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John Locke (; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of
Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * Age of Enlightenment, period in Western intellectual history from the late 17th to late 18th century, centered in France but also encompassing: ** Midlands Enlightenment ...
thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of
Liberalism Liberalism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between individuals, ...

Liberalism
". Considered one of the first of the British
empiricists In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, ...
, following the tradition of Sir
Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (; 22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626), also known as Lord Verulam, was an English philosopher and statesman who served as Attorney General for England and Wales, Attorney General and as Lord Chancellor of K ...

Francis Bacon
, Locke is equally important to
social contract In moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
theory. His work greatly affected the development of
epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the concerned with . Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic , the of , and various related issues. Epistemology is considered a major subfield of philosophy, along with other major ...

epistemology
and
political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or un ...

political philosophy
. His writings influenced
Voltaire François-Marie Arouet (; 21 November 169430 May 1778), known by his ''nom de plume A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a ...

Voltaire
and
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, , ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Republic of Geneva, Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment throughout Europe, as w ...

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
, and many
Scottish Enlightenment The Scottish Enlightenment ( sco, Scots Enlichtenment, gd, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th- and early-19th-century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments. By the eighteenth century ...
thinkers, as well as the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colo ...
aries. His contributions to
classical republicanism Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism Republicanism is a political ideology centered on citizenship in a state (polity), state organized as a republic. Historically, it ranges f ...
and liberal theory are reflected in the
United States Declaration of Independence The United States Declaration of Independence is the pronouncement adopted by the Second Continental Congress The Second Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies in America which united in the American Re ...

United States Declaration of Independence
. Internationally, Locke’s political-legal principles continue to have a profound influence on the theory and practice of limited representative government and the protection of basic rights and freedoms under the rule of law. Locke's
theory of mind In psychology Psychology is the scientific Science (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ar ...

theory of mind
is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of ''identity'' and the ''self'', figuring prominently in the work of later philosophers such as
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, , ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Republic of Geneva, Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment throughout Europe, as w ...

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
,
David Hume David Hume (; born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) Cranston, Maurice, and Thomas Edmund Jessop. 2020 999999 or triple nine most often refers to: * 999 (emergency telephone number) 250px, A sign on a beach ...

David Hume
, and
Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (, , ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about r ...

Immanuel Kant
. Locke was the first to define the ''self'' through a continuity of
consciousness Consciousness, at its simplest, is or of internal and external existence. Despite millennia of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosophers and scientists, consciousness remains puzzling and controversial, being "at once t ...

consciousness
. He postulated that, at birth, the
mind The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental phenomena A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or event. The term came into its modern philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fun ...

mind
was a blank slate, or ''
tabula rasa ''Tabula rasa'' (; "blank slate") is the theory that individuals are born without built-in mental content The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental phenomena A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or ev ...
''. Contrary to
Cartesian
Cartesian
philosophy based on pre-existing concepts, he maintained that we are born without
innate ideas Innatism is a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, ...
, and that
knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ...
is instead determined only by experience derived from
sense A sense is a biological system used by an organism for sensation, the process of gathering information about the world and responding to Stimulus (physiology), stimuli. (For example, in the human body, the brain receives signals from the senses ...

sense
perception Perception (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the powe ...

perception
, a concept now known as ''
empiricism In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all th ...
''. Demonstrating the ideology of science in his observations, whereby something must be capable of being tested repeatedly and that nothing is exempt from being disproved, Locke stated that "whatever I write, as soon as I discover it not to be true, my hand shall be the forwardest to throw it into the fire". Such is one example of Locke's belief in empiricism.


Early life

Locke was born on 29 August 1632, in a small thatched
cottage A cottage, during Feudalism in England, England's feudal period, was the holding by a cottager (known as a cotter or ''bordar'') of a small house with enough garden to feed a family and in return for the cottage, the cottager had to provide so ...

cottage
by the church in
Wrington Wrington is a village and a civil parish, civil and ecclesiastical parish on the north slopes of the Mendip Hills in North Somerset, England. Both include nearby Redhill, Somerset, Redhill. Wrington lies in the valley of the Congresbury Yeo river ...

Wrington
, Somerset, about 12 miles from
Bristol Bristol () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routle ...

Bristol
. He was
baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian rite of initiation, admission and Adoption (theology), adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. It may be pe ...

baptised
the same day, as both of his parents were
Puritans The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jes ...
. Locke's father, also called John, was an attorney who served as clerk to the
Justices of the Peace A justice of the peace (JP) is a judicial officer A judicial officer is a person with the responsibilities and powers to facilitate, arbitrate, preside over, and make decisions and directions in regard to the application of the law. Judicial ...
in
Chew Magna Chew Magna is a village and civil parish within the Chew Valley in the Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority of Bath and North East Somerset, in the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of Somerset, England. The parish ha ...
and as a captain of
cavalry Historically, cavalry (from the French word ''cavalerie'', itself derived from "cheval" meaning "horse") are soldier A soldier is a person who is a member of a professional army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via O ...

cavalry
for the
ParliamentarianParliamentarian has two principal meanings. First, it may refer to a member or supporter of a Parliament, as in: *Member of parliament *Roundhead, supporter of the parliamentary cause in the English Civil War Second, in countries that do not refe ...
forces during the early part of the
English Civil War The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of Kingdom of England, England's governance and issues of re ...
. His mother was Agnes Keene. Soon after Locke's birth, the family moved to the
market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and p ...
of
Pensford Pensford is the largest village in the civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of Parish (administrative division), administrative parish used for Local government in England, local government. It is a territorial designation whic ...
, about seven miles south of Bristol, where Locke grew up in a rural
Tudor Tudor most commonly refers to: * House of Tudor, English royal house of Welsh origins ** Tudor period, a historical era in England coinciding with the rule of the Tudor dynasty Tudor may also refer to: Architecture * Tudor architecture, the fi ...
house in
Belluton Belluton is a village in Somerset, England. It is in the district of Bath and North East Somerset and is located due south of the city of Bristol and due west of the city of Bath, Somerset, Bath. The eastern end of the village is defined by the A3 ...
. In 1647, Locke was sent to the prestigious
Westminster School (God Gives the Increase) , established = Earliest records date from the 14th century, refounded in 1560 , type = Public school (United Kingdom), Public school Independent school (United Kingdom), Independent day school, day and b ...
in London under the sponsorship of
Alexander Popham File:Littlecote House 01.jpg, Littlecote House, Wiltshire, the seat of the Popham family Alexander Popham (1605–1669) of Littlecote House, Littlecote, Wiltshire, was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons of England, House of Co ...
, a member of Parliament and John Sr.'s former commander. After completing studies there, he was admitted to
Christ Church Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yeshua, Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jews, Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figu ...

Christ Church
,
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...
, in the autumn of 1652 at the age of 20. The dean of the college at the time was John Owen, vice-chancellor of the university. Although a capable student, Locke was irritated by the undergraduate curriculum of the time. He found the works of modern philosophers, such as
René Descartes René Descartes ( or ; ; Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s ...

René Descartes
, more interesting than the
classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architecture derived from Greek and ...

classical
material taught at the university. Through his friend Richard Lower, whom he knew from the Westminster School, Locke was introduced to medicine and the
experimental philosophy Experimental philosophy is an emerging field of philosophical inquiry Edmonds, David and Warburton, NigelPhilosophy’s great experiment ''Prospect'', March 1, 2009 that makes use of empirical data—often gathered through surveys which probe the ...

experimental philosophy
being pursued at other universities and in the
Royal Society The Royal Society, formally The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exis ...
, of which he eventually became a member. Locke was awarded a
bachelor's degree A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...
in February 1656 and a
master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of Profession, professio ...
in June 1658. He obtained a
bachelor of medicine Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in la, Medicinae Baccalaureus Baccalaureus Chirurgiae (abbreviated in many ways, e.g. MBBS, MB ChB, MB BCh, MB BChir (Cantab), BM BCh (Oxon), BMBS), are the two bachelor degrees in medicine and su ...
in February 1675, having studied the subject extensively during his time at Oxford and, in addition to Lower, worked with such noted scientists and thinkers as
Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (; 25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish Anglo-Irish () is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a group ...

Robert Boyle
,
Thomas Willis Thomas Willis FRS (27 January 1621 – 11 November 1675) was an English doctor who played an important part in the history of anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structu ...

Thomas Willis
and
Robert Hooke Robert Hooke FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Resources ...
. In 1666, he met Anthony Ashley Cooper, Lord Ashley, who had come to Oxford seeking treatment for a
liver The liver is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's t ...

liver
infection. Ashley was impressed with Locke and persuaded him to become part of his retinue.


Career


Work

Locke had been looking for a career and in 1667 moved into Ashley's home at Exeter House in London, to serve as his personal physician. In London, Locke resumed his medical studies under the tutelage of
Thomas Sydenham Thomas Sydenham (10 September 1624 – 29 December 1689) was an English physician A physician (American English), medical practitioner (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English), medical doctor, or simply doctor, is a ...

Thomas Sydenham
. Sydenham had a major effect on Locke's natural philosophical thinkingan effect that would become evident in ''
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding ''An Essay Concerning Human Understanding'' is a work by John Locke John Locke (; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thin ...
.'' Locke's medical knowledge was put to the test when Ashley's liver infection became life-threatening. Locke coordinated the advice of several physicians and was probably instrumental in persuading Ashley to undergo surgery (then life-threatening itself) to remove the cyst. Ashley survived and prospered, crediting Locke with saving his life. During this time, Locke served as Secretary of the
Board of Trade The Board of Trade is a British government body concerned with commerce and industry, currently within the Department for International Trade. Its full title is The Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of a ...
and Plantations and Secretary to the
Lords Proprietor A lord proprietor is a person granted a royal charter A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative The royal prerogative is a body of customary authority, privilege and immunity, recognized in common law ...
s of Carolina, which helped to shape his ideas on international trade and economics. Ashley, as a founder of the
Whig Whig or Whigs may refer to: Parties and factions In the British Isles * A pejorative nickname for the Kirk Party The Kirk Party were a radical Presbyterian faction of the Scotland, Scottish Covenanters during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ...
movement, exerted great influence on Locke's political ideas. Locke became involved in politics when Ashley became
Lord Chancellor The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest-ranking among the Great Officers of State In the United Kingdom, the Great Officers of State are traditional ministers of The Crown who either inheri ...
in 1672 (Ashley being created
1st Earl of Shaftesbury
1st Earl of Shaftesbury
in 1673). Following Shaftesbury's fall from favour in 1675, Locke spent some time travelling across France as a tutor and medical attendant to Caleb Banks. He returned to England in 1679 when Shaftesbury's political fortunes took a brief positive turn. Around this time, most likely at Shaftesbury's prompting, Locke composed the bulk of the ''
Two Treatises of Government ''Two Treatises of Government'' (or ''Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and Overthrown. The Latter Is an Essay Concerning The True Original, ...
''. While it was once thought that Locke wrote the ''Treatises'' to defend the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
of 1688, recent scholarship has shown that the work was composed well before this date. The work is now viewed as a more general argument against
absolute monarchy Absolute monarchy (or absolutism as doctrine) is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme autocracy, autocratic authority, principally not being restricted by written laws, legislature, or customs. These are often hereditary monar ...
(particularly as espoused by
Robert Filmer Sir Robert Filmer (c. 1588 – 26 May 1653) was an English political theorist who defended the divine right of kings The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of political legitima ...

Robert Filmer
and
Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes ( ; sometimes known as Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679) was an , considered to be one of the founders of modern . Hobbes is best known for his 1651 book ', in which he expounds an influential form ...
) and for individual consent as the basis of
political legitimacy In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, suc ...
. Although Locke was associated with the influential Whigs, his ideas about
natural rights Natural rights and legal rights are two types of rights. * Natural rights are those that are not dependent on the laws or customs of any particular culture or government, and so are ''universal'', ''fundamental Fundamental may refer to: * Found ...
and government are today considered quite revolutionary for that period in English history.


The Netherlands

Locke fled to the
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
in 1683, under strong suspicion of involvement in the
Rye House Plot The Rye House Plot of 1683 was a plan to assassinate King Charles II of England and his brother (and heir to the throne) James II of England, James, Duke of York. The royal party went from Westminster to Newmarket, Suffolk, Newmarket to see horse ...

Rye House Plot
, although there is little evidence to suggest that he was directly involved in the scheme. The philosopher and novelist
Rebecca Newberger Goldstein Rebecca, ; Aramaic, Syriac: , ) from the Hebrew (lit., 'connection'), from Semitic root , 'to tie, couple or join', 'to secure', or 'to snare') appears in the Hebrew Bible as the wife of Isaac and the mother of Jacob and Esau. According to bib ...
argues that during his five years in Holland, Locke chose his friends "from among the same freethinking members of dissenting Protestant groups as
Spinoza's
Spinoza's
small group of loyal confidants. aruch Spinoza had died in 1677.Locke almost certainly met men in Amsterdam who spoke of the ideas of that renegade Jew who... insisted on identifying himself through his religion of reason alone." While she says that "Locke's strong empiricist tendencies" would have "disinclined him to read a grandly metaphysical work such as Spinoza's ''
Ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, ...
'', in other ways he was deeply receptive to Spinoza's ideas, most particularly to the rationalist's well thought out argument for political and
religious tolerance Toleration is the allowing, permitting, or acceptance of an action, idea, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with. Political scientist Andrew R. Murphy explains that "We can improve our understanding by defining "toleration" as a ...
and the necessity of the separation of church and state." In the Netherlands, Locke had time to return to his writing, spending a great deal of time working on the ''Essay Concerning Human Understanding'' and composing the ''Letter on Toleration.'' Locke did not return home until after the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
. Locke accompanied
Mary II Mary II (30 April 166228 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Gr ...

Mary II
back to England in 1688. The bulk of Locke's publishing took place upon his return from exilehis aforementioned ''
Essay Concerning Human Understanding ''An Essay Concerning Human Understanding'' is a work by John Locke John Locke (; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Age of Enlightenmen ...
'', the ''
Two Treatises of Government ''Two Treatises of Government'' (or ''Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and Overthrown. The Latter Is an Essay Concerning The True Original, ...
'' and ''
A Letter Concerning Toleration ''A Letter Concerning Toleration'' by John Locke John Locke (; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly know ...
'' all appearing in quick succession. Locke's close friend
Lady Masham Damaris, Lady Masham (18 January 1659 – 20 April 1708) was an English writer, philosopher, theologian, and advocate for women's education who is characterized as a proto-feminist Protofeminism is a concept that anticipates modern feminis ...
invited him to join her at Otes, the Mashams' country house in Essex. Although his time there was marked by variable health from
asthma Asthma is a long-term Long-Term Capital Management L.P. (LTCM) was a hedge fund''A financial History of the United States Volume II: 1970–2001'', Jerry W. Markham, Chapter 5: "Bank Consolidation", M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 2002 based in Greenwich, ...

asthma
attacks, he nevertheless became an intellectual hero of the Whigs. During this period he discussed matters with such figures as
John Dryden '' John Dryden (; – ) was an English poet, literary critic Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which i ...

John Dryden
and
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics a ...

Isaac Newton
.


Death

He died on 28 October 1704, and is buried in the churchyard of the village of
High Laver High Laver is a village and civil parish in the Epping Forest (district), Epping Forest district of the County of Essex, England. The parish is noted for its association with the philosopher John Locke. History High Laver is historically a rural ...
, east of
Harlow Harlow is a town and local government district in the west of Essex, England. Founded as a Planned community, new town, it is situated on the border with Hertfordshire and London, Harlow occupies a large area of land on the south bank of the ...
in Essex, where he had lived in the household of Sir Francis Masham since 1691. Locke never married nor had children. Events that happened during Locke's lifetime include the
English Restoration The Restoration of the Stuart monarchy The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a dynasty, royal house of Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, Kingdom of England, England, Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland and later Kingdom of Great Britain, Gre ...
, the
Great Plague of London The Great Plague of London, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England. It happened within the centuries-long Second plague pandemic, Second Pandemic, a period of intermittent bubonic plague ...
, the
Great Fire of London Great may refer to: Descriptions or measurements * Great, a relative measurement in physical space, see Size * Greatness, being divine, majestic, superior, majestic, or transcendent People with the name * "The Great", a historical suffix to people ...

Great Fire of London
, and the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
. He did not quite see the
Act of Union of 1707 The Acts of Union ( gd, Achd an Aonaidh) were two Acts of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legisl ...
, though the thrones of England and Scotland were held in
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
throughout his lifetime.
Constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy, parliamentary monarchy, or democratic monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises his authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding. Constitutional monarchies differ from ...
and
parliamentary democracy A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (or subordinate entity) where the Executive (government), executive derives its democratic legitimacy fr ...
were in their infancy during Locke's time.


Philosophy

In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Locke's '' Two Treatises'' were rarely cited. Historian Julian Hoppit said of the book, "except among some Whigs, even as a contribution to the intense debate of the 1690s it made little impression and was generally ignored until 1703 (though in Oxford in 1695 it was reported to have made 'a great noise')." John Kenyon, in his study of British political debate from 1689 to 1720, has remarked that Locke's theories were "mentioned so rarely in the early stages of the loriousRevolution, up to 1692, and even less thereafter, unless it was to heap abuse on them" and that "no one, including most Whigs,
ere Ere or ERE may refer to: * ''Environmental and Resource Economics ''Environmental and Resource Economics'' (''ERE'') is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering environmental economics published monthly in three volumes per year. It is the offici ...

ere
ready for the idea of a notional or abstract contract of the kind adumbrated by Locke." In contrast, Kenyon adds that
Algernon Sidney Algernon Sidney or Sydney (15 January 1623 – 7 December 1683) was an English politician and member of the middle part of the Long Parliament. A republican political theorist, colonel, and commissioner of the trial of King Charles I of Englan ...

Algernon Sidney
's ''Discourses Concerning Government'' were "certainly much more influential than Locke's ''Two Treatises.''"Kenyon (1977) adds: "Any unbiassed study of the position shows in fact that it was Filmer, not Hobbes, Locke or Sidney, who was the most influential thinker of the age" (p. 63). In the 50 years after Queen Anne's death in 1714, the ''Two Treatises'' were reprinted only once (except in the collected works of Locke). However, with the rise of American resistance to British taxation, the ''
Second Treatise of Government ''Two Treatises of Government'' (or ''Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and Overthrown. The Latter Is an Essay Concerning The True Original, E ...
'' gained a new readership; it was frequently cited in the debates in both America and Britain. The first American printing occurred in 1773 in Boston. Locke exercised a profound influence on
political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or un ...

political philosophy
, in particular on modern liberalism. Michael Zuckert has argued that Locke launched liberalism by tempering Hobbesian absolutism and clearly separating the realms of Church and State. He had a strong influence on
Voltaire François-Marie Arouet (; 21 November 169430 May 1778), known by his ''nom de plume A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym A pseudonym () or alias () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) is a ...

Voltaire
who called him "''le sage'' Locke." His arguments concerning
liberty Broadly speaking, liberty is the ability to do as one pleases, or a right or immunity enjoyed by prescription or by grant (i.e. privilege). It is a synonym for the word freedom Freedom, generally, is having the ability to act or change withou ...

liberty
and the
social contract In moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
later influenced the written works of
Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was an American statesman, politician, legal scholar, military commander, lawyer, banker, and economist. He was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fa ...

Alexander Hamilton
,
James Madison James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, diplomat, expansionist, philosopher, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited wi ...

James Madison
,
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were cr ...

Thomas Jefferson
, and other
Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of American revolutionary Patriots (also known as Revolutionaries, Continentals, Rebels, or American Whigs) were those colonists of the Thi ...
. In fact, one passage from the ''Second Treatise'' is reproduced verbatim in the Declaration of Independence, the reference to a "long train of abuses." Such was Locke's influence that Thomas Jefferson wrote:
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Bacon
, Locke and
Newton Newton most commonly refers to: * Isaac Newton (1642–1726/1727), English scientist * Newton (unit), SI unit of force named after Isaac Newton Newton may also refer to: Arts and entertainment * Newton (film), ''Newton'' (film), a 2017 Indian fil ...

Newton
… I consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception, and as having laid the foundation of those superstructures which have been raised in the Physical and Moral sciences.
However, Locke's influence may have been even more profound in the realm of
epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the concerned with . Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic , the of , and various related issues. Epistemology is considered a major subfield of philosophy, along with other major ...

epistemology
. Locke redefined
subjectivity Subjectivity in a philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the ability of an entity to interact with physical or mental reality Reality is the sum ...
, or ''self'', leading
intellectual historians An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking, research, and Human self-reflection, reflection to advance discussions of academic subjects. This often involves publishing work for consumption by the general public that adds dept ...
such as and Jerrold Seigel to argue that Locke's ''
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding ''An Essay Concerning Human Understanding'' is a work by John Locke John Locke (; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thin ...
'' (1689/90) marks the beginning of the modern Western conception of the ''self''. Locke's Associationism, theory of association heavily influenced the subject matter of modern psychology. At the time, Locke's recognition of two types of ideas, ''simple'' and ''complex''—and, more importantly, their interaction through associationism—inspired other philosophers, such as
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David Hume
and George Berkeley, to revise and expand this theory and apply it to explain how humans gain knowledge in the physical world.


Religious tolerance

Locke, writing his ''A Letter Concerning Toleration, Letters Concerning Toleration'' (1689–1692) in the aftermath of the European wars of religion, formulated a classic reasoning for Toleration, religious tolerance, in which three arguments are central: # Earthly judges, State (polity), the state in particular, and human beings generally, cannot dependably evaluate the Truth claim, truth-claims of competing religious standpoints; # Even if they could, enforcing a single 'true religion' would not have the desired effect, because belief cannot be compelled by violence; # Coercing religious uniformity would lead to more social disorder than allowing diversity. With regard to his position on religious tolerance, Locke was influenced by Baptist theologians like John Smyth (Baptist minister), John Smyth and Thomas Helwys, who had published Tract (literature), tracts demanding Freedom of thought, freedom of conscience in the early 17th century. Baptist theologian Roger Williams (theologian), Roger Williams founded the colony of Rhode Island in 1636, where he combined a Democracy, democratic constitution with unlimited religious freedom. His tract, ''The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution for Cause of Conscience'' (1644), which was widely read in the mother country, was a passionate plea for absolute religious freedom and the total separation of church and state. Freedom of conscience had had high priority on the theological, philosophical, and political agenda, as Martin Luther refused to recant his beliefs before the List of Imperial Diet participants (1792), Diet of the Holy Roman Empire at Diet of Worms, Worms in 1521, unless he would be proved false by the Bible.


Slavery and child labour

Locke's views on slavery were multifaceted and complex. Although he wrote against slavery in general in his writing, Locke was an investor and beneficiary of the Atlantic slave trade, slave trading Royal African Company, Royal Africa Company. In addition, while secretary to the Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, Earl of Shaftesbury, Locke participated in drafting the ''Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina'', which established a Feudalism, quasi-feudal aristocracy and gave Carolinian Planter class, planters absolute power over their enslaved chattel property; the constitutions pledged that "every freeman of Carolina shall have absolute power and authority over his negro slaves". Philosopher Martin Cohen (philosopher), Martin Cohen noted that Locke, as a secretary to the Council of Trade and Plantations and a member of the
Board of Trade The Board of Trade is a British government body concerned with commerce and industry, currently within the Department for International Trade. Its full title is The Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council appointed for the consideration of a ...
, was "one of just half a dozen men who created and supervised both the colonies and their iniquitous systems of servitude". According to American historian James Farr, Locke never expressed any thoughts concerning his contradicting opinions regarding slavery, which Farr ascribed to his personal involvement in the slave trade. Locke's positions on slavery have been described as hypocritical, and laying the foundation for the Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Fathers to hold similar contradicting thoughts regarding freedom and slavery. Locke also drafted implementing instructions for the Carolina colonists designed to ensure that settlement and development was consistent with the Fundamental Constitutions. Collectively, these documents are known as the Grand Model for the Province of Carolina. Historian Holly Brewer has however argued that Locke's role in the Constitution of Carolina was exaggerated and that he was merely paid to revise and make copies of a document that had already been partially written before Locke became involved; she compares Locke's role to a lawyer writing a will. She further notes that Locke was paid in Royal African Company stock in lieu of money for his work as a secretary for a governmental sub-committee and that he sold the stock after only a few years. Brewer likewise argues that Locke actively worked to undermine slavery in Virginia while heading a Board of Trade created by William of Orange following the Glorious Revolution. He specifically attacked colonial policy granting land to slave owners and encouraged the baptism and Christian education of the children of enslaved Africans to undercut a major justification of slavery- specifically, that they were heathens that possessed no rights. Locke also supported child labour. In his "Essay on the Poor Law," Locke turns to the education of the poor; he laments that "the children of labouring people are an ordinary burden to the parish, and are usually maintained in idleness, so that their labour also is generally lost to the public till they are 12 or 14 years old." He suggests, therefore, that "working schools" be set up in each parish in England for poor children so that they will be "from infancy [three years old] inured to work." He goes on to outline the economics of these schools, arguing not only that they will be profitable for the parish, but also that they will instill a good work ethic in the children.


Government

Locke's political theory was founded upon that of
social contract In moral A moral (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
. Unlike
Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes ( ; sometimes known as Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679) was an , considered to be one of the founders of modern . Hobbes is best known for his 1651 book ', in which he expounds an influential form ...
, Locke believed that human nature is characterised by reason and Toleration, tolerance. Like Hobbes, Locke believed that human nature allowed people to be selfish. This is apparent with the introduction of currency. In a State of nature#Locke's view on the state of nature, natural state, all people were equal and independent, and everyone had a natural right to defend his "life, health, liberty, or possessions."Locke, John. [1690] 2017.
Second Treatise of Government
' (10th ed.), digitized by D. Gowan. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
Most scholars trace the phrase "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness," in the United States Declaration of Independence, American Declaration of Independence, to Locke's theory of rights, though other origins have been suggested. Like Hobbes, Locke assumed that the sole right to defend in the state of nature was not enough, so people established a civil society to resolve conflicts in a civil way with help from government in a state of society. However, Locke never refers to Hobbes by name and may instead have been responding to other writers of the day. Locke also advocated governmental separation of powers and believed that revolution is not only a Right of revolution, right but an obligation in some circumstances. These ideas would come to have profound influence on the Declaration of independence, Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States.


Limits to accumulations

According to Locke, unused property is wasteful and an offence against nature, but, with the introduction of Durable good, "durable" goods, men could exchange their excessive perishable goods for those which would last longer and thus not offend the natural law. In his view, the introduction of money marked the culmination of this process, making possible the unlimited accumulation of property without causing waste through spoilage. He also includes gold or silver as money because they may be "hoarded up without injury to anyone," as they do not spoil or decay in the hands of the possessor. In his view, the introduction of money eliminates the limits of accumulation. Locke stresses that inequality has come about by tacit agreement on the use of money, not by the social contract establishing civil society or the Land law, law of land regulating property. Locke is aware of a problem posed by unlimited accumulation but does not consider it his task. He just implies that government would function to moderate the conflict between the unlimited accumulation of property and a more nearly equal distribution of wealth; he does not identify which principles that government should apply to solve this problem. However, not all elements of his thought form a consistent whole. For example, the labour theory of value in the ''
Two Treatises of Government ''Two Treatises of Government'' (or ''Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and Overthrown. The Latter Is an Essay Concerning The True Original, ...
'' stands side by side with the demand-and-supply theory of value developed in a letter he wrote titled ''Some Considerations on the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest and the Raising of the Value of Money''. Moreover, Locke anchors property in labour but in the end, upholds the unlimited accumulation of wealth.


Other Ideas


Economics


On price theory

Locke's general theory of value and price is a supply and demand, supply-and-demand theory, set out in a letter to a member of parliament in 1691, titled ''Some Considerations on the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest and the Raising of the Value of Money''. In it, he refers to supply as ''quantity'' and demand as Economic rent, ''rent'': "The price of any commodity rises or falls by the proportion of the number of buyers and sellers," and "that which regulates the price…[of goods] is nothing else but their quantity in proportion to their rent." The quantity theory of money forms a special case of this general theory. His idea is based on "money answers all things" (Ecclesiastes) or "rent of money is always sufficient, or more than enough," and "varies very little…" Locke concludes that, as far as money is concerned, the demand is exclusively regulated by its quantity, regardless of whether the demand for money is unlimited or constant. He also investigates the determinants of demand and supply. For Supply (economics), supply, he explains the value of goods as based on their scarcity and ability to be Exchange value, exchanged and Consumption (economics), consumed. He explains demand for goods as based on their ability to yield a flow of income. Locke develops an early theory of Capital (economics), capitalisation, such as land, which has value because "by its constant production of saleable Commodity, commodities it brings in a certain yearly income." He considers the demand for money as almost the same as demand for goods or land: it depends on whether money is wanted as medium of exchange. As a medium of exchange, he states that "money is capable by exchange to procure us the necessaries or conveniences of life," and for loanable funds, "it comes to be of the same nature with land by yielding a certain yearly income…or interest."


Monetary thoughts

Locke distinguishes two functions of money: as a ''counter'' to Valuation (finance), measure value, and as a ''pledge'' to lay claim to good (economics), goods. He believes that silver and gold, as opposed to Banknote, paper money, are the appropriate currency for international transactions. Silver and gold, he says, are treated to have equal value by all of humanity and can thus be treated as a pledge by anyone, while the value of paper money is only valid under the government which issues it. Locke argues that a country should seek a favourable balance of trade, lest it fall behind other countries and suffer a loss in its trade. Since the world Money supply, money stock grows constantly, a country must constantly seek to enlarge its own stock. Locke develops his theory of foreign exchanges, in addition to commodity movements, there are also movements in country stock of money, and movements of capital determine exchange rates. He considers the latter less significant and less Volatility (finance), volatile than commodity movements. As for a country's money stock, if it is large relative to that of other countries, he says it will cause the country's exchange to rise above par, as an export balance would do. He also prepares estimates of the cash requirements for different economic groups (Land tenure, landholders, labourers, and brokers). In each group he posits that the cash requirements are closely related to the length of the pay period. He argues the brokers—the Intermediary, middlemen—whose activities enlarge the monetary circuit and whose profits eat into the earnings of labourers and landholders, have a negative influence on both personal and the public economy to which they supposedly contribute.


Theory of value and property

Locke uses the concept of ''Property (philosophy), property'' in both broad and narrow terms: broadly, it covers a wide range of human interests and aspirations; more particularly, it refers to Tangible property, material goods. He argues that property is a Natural rights and legal rights, natural right that is derived from manual labour, labour. In Chapter V of his ''Two Treatises of Government, Second Treatise'', Locke argues that the individual ownership of goods and property is justified by the labour exerted to produce such goods—"at least where there is enough [land], and as good, left in common for others" (para. 27)—or use property to produce goods beneficial to human society. Locke stated his belief, in his ''Second Treatise'', that nature on its own provides little of value to society, implying that the labour expended in the creation of goods gives them their value. From this premise, understood as a Labor theory of value, ''labour theory of value'', Locke developed a Labor theory of property, ''labour theory of property'', whereby ownership of property is created by the application of labour. In addition, he believed that property precedes government and government cannot "dispose of the estates of the subjects arbitrarily." Karl Marx later critiqued Locke's theory of property in his own social theory.


The human mind


The self

Locke defines ''the self'' as "that conscious thinking thing, (whatever substance, made up of whether spiritual, or material, simple, or compounded, it matters not) which is sensible, or conscious of pleasure and pain, capable of happiness or misery, and so is concerned for itself, as far as that consciousness extends." He does not, however, ignore "substance", writing that "the body too goes to the making the man". In his ''Essay'', Locke explains the gradual unfolding of this conscious mind. Arguing against both the Augustine of Hippo, Augustinian view of man as original sin, originally sinful and the René Descartes, Cartesian position, which holds that man innately knows basic logical propositions, Locke posits an 'empty mind', a ''
tabula rasa ''Tabula rasa'' (; "blank slate") is the theory that individuals are born without built-in mental content The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental phenomena A phenomenon (; plural phenomena) is an observable fact or ev ...
'', which is shaped by experience; Wikt:sensation, sensations and human self-reflection, reflections being the two sources of ''all'' of our ideas. He states in ''An Essay Concerning Human Understanding'':
This source of ideas every man has wholly within himself; and though it be not sense, as having nothing to do with external objects, yet it is very like it, and might properly enough be called 'internal sense.'
Locke's ''Some Thoughts Concerning Education'' is an outline on how to educate this mind. Drawing on thoughts expressed in letters written to Mary Clarke (letter writer), Mary Clarke and her husband about their son, he expresses the belief that education makes the manor, more fundamentally, that the mind is an "empty cabinet":
I think I may say that of all the men we meet with, nine parts of ten are what they are, good or evil, useful or not, by their education.
Locke also wrote that "the little and almost insensible impressions on our tender infancies have very important and lasting consequences". He argued that the "Association of Ideas, associations of ideas" that one makes when young are more important than those made later because they are the foundation of the ''self''; they are, put differently, what first mark the ''tabula rasa''. In his ''Essay'', in which both these concepts are introduced, Locke warns against, for example, letting "a foolish maid" convince a child that "goblins and sprites" are associated with the night for "darkness shall ever afterwards bring with it those frightful ideas, and they shall be so joined, that he can no more bear the one than the other". This theory came to be called ''associationism'', going on to strongly influence 18th-century thought, particularly education theory, educational theory, as nearly every educational writer warned parents not to allow their children to develop negative associations. It also led to the development of psychology and other new disciplines with David Hartley (philosopher), David Hartley's attempt to discover a biological mechanism for associationism in his ''Observations on Man'' (1749).


Dream argument

Locke was critical of Descartes' version of the dream argument, with Locke making the counter-argument that people cannot have physical pain in dreams as they do in waking life.


Religion


Religious beliefs

Some scholars have seen Locke's political convictions as being based from his religious beliefs. Locke's religious trajectory began in Calvinist trinitarianism, but by the time of the ''Reflections'' (1695) Locke was advocating not just Socinianism, Socinian views on tolerance but also Socinian Christology.. However Wainwright (1987) notes that in the posthumously published ''Paraphrase'' (1707) Locke's interpretation of one verse, Ephesians 1:10, is markedly different from that of Socinians like John Biddle (Unitarian), Biddle, and may indicate that near the end of his life Locke returned nearer to an Arianism, Arian position, thereby accepting Christ's pre-existence. Locke was at times not sure about the subject of original sin, so he was accused of Socinianism, Arianism, or Deism. Locke argued that the idea that "all ''Adams Posterity [are] doomed to Eternal Infinite Punishment, for the Transgression of ''Adam''" was "little consistent with the Justice or Goodness of the Great and Infinite God", leading Eric Nelson (historian), Eric Nelson to associate him with Pelagianism, Pelagian ideas. However, he did not deny the reality of evil. Man was capable of waging unjust wars and committing crimes. Criminals had to be punished, even with the death penalty. With regard to the Bible, Locke was very conservative. He retained the doctrine of the verbal inspiration of the Scriptures. The miracles were proof of the divine nature of the biblical message. Locke was convinced that the entire content of the Bible was in agreement with human reason (''The Reasonableness of Christianity'', 1695). Although Locke was an advocate of tolerance, he urged the authorities not to tolerate atheism, because he thought the denial of God's existence would undermine the social order and lead to chaos. That excluded all atheistic varieties of philosophy and all attempts to deduce ethics and natural law from purely secular premises. In Locke's opinion the cosmological argument was valid and proved God's existence. His political thought was based on Protestant Christian views. Additionally, Locke advocated a sense of piety out of gratitude to God for giving reason to men.


Philosophy from religion

Locke's concept of man started with the belief in creation. Like philosophers Hugo Grotius and Samuel Pufendorf, Locke equated natural law with the biblical revelation. Locke derived the fundamental concepts of his political theory from biblical texts, in particular from Book of Genesis, Genesis 1 and 2 (Genesis creation narrative, creation), the Ten Commandments, Decalogue, the Golden Rule, the teachings of Jesus, and the letters of Paul the Apostle. Ten Commandments, The Decalogue puts a person's life, reputation and property under God's protection. Locke's philosophy on freedom is also derived from the Bible. Locke derived from the Bible basic human equality (including equality of the sexes), the starting point of the theological doctrine of Imago Dei. To Locke, one of the consequences of the principle of equality was that all humans were created equally free and therefore governments needed the consent of the governed. Locke compared the English monarchy's rule over the British people to Adam's rule over Eve in Genesis, which was appointed by God. Following Locke's philosophy, the American United States Declaration of Independence, Declaration of Independence founded human rights partially on the biblical belief in creation. Locke's doctrine that governments need the consent of the governed is also central to the Declaration of Independence.


Library and manuscripts

Locke was an assiduous book collector and notetaker throughout his life. By his death in 1704, Locke had amassed a library of more than 3,000 books, a significant number in the seventeenth century. Unlike some of his contemporaries, Locke took care to catalogue and preserve his library, and his will made specific provisions for how his library was to be distributed after his death. Locke's will offered Lady Masham the choice of "any four folios, eight quartos and twenty books of less volume, which she shall choose out of the books in my Library."Quoted in Harrison, John; Laslett, Peter (1971). ''The Library of John Locke''. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 8. Locke also gave six titles to his “good friend” Anthony Collins, but Locke bequeathed the majority of his collection to his cousin Peter King, 1st Baron King, Peter King (later Lord King) and to Lady Masham's son, Francis Cudworth Masham. Francis Masham was promised one “moiety” (half) of Locke's library when he reached “the age of one and twenty years.” The other “moiety” of Locke's books, along with his manuscripts, passed to his cousin King. Over the next two centuries, the Masham portion of Locke's library was dispersed. The manuscripts and books left to King, however, remained with King's descendants (later the Earl of Lovelace, Earls of Lovelace), until most of the collection was bought by the Bodleian Library, Bodleian Library, Oxford in 1947. Another portion of the books Locke left to King was discovered by the collector and philanthropist Paul Mellon in 1951. Mellon supplemented this discovery with books from Locke's library which he bought privately, and in 1978, he transferred his collection to the Bodleian. The holdings in the Locke Room at the Bodleian have been a valuable resource for scholars interested in Locke, his philosophy, practices for information management, and the history of the book. The printed books in Locke's library reflected his various intellectual interests as well as his movements at different stages of his life. Locke travelled extensively in France and the Netherlands during the 1670s and 1680s, and during this time he acquired many books from the continent. Only half of the books in Locke's library were printed in England, while close to 40% came from France and the Netherlands. These books cover a wide range of subjects. According to John Harrison and Peter Laslett, the largest genres in Locke's library were theology (23.8% of books), medicine (11.1%), politics and law (10.7%), and classical literature (10.1%). The Bodleian library currently holds more than 800 of the books from Locke's library. These include Locke's copies of works by several of the most influential figures of the seventeenth century, including * The Quaker William Penn: ''An address to Protestants of all perswasions'' (Bodleian Locke 7.69a) * The explorer Francis Drake: ''The world encompassed by Sir Francis Drake'' (Bodleian Locke 8.37c) * The scientist
Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (; 25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish Anglo-Irish () is a term which was more commonly used in the 19th and early 20th centuries to identify an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a group ...

Robert Boyle
: ''A discourse of things above reason'' (Bodleian Locke 7.272) * The bishop and historian Thomas Sprat: ''The history of the Royal-Society of London'' (Bodleian Locke 9.10a) Many of the books still contain Locke's signature, which he often made on the pastedowns of his books. Many also include Locke's marginalia. In addition to books owned by Locke, the Bodleian also possesses more than 100 manuscripts related to Locke or written in his hand. Like the books in Locke's library, these manuscripts display a range of interests and provide different windows into Locke's activity and relationships. Several of the manuscripts include letters to and from acquaintances like Peter King (MS Locke b. 6) and :fr:Nicolas Toinard, Nicolas Toinard (MS Locke c. 45).Clapinson, M, and TD Rogers. 1991. ''Summary Catalogue of Post-Medieval Western Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library, Oxford''. Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. MS Locke f. 1–10 contain Locke's journals for most years between 1675 and 1704. Some of the most significant manuscripts include early drafts of Locke's writings, such as his ''An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Essay concerning human understanding'' (MS Locke f. 26). The Bodleian also holds a copy of Robert Boyle's ''General History of the Air'' with corrections and notes Locke made while preparing Boyle's work for posthumous publication (MS Locke c. 37 ). Other manuscripts contain unpublished works. Among others, MS. Locke e. 18 includes some of Locke's thoughts on the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
, which Locke sent to his friend Edward Clarke but never published. One of the largest categories of manuscript at the Bodleian comprises Locke's notebooks and commonplace books. The scholar Richard Yeo calls Locke a "Master Note-taker" and explains that "Locke's methodical note-taking pervaded most areas of his life." In an unpublished essay “Of Study,” Locke argued that a notebook should work like a “chest-of-drawers” for organizing information, which would be a "great help to the memory and means to avoid confusion in our thoughts." Locke kept several notebooks and commonplace books, which he organized according to topic. MS Locke c. 43 includes Locke's notes on theology, while MS Locke f. 18–24 contain medical notes. Other notebooks, such as MS c. 43, incorporate several topics in the same notebook, but separated into sections. These commonplace books were highly personal and were designed to be used by Locke himself rather than accessible to a wide audience. Locke's notes are often abbreviated and are full of codes which he used to reference material across notebooks. Another way Locke personalized his notebooks was by devising his own method of creating indexes using a grid system and Latin keywords. Instead of recording entire words, his indexes shortened words to their first letter and vowel. Thus, the word "Epistle" would be classified as "Ei". Locke published his method in French in 1686, and it was iarchive:gu newmethodmaki00lock, republished posthumously in English in 1706. Some of the books in Locke's library at the Bodleian are a combination of manuscript and print. Locke had some of his books interleaved, meaning that they were bound with blank sheets in-between the printed pages to enable annotations. Locke interleaved and annotated his five volumes of the New Testament in French, Greek, and Latin (Bodleian Locke 9.103-107). Locke did the same with his copy of Thomas Hyde's Bodleian Library catalogue (Bodleian Locke 16.17), which Locke used to create a catalogue of his own library.


Writing


List of major works

* 1689. ''
A Letter Concerning Toleration ''A Letter Concerning Toleration'' by John Locke John Locke (; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly know ...
''. ** 1690. ''A Second Letter Concerning Toleration'' ** 1692. ''A Third Letter for Toleration'' * 1689/90. ''
Two Treatises of Government ''Two Treatises of Government'' (or ''Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, The False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and Overthrown. The Latter Is an Essay Concerning The True Original, ...
'' (published throughout the 18th century by London bookseller Andrew Millar by commission for Thomas Hollis (1720–1774), Thomas Hollis) * 1689/90. ''
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding ''An Essay Concerning Human Understanding'' is a work by John Locke John Locke (; 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thin ...
'' * 1691. ''Some Considerations on the consequences of the Lowering of Interest and the Raising of the Value of Money'' * 1693. ''Some Thoughts Concerning Education'' * 1695. ''The Reasonableness of Christianity, as Delivered in the Scriptures'' ** 1695. ''A Vindication of the Reasonableness of Christianity''


Major posthumous manuscripts

* 1660. ''First Tract of Government'' (or ''the English Tract'') * ''c.''1662. ''Second Tract of Government'' (or ''the Latin Tract'') * 1664. ''Questions Concerning the Law of Nature''.Locke, John. [1664] 1990. ''Questions Concerning the Law of Nature'' (definitive Latin text), translated by R. Horwitz, et al. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. * 1667. ''Essay Concerning Toleration'' * 1706. ''Of the Conduct of the Understanding'' * 1707. ''A paraphrase and notes on the Epistles of St. Paul to the Galatians, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Romans, Ephesians''


See also

* List of liberal theorists


References


Notes


Citations


Sources

* Richard Ashcraft, Ashcraft, Richard, 1986. ''Revolutionary Politics & Locke's Two Treatises of Government.'' Princeton: Princeton University Press. Discusses the relationship between Locke's philosophy and his political activities. * Michael R. Ayers, Ayers, Michael, 1991. ''Locke. Epistemology & Ontology'' Routledge (the standard work on Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding.) * Bernard Bailyn, Bailyn, Bernard, 1992 (1967). ''The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution''. Harvard Uni. Press. Discusses the influence of Locke and other thinkers upon the American Revolution and on subsequent American political thought. * * Gerald Cohen, Cohen, Gerald, 1995. 'Marx and Locke on Land and Labour', in his ''Self-Ownership, Freedom and Equality'', Oxford University Press. * Cox, Richard, ''Locke on War and Peace'', Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1960. A discussion of Locke's theory of international relations. * Vere Claiborne Chappell, Chappell, Vere, ed., 1994. ''The Cambridge Companion to Locke''. Cambridge U.P
excerpt and text search
* John Dunn (political theorist), Dunn, John, 1984. ''Locke''. Oxford Uni. Press. A succinct introduction. * ———, 1969. ''The Political Thought of John Locke: An Historical Account of the Argument of the "Two Treatises of Government"''. Cambridge Uni. Press. Introduced the interpretation which emphasises the theological element in Locke's political thought. * * Hudson, Nicholas, "John Locke and the Tradition of Nominalism," in: ''Nominalism and Literary Discourse'', ed. Hugo Keiper, Christoph Bode, and Richard Utz (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1997), pp. 283–99. * to * * * ''Locke Studies'', appearing annually from 2001, formerly ''The Locke Newsletter'' (1970–2000), publishes scholarly work on John Locke. * * C. B. Macpherson, Macpherson, C.B. ''The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: Hobbes to Locke'' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962). Establishes the deep affinity from Hobbes to Harrington, the Levellers, and Locke through to nineteenth-century utilitarianism. * * * * * * James Tully (philosopher), Tully, James, 1980. ''A Discourse on Property : John Locke and his Adversaries''. Cambridge Uni. Press * * John W. Yolton, Yolton, John W., ed., 1969. ''John Locke: Problems and Perspectives''. Cambridge Uni. Press. * Yolton, John W., ed., 1993. ''A Locke Dictionary''. Oxford: Blackwell. * Zuckert, Michael, ''Launching Liberalism: On Lockean Political Philosophy''. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.


External links


Works


The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke

''Of the Conduct of the Understanding''
* * *
Work by John Locke
at Online Books * ''The Works of John Locke'' *

* [http://www.libraries.psu.edu/tas/locke/mss/index.html John Locke Manuscripts]
Updated versions of ''Essay Concerning Human Understanding'', ''Second Treatise of Government'', ''Letter on Toleration'' and ''Conduct of the Understanding''
edited (i.e. modernized and abridged) by Jonathan Bennett (philosopher), Jonathan Bennett


Resources

* * *
John Locke Bibliography

Locke Studies An Annual Journal of Locke Research
* . * . * . * , a complex and positive answer. * *Anstey, Peter,
John Locke and Natural Philosophy
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