John Fitch (January 21, 1743 – July 2, 1798) was an American inventor, clockmaker, entrepreneur and engineer. He was most famous for operating the first steamboat
service in the United States. The first boat was 45 feet long it was tested on the Delaware river by Fitch and his design assistant Steven Pagano.
Fitch was born to Joseph Fitch and Sarah (Shaler) in Windsor, Connecticut
, on January 21, 1743, on a farm that is part of present-day South Windsor, Connecticut
. He received little formal schooling and eventually apprenticed himself to a clockmaker. During his apprenticeship, Fitch was not allowed to learn or even observe watchmaking (he later taught himself how to repair clocks and watches).
He married Lucy Roberts on December 29, 1767. The couple had two children, a son and a daughter. In his autobiography, Fitch claimed that his wife was unhappy and argumentative and he used these reasons to explain why he abandoned his son and wife (pregnant at the time with a daughter), never to return. Following his apprenticeship in Hartford, he opened an unsuccessful brass foundry in East Windsor, Connecticut
, and then a brass and silversmith business in Trenton, New Jersey
, which succeeded for eight years but was destroyed by British troops during the American Revolution
He served briefly during the Revolution, mostly as a gunsmith working for the New Jersey militia. He left his unit after a dispute over a promotion, but continued his work repairing and refitting arms in Trenton. In the fall of 1777, Fitch provided beer and tobacco to the Continental Army in Philadelphia. During the following winter and spring, he provided beer, rum and other supplies to troops at Valley Forge
In 1780, Fitch began work as a surveyor in Kentucky, where he recorded a land claim of for himself. In the spring of 1782, while surveying in the Northwest Territory
, he was captured by indigenous people and turned over to the British, who eventually released him.
By 1785, Fitch was done with surveying and settled in Warminster, Pennsylvania
, where he began working on his ideas for a steam-powered boat. Unable to raise funds from the Continental Congress
, he persuaded various state legislatures to award him a 14-year monopoly
for steamboat traffic on their inland waterways. With these monopolies, he was able to secure funding from businessmen and professional citizens in Philadelphia
Fitch had seen a drawing of an early British Newcomen atmospheric engine
in an encyclopedia, but Newcomen engines were huge structures designed to pump water out of mines. He had somehow heard about the more efficient steam engine
developed by James Watt
in the late 1770s, but there was not a single Watt engine
in America at that time, nor would there be for many years (Fulton's exported model in his 1807 steamboat, Clermont
, would be one of the first) because Britain would not allow the export of any new technology to its former colony. As a result, Fitch attempted to design his own version of a steam engine. He moved to Philadelphia and engaged the clockmaker and inventor Henry Voigt
to help him build a working model and place it on a boat.
The first successful trial run of his steamboat
''Perseverance'' was made on the Delaware River
on August 22, 1787, in the presence of delegates from the Constitutional Convention
. It was propelled by a bank of oars on either side of the boat. During the next few years, Fitch and Voigt worked to develop better designs, and in June 1790 launched a boat powered by a steam engine driving several stern-mounted oars. These oars paddled in a manner similar to the motion of a swimming duck's feet. With this boat, he carried up to 30 paying passengers on numerous round-trip voyages between Philadelphia and Burlington, New Jersey
during the summer of 1790. Estimates of miles traveled that summer range from 1,300 to 3,000, and Fitch claimed that the boat often went for 500 miles without mechanical problems. Estimated speeds were of a minimum 6 miles per hour under unfavorable conditions, to a maximum of 7 or 8 miles per hour.
Fitch was granted a U.S. patent
on August 26, 1791, after a battle with James Rumsey
, who had also invented a steam-powered boat. The newly created federal Patent Commission did not award the broad monopoly patent that Fitch had asked for, but rather a patent of the modern kind, for the new design of Fitch's steamboat. It also awarded steam-engine-related patents dated that same day to Rumsey, Nathan Read
, and John Stevens
. The loss of a monopoly due to these same-day patent awards led many of Fitch's investors to leave his company. While his boats were mechanically successful, Fitch no longer had the financial resources to carry on.
Fitch's idea would be turned profitable two decades later by Robert Fulton
. Though Fulton was able to obtain a monopoly in the state of New York
because of the powerful influence of his partner Robert Livingston
, he was unable to gain a U.S. patent largely because he could not demonstrate the originality of his designs. Also, an original member of Fitch's company, William Thornton
, had become head of the newly created Patent Office
, and made the application process even more difficult for Fulton. Fitch had also received a patent in 1791 from France
, and in 1793, having given up hope of building a steamboat in America, he left for France, where an American investor, Aaron Vail
, had promised to help him build a boat there. But Fitch arrived just as the Reign of Terror
was beginning, and his plans had to be abandoned. He made his way to London
to make an attempt there, but that also failed. He returned to the United States in 1794 and made a few more tries to build a steamboat.
Failing this, he moved to Bardstown, Kentucky
, in 1797, where he hoped to sell some of the lands he had acquired there in the early 1780s, and use the proceeds to build a steamboat for use on the Ohio or Mississippi River. He arrived to find settlers occupying his properties, resulting in legal disputes that occupied him until his death on July 2, 1798 in Bardstown.
While living in Kentucky, Fitch continued to work on steam engine ideas. He built two models. One was lost in a fire in Bardstown, but the other was found in the attic of his daughter's house in Ohio in 1849. That model still exists at the Ohio Historical Society Museum
in Columbus. In the 1950s, a curator from the Smithsonian Museum examined it and concluded that it was "the prototype of a practical land-operating steam engine," meant to operate on tracks – in other words, a steam locomotive
It was not until four years after Fitch's death that Englishman Richard Trevithick
, in 1802, invented a full-size steam locomotive which, in 1804, hauled the world's first locomotive-hauled railway train, and within a short time the British invention led to the development of actual railways. Americans began importing English locomotives and copying them.
A life of continual failure, frustration and litigation wore Fitch down. He began drinking heavily once he returned to Bardstown in 1797. Fitch died of an overdose of opium pills, in what may have been suicide. He died on July 2, 1798, age 55, and was buried in Bardstown.
Fitch's legal dispute over state monopoly rights with fellow steamboat inventor James Rumsey and others helped bring about the enactment of the first Patent Act of 1790
. He is mentioned in the personal letters of several historical figures, including George Washington
, Benjamin Franklin
, Thomas Jefferson
, and James Madison
Despite his obscurity among other American inventors and engineering pioneers, such as Fulton and Peter Cooper
, Fitch's contributions have not been forgotten and he has been remembered with a number of memorials and namesakes.
The John Fitch Steamboat Museum on the grounds of Craven Hall
in Warminster, Pennsylvania
, includes a one-tenth scale (-long), model of Fitch's original steamboat.
Other remembrances include:
* An 1876 fresco
in the United States Capitol
by Constantino Brumidi
depicts Fitch working on one of his steamboat models.
* A memorial to Fitch stands in Bardstown, Kentucky
's Courthouse Square with a replica of his first steamboat.
* A small Fitch Monument in Warminster, Pennsylvania, was moved in September 2012 from York and Street Roads to the Craven Hall Historical Society site and site of the John Fitch Steamboat Museum, at the southeast corner of Street & Newtown Roads in Warminster
* John Fitch High School
was built on Bloomfield Avenue in Windsor, Connecticut
in 1922. It became an elementary school in 1952, and was converted to elderly housing in 1988, called Fitch Court, but its facade still bears Fitch's name and likeness carved in stone. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places
* The John Fitch Elementary School in Levittown, Pennsylvania
* The state of Connecticut designated US 5
through South Windsor
and East Windsor
as "John Fitch Boulevard". The four-lane highway runs parallel to, and often within sight of the Connecticut River
* There is also a small stone monument, erected in 1914, on King Street in South Windsor, Connecticut
, marking the approximate spot of John Fitch's birthplace.
* The state of New Jersey designated a section of NJ 29
, along the Delaware River
, the John Fitch Parkway.
* Fitch's journal and memoirs were published many years later as ''The Autobiography of John Fitch''.
* Howard Steamboat Museum
– includes exhibits about Fitch
Notes and references
* Sutcliffe, Andrea. ''Steam: The Untold Story of America's First Great Invention''. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
* Boyd, Thomas, ''Poor John Fitch: Inventor of the Steamboat'' (1972) Manchester, NH: Ayer Company Publishers ;
* Prager, Frank, editor (1976) ''The Autobiography of John Fitch'' Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society
* Watson, John F. (1850), ''Annals of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania'', King and Baird
* Wescott, Thompson (1857), ''The life of John Fitch, the inventor of the steamboat'', Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Company.
* "John Fitch." ''Dictionary of American Biography''. 1928–1936.
* "John Fitch." ''Webster's American Biographies''. G&C Merriam Co. 1975.
* Clark, BEG. "Steamboat Evolution, A Short History", publisher Lulu,
"JOHN FITCH," by John H. Lienhard
John Fitch Steamboat Museum website
Category:Continental Army soldiers
Category:People from Warminster, Pennsylvania
Category:People from South Windsor, Connecticut
Category:People of colonial Connecticut
Category:Suicides in Kentucky