that focuses on a wide array of legal issues. A law review is a type of legal periodical. Typically, the law students initiate the p ...
''. He served as a
law clerk A law clerk or a judicial clerk is an individual—generally an attorney Attorney may refer to: Roles * Attorney at law, an official title of lawyers in some jurisdictions * Attorney general, the principal legal officer of (or advisor to) a govern ...
for Circuit Judge
Henry Friendly Henry Jacob Friendly (July 3, 1903 – March 11, 1986) was an American lawyer and jurist best known for his tenure as a circuit judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit The United States Court of Appeals for the Second ...
and then-associate justice
William Rehnquist William Hubbs Rehnquist ( ; October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the Supreme court, highest court ...

William Rehnquist
before taking a position in the
attorney general #REDIRECT Attorney general In most common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinio ...
's office during the
Reagan administration The presidency of Ronald Reagan began at noon EST (17:00 UTC) on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United S ...
. He went on to serve the Reagan administration and the George H. W. Bush administration in the
Department of Justice A justice ministry, ministry of justice, or department of justice is a ministry or other government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of governme ...
and the Office of the White House Counsel, during which he was nominated by
George H. W. Bush George Herbert Walker BushSince around 2000 he was usually called George H. W. Bush, Bush Senior, Bush 41 or Bush the Elder to distinguish him from his eldest son, George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American p ...

George H. W. Bush
to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, but no vote on his nomination was held. Roberts then spent 14 years in private law practice. During this time, he argued 39 cases before the
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...

Supreme Court
. Notably, he represented 19 states in ''
United States v. Microsoft Corp. ''United States v. Microsoft Corporation'', 253 F.3d 34 (D.C. Cir. 2001) is a noted American antitrust law Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies. Comp ...
'' Roberts became a federal judge in 2003, when
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...

President
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the Un ...

George W. Bush
appointed him to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit. During his two-year tenure on the D.C. Circuit, Roberts authored 49 opinions, eliciting two dissents from other judges, and authoring three dissents of his own. In 2005, Bush nominated Roberts to the Supreme Court, initially to be an
associate justice Associate justice or associate judge is the title for a member of a judicial panel who is not the chief justice The chief justice is the Chief judge, presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on Eng ...
to fill the vacancy left by the retirement of Justice
Sandra Day O'Connor Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is an American retired attorney and politician who served as the first female associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States An associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United State ...

Sandra Day O'Connor
. Chief Justice
William Rehnquist William Hubbs Rehnquist ( ; October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the Supreme court, highest court ...

William Rehnquist
died shortly afterward, however, before Roberts's
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
confirmation hearings had begun. Bush then withdrew Roberts's nomination and instead nominated him to become Chief Justice, choosing
Samuel Alito Samuel Anthony Alito Jr. ( ; born April 1, 1950) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was Samuel Alito Supreme Court nomination, nominated by Presiden ...

Samuel Alito
to replace O'Connor.


Early life and education

John Glover Roberts Jr. was born on January 27, 1955, in
Buffalo, New York Buffalo is the second-largest city in the U.S. state In the , a state is a , of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a , each state holds al jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its ...

Buffalo, New York
, the son of Rosemary (''
née __NOTOC__ A birth name is the name of the person given upon their birth. The term may be applied to the surname In some cultures, a surname, family name, or last name is the portion of one's personal name 300px, First/given, middle and l ...
'' Podrasky; 1929–2019) and John Glover "Jack" Roberts Sr. (1928–2008). His father had Irish and Welsh ancestry, and his mother was a descendant of
Slovak Slovak may refer to: * Something from, related to, or belonging to Slovakia (''Slovenská republika'') * Slovaks, a Western Slavic ethnic group * Slovak language, an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages * Slovak, Arkans ...
immigrants from
Szepes
Szepes
, Hungary. He has an elder sister, Kathy, and two younger sisters, Peggy and Barbara. Roberts spent his early childhood years in
Hamburg, New York Hamburg is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and u ...
, where his father worked as an
electrical engineer Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which use electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. It emerged as an identifiable occupation in the l ...

electrical engineer
for the
Bethlehem Steel Corporation The Bethlehem Steel Corporation was an American steel Steel is an alloy of iron with typically a few tenths of a percent of carbon to improve its strength of materials, strength and fracture toughness, fracture resistance compared to iron. M ...

Bethlehem Steel Corporation
at its large factory in Lackawanna. In 1965, ten-year-old Roberts and his family moved to Long Beach, Indiana, where his father became manager of a new steel plant in nearby Burns Harbor. Roberts attended
La Lumiere School La Lumiere School is a college preparatory boarding and day school located on a 190-acre campus in Springfield Township, LaPorte County, Indiana, Springfield Township, LaPorte County, Indiana, United States. About La Lumiere School is affiliated ...
, a small but affluent and academically rigorous Roman Catholic boarding school in
La Porte, Indiana La Porte (French for "The Door") is a city in LaPorte County, Indiana, United States, of which it is the county seat. Its population was estimated to be 21,569 in 2019. It is one of the two principal cities of the Michigan City, Indiana, Michigan ...
, where he was captain of the
football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called ''football'' include (known as ''soccer'' ...

football
team and was a regional champion in
wrestling Wrestling is a combat sport A combat sport, or fighting sport, is a competitive contact sport that usually involves one-on-one combat. In many combat sports, a contestant wins by scoring more points than the opponent or by disabling the oppon ...

wrestling
. He participated in choir and drama, and co-edited the school newspaper. He graduated first in his class in 1973. Roberts entered
Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the History of the Puritans in North America, Puritan cler ...

Harvard University
with sophomore (second-year) standing based on his high achievement in high school, and majored in
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...

history
.
Matthew Continetti Matthew Joseph Continetti (born June 24, 1981) is an American journalist A journalist is an individual trained to collect/gather information in form of text, audio or pictures, processes them to a news-worth form and disseminates it to the publi ...

"John Roberts's Other Papers"
, ''The Weekly Standard'', August 8, 2005
One of his first papers, "
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern society, societies soci ...
and
Bolshevism Bolshevism (from Bolsheviks, Bolshevik) is a revolutionary Marxism, Marxist current of political thought and political regime associated with the formation of a rigidly centralized, cohesive and disciplined party of social revolution, focused on o ...
: Theory and Practice", won Harvard's William Scott Ferguson Prize for most outstanding essay by a sophomore history major, and in his senior year his paper "The Utopian Conservative: A Study of Continuity and Change in the Thought of
Daniel Webster Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782 – October 24, 1852) was an American lawyer and statesman who represented New Hampshire and Massachusetts in the United States Congress, U.S. Congress and served as the United States Secretary of State, U.S. Se ...

Daniel Webster
" won a Bowdoin Prize. Each summer he returned home to earn money working at the steel plant his father managed. He graduated in 1976 with an A.B. ''
summa cum laude Latin honors are a system of Latin phrases used in some colleges and universities to indicate the level of distinction with which an academic degree has been earned. The system is primarily used in the United States. It is also used in some Sou ...

summa cum laude
'' and was elected to
Phi Beta Kappa The Phi Beta Kappa Society () is the oldest academic honor society In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , ...
. Roberts had originally planned to pursue a
Ph.D. A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; or ''doctor philosophiae'') is the most common at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. Be ...
in history but decided to attend
Harvard Law School Harvard Law School (HLS) is the of in . Founded in 1817, it is the oldest continuously operating law school in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the country. Each class in the three-year program has approximately 560 st ...
instead. He became managing editor of the ''
Harvard Law Review The ''Harvard Law Review'' is a law review A law review (or law journal) is a scholarly journal or publication that focuses on a wide array of legal issues. A law review is a type of legal periodical. Typically, the law students initiate the p ...
'', and graduated in 1979 with a
J.D. JD or jd may refer to: Arts and entertainment * JD (film), ''JD'' (film), a 2016 Bollywood film * J.D. (Scrubs), J.D. (''Scrubs''), nickname of Dr. John Dorian, fictional protagonist of the comedy-drama ''Scrubs'' * JD Fenix, a character from t ...
''magna cum laude''.


Early legal career

After law school, Roberts clerked for Judge
Henry Friendly Henry Jacob Friendly (July 3, 1903 – March 11, 1986) was an American lawyer and jurist best known for his tenure as a circuit judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit The United States Court of Appeals for the Second ...
of the
U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (in case citation Case citation is a system used by legal professionals to identify past court case decisions, either in series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral ...
from 1979 to 1980, then for Justice (later
Chief Justice The chief justice is the presiding member of a supreme court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes betwee ...
in 1986)
William Rehnquist William Hubbs Rehnquist ( ; October 1, 1924 – September 3, 2005) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the Supreme court, highest court ...

William Rehnquist
of the
U.S. Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a coun ...

U.S. Supreme Court
from 1980 to 1981. After his clerkships, Roberts began working for the U.S. government in the administration of President
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of ...

Ronald Reagan
, first from 1981 to 1982 as a special assistant to
William French Smith William French Smith II (August 26, 1917 – October 29, 1990) was an American lawyer. He was the 74th United States Attorney General The United States attorney general (AG) leads the United States Department of Justice, and is the chief lawyer ...
, the
U.S. Attorney General The United States attorney general (AG) leads the United States Department of Justice The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a of the government tasked with the enforcement of federal and i ...
, then from 1982 to 1986 as an associate with the
White House Counsel The White House counsel is a senior staff appointee of the president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (pl ...
. He then entered private practice in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscaped ...
, as an associate at the law firm Hogan & Hartson (now
Hogan Lovells Hogan Lovells is an American-British co-headquartered in and It was formed on May 1, 2010 by the merger of the American law firm of Hogan & Hartson and the British law firm Lovells. Hogan Lovells employs about 2,400 lawyers across 40 offices ...
) and worked in the field of
corporate law Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules t ...
. In 1989, Roberts joined the administration of newly elected president
George H. W. Bush George Herbert Walker BushSince around 2000 he was usually called George H. W. Bush, Bush Senior, Bush 41 or Bush the Elder to distinguish him from his eldest son, George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American p ...

George H. W. Bush
as Principal Deputy Solicitor General. He served as the acting solicitor general for the case of '' Metro Broadcasting, Inc. v. FCC'' when the solicitor general,
Ken Starr Kenneth Winston Starr (born July 21, 1946) is an American lawyer who served as a United States circuit judge and 39th solicitor general of the United States. He is best known for heading an investigation of members of the Clinton administratio ...
, had a conflict of interest. In the case, Roberts argued against policies of the
FCC The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different jurisdictions. I ...
intended to increase minority ownership of broadcast licenses, arguing that the racial preferences were unconstitutional. Robert's decision to argue that a federal agency's policy was unconstitutional surprised many lawyers within the Solicitor General's office. In 1992, Bush nominated Roberts to a seat on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, but no Senate vote was held, and Roberts's nomination expired at the end of the 102nd Congress. Following Bush's defeat by
Bill Clinton William Jefferson Clinton ('' né'' Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 42nd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and ...

Bill Clinton
in the 1992 presidential election, Roberts returned to Hogan & Hartson as a partner. He became the head of the firm's appellate practice, and also became an
adjunct professor Adjunct professor (adjunct lecturer, adjunct instructor, adjunct faculty or contingent academic labor collectively) is a type of academic appointment in higher education Higher education is tertiary education Tertiary education, also ref ...
at the
Georgetown University Law Center The Georgetown University Law Center, often known as Georgetown Law, is the law school A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of ind ...
. During this time, Roberts argued 39 cases before the Supreme Court, prevailing in 25 of them. He represented 19 states in ''
United States v. Microsoft ''United States v. Microsoft Corporation'', 253 F.3d 34 (D.C. Cir. 2001) is a noted American antitrust law Competition law is a that promotes or seeks to maintain by regulating conduct by companies. Competition law is implemented through ...
''. Those cases include: During this time he worked
pro bono ''Pro bono publico'' ( en, "for the public good"; usually shortened to ''pro bono'') is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoke ...
for gay rights advocates, reviewing filings and preparing arguments for the 1996 Supreme Court case '' Romer v. Evans'', which was described in 2005 as "the movement's most important legal victory". Roberts's involvement with the case was minimal, as he later stated that he had been involved for less than ten hours in preparing oral arguments. He also argued on behalf of the homeless, in a case which became one of Roberts's "few appellate losses." He also represented, pro bono, a man who was sentenced to death for killing eight people in Florida. During the late 1990s, while working for Hogan & Hartson, Roberts served as a member of the steering committee of the Washington, D.C., chapter of the conservative
Federalist Society The Federalist Society for Law and Public Policy Studies, most frequently called the Federalist Society, is an organization of conservatives and libertarians that advocates for a textualist and originalist interpretation of the United States ...
. In 2000, Roberts advised
Jeb Bush John Ellis "Jeb" Bush (born February 11, 1953) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd Governor of Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of th ...

Jeb Bush
, then
governor of Florida A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, ''governor'' may be t ...
, concerning Bush's actions in the
Florida election recount The Florida election recount of 2000 was a period of election recount, vote recounting in Florida that occurred during the weeks after Election Day (United States), Election Day in the 2000 United States presidential election between George W. ...
during the
presidential election A presidential election is the election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold Public administration, public office. On May 9, 2001, President
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the Un ...

George W. Bush
nominated Roberts to a seat on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit to replace Judge James L. Buckley, who had recently retired. However, the
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
had a majority in the Senate at the time and was in conflict with Bush over his judicial nominees.
Senate Judiciary Committee The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, informally the Senate Judiciary Committee, is a Standing committee (United States Congress), standing committee of 22 U.S. senators whose role is to oversee the United States Department of Jus ...
chairman
Patrick Leahy Patrick Joseph Leahy (; born March 31, 1940) is an American politician and attorney who is the senior Senior (shortened as Sr.) means "the elder" in Latin and is often used Suffix (name)#Generational titles, as a suffix for the elder of two or ...

Patrick Leahy
refused to give Roberts a hearing in the
107th Congress File:Sarbanes bush and chao.jpg, Before the signing ceremony of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act, President George W. Bush met with Senator Paul Sarbanes, U.S. Secretary of Labor, Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao and other dignitaries in the Blue Room ...
. The GOP regained control of the Senate on January 7, 2003, and Bush resubmitted Roberts's nomination that day. Roberts was confirmed on May 8, 2003, and received his commission on June 2, 2003. During his two-year tenure on the D.C. Circuit, Roberts authored 49 opinions, eliciting two dissents from other judges, and authoring three dissents of his own.


Fourth and Fifth amendments

''Hedgepeth v. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority'', 386 F.3d 1148, involved a 12-year-old girl who was arrested, searched, handcuffed, and fingerprinted after she violated a publicly advertised
zero tolerance A zero-tolerance policy is one which imposes a punishment , England Punishment, commonly, is the imposition of an undesirable or suffering, unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority In the fields of sociology ...
"no eating" policy in a
Washington Metro The Washington Metro (or simply Metro), formally the Metrorail, is a rapid transit system serving the Washington metropolitan area of the United States. It is administered by the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA), which ...

Washington Metro
station by eating a single french fry. She was released to her mother three hours later. She sued, alleging that an adult would have only received a citation for the same offense, while children must be detained until parents are notified. The D.C. Circuit unanimously affirmed the district court's dismissal of the girl's lawsuit, which was predicated on alleged violations of the Fourth Amendment (unreasonable search and seizure) and Fifth Amendment (equal protection). "No one is very happy about the events that led to this litigation," Roberts wrote. Because age discrimination is evaluated using a
rational basisIn United States Constitution, U.S. constitutional law, rational basis review is the normal standard of review that courts apply when considering constitutional questions, including Due Process of Law, due process or Equal Protection, equal protectio ...
test, however, only weak state interests were required to justify the policy, and the panel concluded they were present. "Because parents and guardians play an essential role in that rehabilitative process, it is reasonable for the District to seek to ensure their participation, and the method chosen—detention until the parent is notified and retrieves the child—certainly does that, in a way issuing a citation might not." The court concluded that the policy and detention were constitutional, noting that "the question before us ... is not whether these policies were a bad idea, but whether they violated the Fourth and Fifth amendments to the Constitution," language reminiscent of Justice
Potter Stewart Potter Stewart (January 23, 1915 – December 7, 1985) was an American lawyer and judge who served as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court An associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is any member of the S ...
's dissent in ''
Griswold v. Connecticut ''Griswold v. Connecticut'', 381 U.S. 479 (1965), was a landmark decision Landmark court decisions, in present-day common law legal systems, establish precedents that determine a significant new legal principle or concept, or otherwise substantia ...
''. "We are not asked in this case to say whether we think this law is unwise, or even asinine," Stewart had written; " are asked to hold that it violates the United States Constitution. And that, I cannot do."


Military tribunals

In '' Hamdan v. Rumsfeld'', Roberts was part of a unanimous circuit panel overturning the district court ruling and upholding
military tribunal Military justice (or military law) is the body of laws and procedures governing members of the armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare ...
s set up by the Bush administration for trying
terrorism Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is the use of intentional violence to achieve political aims. The term is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the ...
suspects known as enemy combatants. Circuit judge A. Raymond Randolph, writing for the court, ruled that
Salim Ahmed Hamdan Salim Ahmed Hamdan () (born February 25, 1968) is a Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital Yemeni ...
, a driver for al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, could be tried by a military court because: # the military commission had the approval of the United States Congress; # the Third Geneva Convention is a treaty between nations and as such it does not confer individual rights and remedies enforceable in U.S. courts; # even if the convention could be enforced in U.S. courts, it would not be of assistance to Hamdan at the time because, for a conflict such as the War on Terror, war against Al-Qaeda (considered by the court as a separate war from that against Afghanistan itself) that is not between two countries, it guarantees only a certain standard of judicial procedure without speaking to the jurisdiction in which the prisoner must be tried. The court held open the possibility of judicial review of the results of the military commission after the current proceedings ended. This decision was overturned on June 29, 2006, by the Supreme Court in a 5–3 decision, with Roberts not participating due to his prior participation in the case as a circuit judge.


Environmental regulation

Roberts wrote a dissent in ''Rancho Viejo, LLC v. Norton''
323 F.3d 1062
a case involving the protection of a rare California toad under the Endangered Species Act. When the court denied a rehearing en banc
334 F.3d 1158
(D.C. Cir. 2003), Roberts dissented, arguing that the panel opinion was inconsistent with ''United States v. Lopez'' and ''United States v. Morrison'' in that it incorrectly focused on whether the ''regulation'' substantially affects Commerce Clause, interstate commerce rather than on whether the regulated ''activity'' does. In Roberts's view, the Commerce Clause of the Constitution did not permit the government to regulate activity affecting what he called "a hapless toad" that "for reasons of its own, lives its entire life in California." He said that reviewing the panel decision would allow the court "alternative grounds for sustaining application of the Act that may be more consistent with Supreme Court precedent."


Appointment to Supreme Court

On July 19, 2005, George W. Bush Supreme Court candidates, President Bush nominated Roberts to the U.S. Supreme Court to fill a vacancy to be created by the retirement of Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, Justice
Sandra Day O'Connor Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is an American retired attorney and politician who served as the first female associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States An associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United State ...

Sandra Day O'Connor
, the first female on the Supreme Court. It was the first Supreme Court nomination since Stephen Breyer in 1994. While Roberts's confirmation was pending before the Senate, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist died on September 3, 2005. Two days later, Bush withdrew Roberts's nomination as O'Connor's successor and announced Roberts's new nomination as chief justice.


Roberts's testimony on his jurisprudence

During his confirmation hearings, Roberts said that he did not have a comprehensive jurisprudential philosophy, and he did "not think beginning with an all-encompassing approach to constitutional interpretation is the best way to faithfully construe the document." Roberts analogized judges to baseball umpires: "[I]t's my job to call balls and strikes, and not to pitch or bat." Among the issues he discussed during the hearings were:


Commerce Clause

In Senate hearings, Roberts has stated:


Federalism

Roberts stated the following about Federalism in the United States, federalism in a 1999 radio interview:


Reviewing Acts of Congress

At a Senate hearing, Roberts stated:


''Stare decisis''

On the subject of ''stare decisis'', referring to ''Brown v. Board of Education, Brown v. Board'', the decision overturning school Racial segregation, segregation, Roberts said that "the Court in that case, of course, overruled a prior decision. I don't think that constitutes judicial activism because obviously if the decision is wrong, it should be overruled. That's not activism. That's applying the law correctly."


''Roe v. Wade''

While working as a lawyer for the Reagan administration, Roberts wrote legal memos defending administration policies on abortion. At his nomination hearing Roberts testified that the legal memos represented the views of the administration he was representing at the time and not necessarily his own. "Senator, I was a staff lawyer; I didn't have a position," Roberts said. As a lawyer in the George H. W. Bush administration, Roberts signed a legal brief urging the court to overturn ''Roe v. Wade''. In private meetings with senators before his confirmation, Roberts testified that ''Roe'' was settled law, but added that it was subject to the legal principle of ''stare decisis,'' meaning that while the Court must give some weight to the precedent, it was not legally bound to uphold it. In his Senate testimony, Roberts said that, while sitting on the Circuit Court, Appellate Court, he had an obligation to respect precedents established by the Supreme Court, including the right to an abortion. He stated: "''Roe v. Wade'' is the settled law of the land. ... There is nothing in my personal views that would prevent me from fully and faithfully applying that precedent, as well as ''Planned Parenthood v. Casey, Casey''." Following the traditional reluctance of nominees to indicate which way they might vote on an issue likely to come before the Supreme Court, he did not explicitly say whether he would vote to overturn either, however, Jeffrey Rosen (legal academic), Jeffrey Rosen adds "I wouldn't bet on Chief Justice Roberts's siding unequivocally with the anti-Roe forces."


Confirmation

On September 22, the
Senate Judiciary Committee The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, informally the Senate Judiciary Committee, is a Standing committee (United States Congress), standing committee of 22 U.S. senators whose role is to oversee the United States Department of Jus ...
approved Roberts's nomination by a vote of 13–5, with Senators Ted Kennedy, Dick Durbin, Richard Durbin, Charles Schumer, Joe Biden and Dianne Feinstein voting against. Roberts was confirmed by the full Senate on September 29 by a margin of 78–22. All Republicans and the one Independent voted for Roberts; the Democrats split evenly, 22–22. Roberts was confirmed by what was, historically, a narrow margin for a Supreme Court justice. However, all subsequent confirmation votes have been even more narrow.


U.S. Supreme Court

Roberts took the United States Constitution, Constitutional oath of office#United States, oath of office, administered by Associate Justice John Paul Stevens at the White House, on September 29, 2005. On October 3, he took the judicial oath provided for by the Judiciary Act of 1789 at the United States Supreme Court building. Justice Antonin Scalia said that Roberts "pretty much run[s] the show the same way" as Rehnquist, albeit "let[ting] people go on a little longer at conference ... but [he'll] get over that." Roberts has been portrayed as a consistent advocate for conservative principles by analysts such as Jeffrey Toobin. Garrett Epps has described Roberts's prose as "crystalline, vivid, and often humorous". Seventh Circuit judge Diane Sykes, surveying Roberts's first term on the court, concluded that his jurisprudence "appears to be strongly rooted in the discipline of traditional legal method, evincing a fidelity to text, structure, history, and the constitutional hierarchy. He exhibits the restraint that flows from the careful application of established decisional rules and the practice of reasoning from the case law. He appears to place great stock in the process-oriented tools and doctrinal rules that guard against the aggregation of judicial power and keep judicial discretion in check: jurisdictional limits, structural federalism, textualism, and the procedural rules that govern the scope of judicial review." Roberts has been said to operate under an approach of judicial minimalism in his decisions, having stated, "[i]f it is not necessary to decide more to a case, then in my view it is necessary not to decide more to a case." His decision making and leadership demonstrates an intent to preserve the Court's power and legitimacy while dually maintaining judicial independence. Roberts was ranked 50th in the 2016 Forbes ranking of "The World's Most Powerful People." In November 2018, the Associated Press approached Roberts for comment after President Donald Trump described a Jon S. Tigar, jurist who ruled against his asylum policy as an "Obama judge". In response, Roberts asserted that " do not have Obama judges or Trump judges, Bush judges or Clinton judges. What we have is an extraordinary group of dedicated judges doing their level best to do equal right to those appearing before them." His remarks were widely interpreted as a rebuke of President Trump's comments. As Chief Justice, Roberts presided over the First impeachment trial of Donald Trump, impeachment trial of Donald Trump, which began on January 16 and ended on February 5, 2020.


Early decisions

On January 17, 2006, Roberts dissented along with Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas in ''Gonzales v. Oregon'', which held that the Controlled Substances Act does not allow the United States Attorney General, United States attorney general to prohibit physicians from prescribing drugs for the assisted suicide of the terminally ill as permitted by an Oregon law. The point of contention in the case was largely one of statutory interpretation, not federalism. On March 6, 2006, Roberts wrote the unanimous decision in ''Rumsfeld v. Forum for Academic and Institutional Rights'' that colleges accepting federal money must allow military recruiters on campus, despite university objections to the Presidency of Bill Clinton, Clinton administration-initiated "don't ask, don't tell" policy.


Campaign finance

Following his concurrence in ''Citizens United v. FEC'' (2010), Roberts wrote the majority decision for another landmark campaign finance case called ''McCutcheon v. FEC'' (2014). In ''McCutcheon'' the court ruled that "aggregate limits" on the combined amount a donor could give to various federal candidates or party committees violated the First Amendment.


Fourth Amendment

Roberts wrote his first dissent in ''Georgia v. Randolph'' (2006). The majority's decision prohibited police from searching a home if both occupants are present but one objected and the other consented. Roberts criticized the majority opinion as inconsistent with prior case law and for partly basing its reasoning on its perception of social custom. He said the social expectation test was flawed because the Fourth Amendment protects a legitimate expectation of privacy, not social expectations. In ''Utah v. Strieff'' (2016), Roberts joined the majority in ruling (5–3) that a person with an outstanding arrest warrant, warrant may be arrested and searched, and that any evidence discovered based on that search is admissible in court; the majority opinion held that this remains true even when police act unlawfully by stopping a person without reasonable suspicion, before learning of the existence of the outstanding warrant. In ''Carpenter v. United States'', a landmark decision involving privacy of cellular phone data, Roberts wrote the majority opinion in a 5–4 ruling that searches of cellular phone data generally require a warrant.


Notice and opportunity to be heard

Although Roberts has often sided with Scalia and Thomas, he also provided a crucial vote against their mutual position in ''Jones v. Flowers'', siding with liberal justices of the court in ruling that, before a home is seized and sold in a tax-forfeiture sale, due diligence must be demonstrated and proper notification needs to be sent to the owners. Dissenting justices were
Anthony Kennedy Anthony McLeod Kennedy (born July 23, 1936) is a retired American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the Supreme court, highe ...
, Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas, while Roberts's opinion was joined by David Souter, Stephen Breyer, John Paul Stevens and Ruth Bader Ginsburg.
Samuel Alito Samuel Anthony Alito Jr. ( ; born April 1, 1950) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was Samuel Alito Supreme Court nomination, nominated by Presiden ...

Samuel Alito
did not participate.


Abortion

On the Supreme Court, Roberts has indicated he supports some abortion restrictions. In ''Gonzales v. Carhart'' (2007), he voted with the majority to uphold the constitutionality of the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act. Justice
Anthony Kennedy Anthony McLeod Kennedy (born July 23, 1936) is a retired American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the Supreme court, highe ...
, writing for a five-justice majority, distinguished ''Stenberg v. Carhart'', and concluded that the court's previous decision in ''Planned Parenthood v. Casey'' did not prevent Congress from banning the procedure. The decision left the door open for future as-applied challenges, and did not address the broader question of whether Congress had the authority to pass the law. Justice Clarence Thomas filed a concurring opinion, contending that the Court's prior decisions in ''Roe v. Wade'' and ''Casey'' should be reversed; Roberts declined to join that opinion. In 2018, Roberts and Brett Kavanaugh joined four more liberal justices in declining to hear a case brought by the states of Louisiana and Kansas to deny Medicaid funding to Planned Parenthood, thereby letting stand lower court rulings in favor of Planned Parenthood. Roberts also joined with liberal justices in 5–4 decisions temporarily blocking a Louisiana Types of abortion restrictions in the United States, abortion restriction (2019) and later striking down that law (''June Medical Services, LLC v. Russo'', 2020). The law at issue in ''June'' was similar to one the court struck down in ''Whole Woman's Health v. Hellerstedt'' (2016), which Roberts had voted to uphold; in his ''June'' opinion, Roberts wrote that while he believed ''Whole Woman's Health'' was wrongly decided he was joining the majority in ''June'' out of respect for ''stare decisis''. It was the first time in his 15 years on the Supreme Court that Roberts had cast a vote to invalidate a law that regulated abortion. In September 2021, the Supreme Court declined an emergency petition to temporarily block a Texas Heartbeat Act, Texas law banning abortion after six weeks of pregnancy; in a 5–4 vote, Roberts joined Breyer, Sotomayor, and Kagan in the minority.


Capital punishment

On November 4, 2016, Roberts was the deciding vote in a 5–3 decision to stay an execution. On February 7, 2019, Roberts was part of the majority in a 5–4 decision rejecting a Muslim inmate's request to delay execution in order to have an imam present with him during the execution. Also, in February 2019, Roberts sided with Justice Kavanaugh and the court's four liberal justices in a 6–3 decision to block the execution of a man with an "intellectual disability" in Texas.


Equal Protection Clause

Roberts opposes the use of race in assigning students to particular schools, including for purposes such as maintaining integrated schools. He sees such plans as discrimination in violation of the constitution's Equal Protection Clause and ''Brown v. Board of Education''. In ''Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1'', the court considered two voluntarily adopted school district plans that relied on race to determine which schools certain children may attend. The court had held in ''Brown'' that "racial discrimination in public education is unconstitutional," and later, that "racial classifications, imposed by whatever federal, state, or local governmental actor, ... are constitutional only if they are narrowly tailored measures that further compelling governmental interests," and that this "[n]arrow tailoring ... require[s] serious, good faith consideration of workable race-neutral alternatives." Roberts cited these cases in writing for the ''Parents Involved'' majority, concluding that the school districts had "failed to show that they considered methods other than explicit racial classifications to achieve their stated goals." In a section of the opinion joined by four other Justices, Roberts added that "[t]he way to stop discrimination on the basis of race is to stop discriminating on the basis of race."


Free speech

Roberts authored the 2007 student free speech case ''Morse v. Frederick'', ruling that a student in a public school-sponsored activity does not have the right to advocate Recreational drug use, drug use on the basis that the right to free speech does not invariably prevent the exercise of school discipline. On April 20, 2010, in ''United States v. Stevens'', the Supreme Court struck down an animal cruelty law. Roberts, writing for an 8–1 majority, found that a federal statute criminalizing the commercial production, sale, or possession of depictions of cruelty to animals, was an unconstitutional abridgment of the First Amendment right to freedom of speech. The Court held that the statute was substantially overbroad; for example, it could allow prosecutions for selling photos of out-of-season hunting.


Health care reform

On June 28, 2012, Roberts delivered the majority opinion in ''
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius ''National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius'', 567 U.S. 519 (2012), was a landmark United States Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States ...
'', which upheld the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act by a 5–4 vote. The Court indicated that although the "individual mandate" component of the Act could not be upheld under the Commerce Clause, the mandate could be construed as a tax and was therefore ruled to be valid under U. S. Congress, Congress's authority to "lay and collect taxes." The Court overturned a portion of the law related to the withholding of funds from states that did not comply with the expansion of Medicaid; Roberts wrote that "Congress is not free ... to penalize states that choose not to participate in that new program by taking away their existing Medicaid funding." Sources within the Supreme Court state that Roberts switched his vote regarding the individual mandate sometime after an initial vote and that Roberts largely wrote both the majority and minority opinions. This extremely unusual circumstance has also been used to explain why the minority opinion was also unsigned, itself a rare phenomenon from the Supreme Court.


Comparison to other Court members

Although Roberts is identified as having a conservative judicial philosophy, Roberts is seen as having a more moderate conservative orientation, particularly when ''Bush v. Gore'' is compared to Roberts's vote for the ACA. His vote in ''
National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius ''National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius'', 567 U.S. 519 (2012), was a landmark United States Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States ...
'' to uphold the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) caused the press to contrast him with the William Rehnquist, Rehnquist court. Roberts's judicial philosophy is seen as more moderate and conciliatory than Antonin Scalia's and Clarence Thomas'. He wishes more consensus from the Court. Roberts's voting pattern is most closely aligned to
Samuel Alito Samuel Anthony Alito Jr. ( ; born April 1, 1950) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was Samuel Alito Supreme Court nomination, nominated by Presiden ...

Samuel Alito
's.


LGBT rights

In 2013, Roberts wrote the 5–4 majority opinion that the appellants seeking to uphold California Proposition 8 (2008), Proposition 8 in California, which was ruled unconstitutional by lower courts, did not have standing and the lower courts' rulings were allowed to stand and same-sex marriages resumed in California. Roberts dissented in ''United States v. Windsor'' in which the 5-4 majority ruled that key parts of the Defense of Marriage Act were unconstitutional. The case stated the federal government must recognize same-sex marriages that have been approved by certain states. He dissented in the ''Obergefell v. Hodges'' case in which Kennedy wrote for the majority, again 5–4, that same-sex couples had a right to marry. In ''Pavan v. Smith'', the Supreme Court "summarily overruled" the Arkansas Supreme Court's decision that the state did not have to list same-sex spouses on birth certificates thus siding with same-sex couples who filed the lawsuit; Clarence Thomas, Samuel Alito, and Neil Gorsuch dissented but Roberts did not join their dissent leaving open speculation that he might have ruled with the majority. In the cases of ''Bostock v. Clayton County, Altitude Express, Inc. v. Zarda,'' and ''R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes Inc. v. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission'' (2020), heard together, Roberts ruled with the 6–3 majority deciding that businesses cannot discriminate against LGBT people in matters of employment. In October 2020, Roberts joined the justices in an "apparently unanimous" decision to reject an appeal from Kim Davis, who refused to provide marriage licenses to same-sex couples. In June 2021, Roberts joined the justices in a unanimous decision in favor of a Catholic adoption agency which had been denied a contract by the City of Philadelphia for its policy refusing to adopt to same-sex couples; he was also part of the majority that declined to reconsider or overturn the ''Employment Division v. Smith'', "an important precedent limiting First Amendment protections for religious practices." Also in 2021, he was one of the six justices who declined to hear an appeal by a Washington State florist who refused service to a same-sex couple based on her religious beliefs against same-sex marriage; because four votes are required to hear a case, the lower court judgements against the florist remain in place. In November 2021, Roberts voted with the majority of justices in a 6–3 decision to reject an appeal from Mercy San Juan Medical Center, a hospital affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church, which had sought to deny a hysterectomy to a transgender patient on religious grounds. Justices Thomas, Alito, and Gorsuch dissented; because four votes are required to hear an appeal, the vote to reject the appeal left in place a lower court ruling in favor of the transgender patient.


Voting Rights Act

During his tenure as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Roberts has helped to dismantle voting rights protections provided by the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Voting Rights Act. In the 2013 decision, '' Shelby County v. Holder'', Roberts struck down requirements that states and localities with a history of racially motivated voter suppression obtain federal preclearance before implementing any changes to voting laws. Research shows that preclearance had led to increases in minority congressional representation and minority turnout. Five years after the ruling, nearly 1,000 U.S. polling places had closed, many of them in predominantly African-American counties. There were also cuts to early voting, purges of voter rolls and imposition of strict voter ID laws. A 2020 study found that jurisdictions that had previously been covered by preclearance substantially increased their voter registration purges after the ''Shelby'' decision. Virtually all restrictions on voting subsequent to the ruling were enacted by Republican Party (United States), Republicans.


Personal life

Roberts and his wife, Jane Sullivan, have been married since 1996. Sullivan is a lawyer who became a prominent legal recruiter at the firms of Major, Lindsey & Africa and Mlegal. Along with Clarence Thomas, she is on the board of trustees at her alma mater, the College of the Holy Cross. The couple have two adopted children: John "Jack" and Josephine "Josie". Roberts is one of 15 Catholic justices—out of 115 justices total—in the history of the Supreme Court. Of those fifteen justices, six (Roberts, Clarence Thomas,
Samuel Alito Samuel Anthony Alito Jr. ( ; born April 1, 1950) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was Samuel Alito Supreme Court nomination, nominated by Presiden ...

Samuel Alito
, Sonia Sotomayor, Brett Kavanaugh, and Amy Coney Barrett) are currently serving.


Health

In 2007, Roberts had a seizure at his vacation home in St. George, Maine and stayed overnight at a hospital in Rockport, Maine; doctors found no identifiable cause. Roberts had suffered a similar seizure in 1993 but an official Supreme Court statement said that a neurological evaluation "revealed no cause for concern." Federal judges are not required by law to release information about their health. On June 21, 2020, Roberts fell at a Maryland country club; his forehead required surgical suture, sutures and he stayed overnight in the hospital for observation. Doctors ruled out a seizure and believed dehydration had made Roberts light-headed.


Finances

According to a disclosure Roberts submitted to the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Senate Judiciary Committee prior to his Supreme Court confirmation hearings, Roberts's net worth was more than $6 million, including $1.6 million in stocks. In joining the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals in 2003, he took a pay cut from $1 million a year to $171,800; as Chief Justice his salary is $255,500 as of 2014. In 2010, Roberts sold his stock in Pfizer, thereby making it ethical for him to participate in two pending cases involving Pfizer.


Published works

* Section III ("The Takings Clause") of the unsigned student note "Developments in the Law: Zoning" (pp. 1427–1708). * Subsection C ("Contract Clause—Legislative Alteration of Private Pension Agreements: Allied Structural Steel Co. v. Spannaus") of Section I ("Constitutional Law") of the unsigned student note "The Supreme Court, 1977 Term" (pp. 1–339). * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


See also

* Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States * List of justices of the Supreme Court of the United States * List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States * List of United States chief justices by time in office * List of United States Supreme Court justices by time in office * List of United States Supreme Court cases by the Roberts Court, United States Supreme Court cases decided by the Roberts Court


References


Sources

*


Further reading

News articles * Argetsinger, Amy, and Jo Becker. "The nominee as a young pragmatist: under Reagan, Roberts tackled tough issues." ''Washington Post''. July 22, 2005. * Becker, Jo, and R. Jeffrey Smith. "Record of accomplishment—and some contradictions". ''The Washington Post''. July 20, 2005. * Goodnough, Abby. "Nominee Gave Quiet Advice on Recount" New York Times. July 21, 2005. * Lane, Charles. "Federalist affiliation misstated: Roberts does not belong to group." ''Washington Post''. July 21, 2005. * Lane, Charles. "Short record as judge is under a microscope." ''Washington Post''. July 21, 2005. * "Colleagues call high court nominee a smart, self-effacing 'Eagle Scout (Boy Scouts of America), Eagle Scout'." New York Times. July 20, 2005.


Government/official biographies

* John G. Roberts Questionnaire for Appeals Court Confirmation Hearing (p. 297–339) and responses to Questions from Various Senators (p. 443–461) Other * "John G. Roberts Jr." Oyez. * "John G. Roberts federal campaign contributions." Newsmeat.com. July 19, 2005. * Joel K. Goldstein, "Not Hearing History: A Critique of Chief Justice Roberts's Reinterpretation of ''Brown''," 69 Ohio St. L.J. 791 (2008).


External links

* * *
Appearances at the U.S. Supreme Court
from the Oyez Project
Issue positions and quotes
at OnTheIssues
Judge Roberts's Published Opinions in a searchable database


at About.com



from The Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press, July 21, 2005
SCOTUSblog



On first day, Roberts sets no-nonsense tone
– ''The Boston Globe'' , - , - {{DEFAULTSORT:Roberts, John 1955 births 20th-century American lawyers 21st-century American lawyers 21st-century American judges American people of Czech descent American people of Irish descent American people of Welsh descent Catholics from Indiana Catholics from Maine Chief Justices of the United States Federalist Society members George H. W. Bush administration personnel Georgetown University Law Center faculty Harvard College alumni Harvard Law School alumni Judges of the United States Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit La Lumiere School alumni Law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States Lawyers from Buffalo, New York Lawyers from Washington, D.C. Lawyers who have represented the United States government Living people People associated with Hogan Lovells People from LaPorte County, Indiana People from St. George, Maine People with epilepsy Reagan administration personnel Time 100 United States court of appeals judges appointed by George W. Bush United States Department of Justice lawyers United States federal judges appointed by George W. Bush