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John IV ( pt, João, ; 19 March 1604 – 6 November 1656),
nicknamed A nickname (also moniker) is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place or thing. Commonly used to express affection, a form of endearment, and sometimes amusement, it can also be used to express defamation of character, partic ...
John the Restorer ( pt, João, o Restaurador), was the
King of Portugal This is a list of Portuguese monarchs who ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portugal, Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution. Throu ...
whose reign, lasting from 1640 until his death, began the Portuguese restoration of independence from Habsburg Spanish rule. His accession established the
House of Braganza The Most Serene House of Braganza ( pt, Sereníssima Casa de Bragança), also known as the Brigantine Dynasty (''Dinastia Brigantina''), is a dynasty of emperors, kings, princes, and dukes of Portuguese people, Portuguese origin which reigned in ...
on the Portuguese throne, and marked the end of the 60-year-old
Iberian Union The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Kingdom of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ...
, by which Portugal and Spain
shared the same monarch
shared the same monarch
. Before becoming king, he was John II, 8th
Duke of Braganza The title Duke of Braganza ( pt, Duque de Bragança) in the House of Braganza is one of the most important titles in the peerage of Portugal. Starting in 1640, when the House of Braganza acceded to the throne of Portugal, the male heir of the Por ...
. He was the grandson of
Catherine, Duchess of Braganza Infanta Catherine of Portugal, Duchess of Braganza by marriage ( pt, Catarina; , 18 January 1540 – 15 November 1614) was a Portugal, Portuguese ''infanta'' (princess) claimant to the throne following the death of King Henry, King of Portug ...
, a claimant to the crown during the
Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 The Portuguese succession crisis of 1580 ( pt, Crise de sucessão de 1580) came about as a result of the deaths of young King Sebastian I of Portugal in the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578 and his successor and great-uncle Henry I of Portugal ...
. On the eve of his death in 1656, the
Portuguese Empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português'') or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (''Império Colonial Português''), was composed of the overseas colonies In political scie ...
was at its territorial zenith, spanning the globe.


Early life

John IV was born at
Vila Viçosa
Vila Viçosa
and succeeded his father Teodósio II as
Duke of Braganza The title Duke of Braganza ( pt, Duque de Bragança) in the House of Braganza is one of the most important titles in the peerage of Portugal. Starting in 1640, when the House of Braganza acceded to the throne of Portugal, the male heir of the Por ...
when the latter died insane in 1630. He married Luisa de Guzmán (1613–66), eldest daughter of Juan Manuel Pérez de Guzmán, 8th Duke of Medina Sidonia, in 1633. John was described as having blonde hair, and an average height.


Reign


Accession

When
Philip II of Portugal Philip III ( es, Felipe; 14 April 1578 – 31 March 1621) was King of Spain. He was also, as Philip II, King of Portugal, King of Naples, Naples, King of Sicily, Sicily and King of Sardinia, Sardinia and Duke of Milan from 1598 until his death i ...
(III of Spain) died, he was succeeded by his son
Philip III
Philip III
(IV of Spain), who had a different approach to Portuguese issues. Taxes on the Portuguese merchants were raised, the Portuguese nobility began to lose its influence and government posts in Portugal were increasingly occupied by Spaniards. Ultimately, Philip III tried to make Portugal a Spanish province, meaning Portuguese nobles stood to lose all of their power. This situation culminated in a revolution organized by the nobility and the ''
bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguist ...

bourgeoisie
'', executed on 1 December 1640, fifty-nine years after the accession of
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
to the throne of Portugal. A plot was planned by several associates, known as the Forty Conspirators, who killed the Secretary of State, Miguel de Vasconcelos, and imprisoned the king's cousin, Margaret of Savoy, the
Vicereine A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity A polity is an identifiable political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making a ...
of Portugal, governing the country in the King's name. Philip's troops were at the time fighting the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
and also dealing with a revolution in Catalonia which severely hampered Spain's ability to quash the rebellion. Within a matter of hours and with popular support, John, then the 8th
Duke of Braganza The title Duke of Braganza ( pt, Duque de Bragança) in the House of Braganza is one of the most important titles in the peerage of Portugal. Starting in 1640, when the House of Braganza acceded to the throne of Portugal, the male heir of the Por ...
, was acclaimed as King John IV of Portugal (as legend goes, with the persuasion of
his wife ''His Wife'' is a 1915 American silent Silent may mean any of the following: People with the name * Silent George, George Stone (outfielder) (1876–1945), American Major League Baseball outfielder and batting champion * Brandon Silent (born 19 ...

his wife
) claiming legitimate succession through his grandmother
Catherine, Duchess of Braganza Infanta Catherine of Portugal, Duchess of Braganza by marriage ( pt, Catarina; , 18 January 1540 – 15 November 1614) was a Portugal, Portuguese ''infanta'' (princess) claimant to the throne following the death of King Henry, King of Portug ...
. The ensuing conflict with Spain brought Portugal into the Thirty Years' War as, at least, a peripheral player. From 1641 to 1668, the period during which the two nations were at war, Spain sought to isolate Portugal militarily and diplomatically, and Portugal tried to find the resources to maintain its independence through political alliances and maintenance of its colonial income.


Restoration War

His accession led to a protracted war with neighbouring
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
, a conflict known as the
Portuguese Restoration War The Portuguese Restoration War ( pt, Guerra da Restauração) was the war between Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial bo ...
, which ended with the recognition of Portuguese independence in a subsequent reign (1668). Portugal signed lengthy alliances with
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
(1 June 1641) and
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
(August 1641) but by necessity its only contributions in the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
were in the field against Spain and against
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
encroachments on the
Portuguese colonies The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português'') or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (''Império Colonial Português''), was composed of the overseas colonies In political scie ...
. The period from 1640 to 1668 was marked by periodic skirmishes between Portugal and Spain, as well as short episodes of more serious warfare, much of it occasioned by Spanish and Portuguese entanglements with non-Iberian powers. Spain was involved in the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
until 1648 and the Franco-Spanish War until 1659, while Portugal was involved in the
Dutch–Portuguese War The Dutch–Portuguese War (; ) was an armed conflict involving Dutch Republic, Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire. Beginning in 1602, the conflict primarily i ...
until 1663. In Spain, a Portuguese invasion force defeated the Spanish at Montijo, near
Badajoz Badajoz (, , ; formerly written ''Badajos'' in English) is the capital of the Province of Badajoz in the autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain. It is situated close to the Portugal, Portuguese border, on the l ...

Badajoz
, in 1644.


Imperial Recovery

Abroad, the Dutch took
Portuguese Malacca Portuguese control of Malacca, a city on the Malay Peninsula The Malay Peninsula (Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singa ...
(January 1641), and the
Sultan of Oman The sultan of the Sultanate of Oman is the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the pu ...
captured
Muscat Muscat ( ar, مَسْقَط, ) is the Capital (political), capital city and is the most populated city in Oman. It is the seat of the Muscat (governorate), Governorate of Muscat. According to the National Centre for Statistics and Information ( ...

Muscat
(1650). Nevertheless, the Portuguese, despite having to divide their forces among Europe, Brazil and Africa, managed to retake Luanda, in
Portuguese Angola Portuguese Angola refers to Angola , national_anthem = "Angola Avante "Angola Avante" (, ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that officially symbolizes a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial b ...
, from the Dutch in 1648 and, by 1654, had recovered
northern Brazil The North Region of Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square m ...
, which effectively ceased to be a Dutch colony. This was countered by the loss of
Portuguese Ceylon Portuguese Ceylon ( pt, Ceilão Português, Sinhala Sinhala may refer to: * Something of or related to the Sinhalese people of Sri Lanka * Sinhalese people * Sinhala language, one of the three official languages used in Sri Lanka * Sinhala scri ...

Portuguese Ceylon
(present day
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...

Sri Lanka
) to the Dutch, who took
Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Koḷam̆ba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Koḻumpu, ) is the commercial capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction betwe ...

Colombo
in 1656.


Death and legacy

King John IV died in 1656 and was succeeded by his son
Afonso VI Afonso VI (; 21 August 164312 September 1683), known as "the Victorious" (), was the second King of Portugal of the House of Braganza from 1656 until his death. He was initially under the regency of his mother, Luisa of Medina-Sidonia, until 1662 ...
. His daughter,
Catherine of Braganza Katherine, also spelled Catherine, and Catherina, other variations are feminine Given name, names. They are popular in Christian countries because of their derivation from the name of one of the first Christian saints, Catherine of Alexandria. ...

Catherine of Braganza
, married King
Charles II of England Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of government by which a hereditary m ...

Charles II of England
. John was a patron of music and the arts, and a considerably sophisticated writer on music; in addition to this, he was a composer. During his reign he collected one of the largest libraries in the world, but it was destroyed in the . Among his writings is a defense of
Palestrina Palestrina (ancient ''Praeneste''; grc, Πραίνεστος, ''Prainestos'') is a modern Italian city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township ...

Palestrina
, and a ''Defense of Modern Music'' (Lisbon, 1649). One famous composition attributed to him is a setting of the '' Crux fidelis'', a work that remains highly popular during
Holy Week In some traditions of , Holy Week (: or , 'Greater Week'; el, Ἁγία καὶ Μεγάλη Ἑβδομάς, translit=Hagia kai Megale Hebdomas, lit=Holy and Great Week) is the most sacred week in the Church year. In Eastern Rite Churches ...

Holy Week
amongst church choirs. However, no known manuscript of the work exists, and it was first published only in 1869, in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
. On stylistic grounds, it is generally recognized that the work was written in the 19th century. In 1646, John IV proclaimed Mary, in her conception as the Immaculate Conception (the 'Immaculata'), the Patroness of Portugal by royal decree of the House of Braganza. The doctrine had appeared in the Middle Ages and had been fiercely debated in the 15th and 16th centuries, but a bull issued in 1616 by Pope Paul V finally " orbadeanyone to teach or preach a contrary opinion." Three years later, in 1649, the iconography of the Immaculata was established by Francisco Pacheco (1564-1654), a Spanish artistic advisor to the Inquisition, based on ''Revelation XII:1''.


Marriages and descendants

John married Luisa de Guzmán, daughter of Juan Manuel Pérez de Guzmán, 8th
Duke of Medina-Sidonia Duke of Medina Sidonia ( es, Duque de Medina Sidonia) is a peerage grandee title of Spain in Medina-Sidonia, holding the oldest extant dukedom in the kingdom, first awarded by King John II of Castile in 1380.''Crux fidelis''
Recording of John IV's best-known choral work {{DEFAULTSORT:John 04 Of Portugal 1604 births 1656 deaths 17th-century classical composers 17th-century Portuguese monarchs Burials at the Monastery of São Vicente de Fora Constables of Portugal Dukes of Barcelos Dukes of Braganza Dukes of Guimarães House of Braganza Portuguese male classical composers People from Vila Viçosa Portuguese Baroque composers Portuguese classical composers Portuguese infantes Portuguese monarchs Portuguese royalty