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Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current
president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the Federal government of the United States#Executive branch, executive branch of the Federal gover ...

president of the United States
. A member of the
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
, he served as the 47th
vice president A vice president, also director in British English, is an officer An officer is a person who has a position of authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationsh ...
from 2009 to 2017 under
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
and represented
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
in the
United States Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, politi ...
from 1973 to 2009. Biden was born and raised in
Scranton, Pennsylvania Scranton is the sixth-largest city in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. It is the county seat and largest city of Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, Lackawanna County in Northeastern Pennsylvania's Wyoming Valley. With a population of 76,328 as of th ...

Scranton, Pennsylvania
, moving with his family to
New Castle County, Delaware New Castle County is the northernmost of the three counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in ...
in 1953 when he was ten. He studied at the
University of Delaware The University of Delaware (colloquially UD, UDel or Delaware) is a Public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. UD is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate' ...
before earning his law degree from
Syracuse University Syracuse University (Syracuse, 'Cuse, or SU) is a Private university, private research university in Syracuse, New York. The institution's roots can be traced to the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, founded in 1831 by the Methodist Episcopal Church i ...

Syracuse University
in 1968. He was elected to the
New Castle County Council New Castle County is the northernmost of the three counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in ...
in 1970 and became the sixth-youngest senator in U.S. history after he was elected to the United States Senate from Delaware in 1972, at age 29. Biden was the chair or
ranking memberIn United States politics, a ranking member is the most senior member of a congressional or state legislative committee from the minority party. On many committees the ranking minority member, along with the chairman, serve as ''ex officio An ''ex ...
of the
Senate Foreign Relations Committee The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the ...
for 12 years and was influential in foreign affairs during Obama's presidency. He also chaired the
Senate Judiciary Committee The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, informally the Senate Judiciary Committee, is a Standing committee (United States Congress), standing committee of 22 U.S. senators whose role is to oversee the United States Department of Jus ...
from 1987 to 1995, dealing with drug policy, crime prevention, and civil liberties issues; led the effort to pass the
Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, commonly referred to as the 1994 Crime Bill, the Clinton Crime Bill, or the Biden Crime Law, is an Act of Congress An Act of Congress is a statute A statute is a formal written ena ...
and the
Violence Against Women Act The Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (VAWA) was a United States federal law (Title IV of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, ) signed by US President, President Bill Clinton on September 13, 1994. The Act provided $1.6 billion t ...
; and oversaw six
U.S. Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a coun ...

U.S. Supreme Court
confirmation hearings, including the contentious hearings for Robert Bork and
Clarence Thomas Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States An associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States is any member of the Supreme Court of the United States The Supreme ...
. He ran unsuccessfully for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1988 and
2008 2008 was designated as: *International Year of LanguagesThe United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 2008 as the International Year of Languages, pursuant to a resolution of UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultura ...
. Biden was reelected to the Senate six times and was the fourth-most senior sitting senator at the time when he became Obama's vice president after they won the
2008 presidential election2008 presidential election may refer to: * 2008 Armenian presidential election * 2008 Azerbaijani presidential election * 2008 People's Republic of China presidential election * 2008 Cypriot presidential election * 2008 Czech presidential election * ...
, defeating
John McCain John Sidney McCain III (August 29, 1936 – August 25, 2018) was an American politician, statesman, and United States Navy officer who served as a United States Senator for Arizona from 1987 until his death in 2018. He previously served ...

John McCain
and his running mate
Sarah Palin Sarah Louise Palin (; née Heath; born February 11, 1964) is an American politician, commentator, author, and reality television personality, who served as the List of Governors of Alaska, ninth governor of Alaska from 2006 until Resignation o ...

Sarah Palin
. Obama and Biden were reelected in 2012, defeating
Mitt Romney Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) is an American politician and businessman serving as the Seniority in the United States Senate, junior United States Senate, United States senator from Utah since January 2019, succeeding Orrin Hatch ...

Mitt Romney
and his running mate
Paul Ryan Paul Davis Ryan (born January 29, 1970) is an American retired politician who served as the List of Speakers of the United States House of Representatives, 54th speaker of the United States House of Representatives from October 2015 to January ...

Paul Ryan
. During eight years as vice president, Biden leaned on his Senate experience and frequently represented the administration in negotiations with congressional Republicans, including on the
Budget Control Act of 2011 The Budget Control Act of 2011 () is a federal statute enacted by the 112th United States Congress and signed into law by US President Barack Obama on August 2, 2011. The Act brought conclusion to the 2011 US debt-ceiling crisis. The law in ...
, which resolved a debt ceiling crisis, and the
American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (ATRA; ) was enacted (January 1, 2013) and was passed by the United States Congress on January 2, 2013, and was signed into law by US President Barack Obama the next day. The Act centers on a partial resolu ...
, which addressed the impending " fiscal cliff". He also oversaw infrastructure spending in 2009 to counteract the
Great Recession The Great Recession was a period of marked general decline (recession In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution ( ...
. On foreign policy, Biden was a close counselor to the president and took a leading role in designing the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq in 2011. In 2017, Obama awarded Biden the
Presidential Medal of Freedom The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the to recognize people who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant publi ...

Presidential Medal of Freedom
with Distinction. Biden and his running mate
Kamala Harris Kamala Devi Harris ( ; born October 20, 1964) is an American politician and attorney who is the 49th and current vice president of the United States. She is the first female vice president and the highest-ranking female official in U.S. histor ...

Kamala Harris
defeated incumbent president
Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective reci ...

Donald Trump
and vice president
Mike Pence Michael Richard Pence (born June 7, 1959) is an American politician, broadcaster, and lawyer who served as the 48th vice president of the United States The vice president of the United States (VPOTUS) is the second-highest officer in the ...

Mike Pence
in the
2020 presidential election The following elections were scheduled to occur in 2020. The International Foundation for Electoral Systems maintains a comprehensive list of upcoming elections on its E-Guide Platform. The National Democratic Institute also maintains a calendar o ...
. Biden is the oldest president, the first to have a female vice president, the first from Delaware, and the second Catholic after
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
. His early presidential activity centered around proposing, lobbying for, and signing into law the
American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 The American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, also called the COVID-19 Stimulus Package or American Rescue Plan, is a $1.9 trillion economic stimulus bill passed by the 117th United States Congress The 117th United States Congress is the current m ...
to help the United States recover from the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...
and the
ongoing recession
ongoing recession
, as well as a series of executive orders. Biden's orders addressed the pandemic and reversed several Trump administration policies, including rejoining the
Paris Agreement The Paris Agreement (french: l'accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), on climate change mitigation, Climate change adaptation, adaptation, and Climate finance, finance, signed i ...
on
climate change Contemporary climate change includes both the global warming caused by humans, and its impacts on Earth's weather patterns. There have been previous periods of climate change, but the current changes are more rapid than any known even ...
and accepting new applications for
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) is a United States immigration policy that allows some individuals with unlawful presence in the United States after being brought to the country as children to receive a renewable two-year period o ...
(DACA) recipients, although a federal judge blocked the latter. Biden completed the withdrawal of all U.S. troops from Afghanistan by September 2021; during this, the
Afghan government fell and the Taliban seized control
Afghan government fell and the Taliban seized control
, causing Biden to face criticism over the manner of withdrawal, with allegations of poor planning. Biden proposed the Build Back Better Plan, aspects of which were incorporated into the bipartisan Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, which Biden signed into law in November 2021.


Early life (1942–1965)

Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. was born on November 20, 1942, at St. Mary's Hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, to Catherine Eugenia "Jean" Biden (née Finnegan) and Joseph Robinette Biden Sr. The oldest child in a Catholic family, he has a sister,
Valerie Valerie may refer to: People *Saint Valerie (disambiguation), a number of saints went by the name Valerie *Valerie (given name), a feminine given name Songs *Valerie (Steve Winwood song), "Valerie" (Steve Winwood song), a 1982 song by Steve Win ...
, and two brothers, Francis and James. Jean was of Irish descent, Witcover (2010), p. 8. while Joseph Sr. had English, French, and Irish ancestry. Biden's father had been wealthy, but suffered financial setbacks around the time Biden was born, and for several years the family lived with Biden's maternal grandparents. Scranton fell into economic decline during the 1950s and Biden's father could not find steady work. Beginning in 1953 when Biden was ten, the family lived an apartment in
Claymont, Delaware Claymont is a census-designated place (CDP) in New Castle County, Delaware, United States. The estimated 2017 population of the 19703 ZIP code, which Claymont encompasses, was 15,292. History The community now known as Claymont started on the ban ...
, before moving to a house in nearby Mayfield. Biden Sr. later became a successful
used-car salesman The automobile salesperson is one of many sales professions. The automobile salesman is a retail salesperson, who sells new or used cars. Unlike traditional retail sales, car sales are sometimes negotiable. Salesmen are employed by new car de ...
, maintaining the family in a middle-class lifestyle.''Almanac of American Politics'' 2008, p. 364. At
Archmere Academy Archmere Academy is a private Roman Catholic college University-preparatory school, preparatory school located in Claymont, Delaware, United States. A total of 514 students were enrolled for the 202021 academic year. The academy is co-educational ...
in Claymont, Biden played baseball and was a standout halfback and
wide receiver A wide receiver (WR), also referred to as a wideout, historically a split end, is an eligible receiver in gridiron football. A key skill position of the offense (American football), offense, WR gets its name from the player being split out "wi ...

wide receiver
on the
high school football High school football is gridiron football played by high school teams in the United States and Canada. It ranks among the most popular interscholastic sports in both countries, but its popularity is declining. According to the ''Washington Post ...
team. Though a poor student, he was
class president A class president, also known as a class representative, is usually the leader of a student body class, and presides over its class cabinet or organization within a student council A student council (also known as a student union or assoc ...
in his junior and senior years. Witcover (2010), pp. 40-41. Taylor (1990), p. 99. He graduated in 1961. At the
University of Delaware The University of Delaware (colloquially UD, UDel or Delaware) is a Public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university located in Newark, Delaware. UD is the largest university in Delaware. It offers three associate' ...
in Newark, Biden briefly played freshman football and, as an unexceptional student, earned a
Bachelor of Arts Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to ...
degree in 1965 with a
double major A double degree program, sometimes called a dual degree, combined degree, conjoint degree, joint degree or double graduation program, involves a student's working for two university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational ...
in history and
political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as ...
, and a
minor Minor may refer to: * Minor (law), a person under the age of certain legal activities. ** A person who has not reached the age of majority * Academic minor, a secondary field of study in undergraduate education Music theory *Minor chord ** Barbe ...
in English. Biden has a
stutter Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words, or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which t ...
, which has improved since his early twenties. He says he reduced it by reciting poetry before a mirror, but some observers suggested it affected his performance in the
2020 Democratic Party presidential debates The 2020 Democratic Party presidential debates took place among candidates A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some kind of position; for example: * to be ele ...
.


Marriages, law school, and early career (1966–1972)

On August 27, 1966, Biden married Neilia Hunter (19421972), a student at
Syracuse University Syracuse University (Syracuse, 'Cuse, or SU) is a Private university, private research university in Syracuse, New York. The institution's roots can be traced to the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, founded in 1831 by the Methodist Episcopal Church i ...

Syracuse University
, after overcoming her parents' reluctance for her to wed a Roman Catholic; the ceremony was held in a Catholic church in
Skaneateles, New York Skaneateles ( , ) is a Administrative divisions of New York#Town, town in Onondaga County, New York, Onondaga County, New York (state), New York, United States. The population was 7,209 at the 2010 census. The name is from the Iroquois term for t ...
. They had three children: Joseph R. "Beau" Biden III (19692015), Robert Hunter Biden (born 1970), and Naomi Christina "Amy" Biden (19711972). In 1968, Biden earned a
Juris Doctor The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as Doctor of Law or Doctor of Jurisprudence (J.D., JD, D.Jur., or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree A professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is ...
from
Syracuse University College of Law Syracuse University College of Law (SUCOL) is a Juris Doctor degree-granting law school A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for b ...
, ranked 76th in his class of 85, after failing a course due to an acknowledged "mistake" when he plagiarized a law review article for a paper he wrote in his first year at law school. He was admitted to the Delaware bar in 1969. Biden had not openly supported or opposed the Vietnam War until he ran for Senate and opposed Nixon's conduct of the war. While studying at the University of Delaware and Syracuse University, Biden obtained five student draft deferments, at a time when most draftees were sent to the
Vietnam War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Vietnam War , partof = the Indochina Wars The Indochina Wars ( vi, Chiến tranh Đông Dương) were a series of wars fought in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled ...
. In 1968, based on a physical examination, he was given a conditional medical deferment; in 2008, a spokesperson for Biden said his having had "asthma as a teenager" was the reason for the deferment. In 1968, Biden clerked at a
Wilmington Wilmington may refer to: Places Australia *Wilmington, South Australia, a town and locality **District Council of Wilmington, a former local government area **Wilmington railway line, a former railway line United Kingdom *Wilmington, Devon *Wil ...
law firm headed by prominent local
Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. ** Republicanism, the ideology in support of republics or against ...
William Prickett and, he later said, "thought of myself as a Republican". Reprinted in He disliked incumbent Democratic Delaware governor Charles L. Terry's conservative racial politics and supported a more liberal Republican, Russell W. Peterson, who defeated Terry in 1968. Biden was recruited by local Republicans but registered as an
Independent Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group), a group of modernist painters based in the New Hope, Pennsylvania, area of the United States during the early 1930s * Independent ...
because of his distaste for Republican presidential candidate
Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power o ...

Richard Nixon
. In 1969, Biden practiced law first as a
public defender A public defender is a lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings. The b ...
and then at a firm headed by a locally active Democrat''Current Biography Yearbook 1987'', p. 43. who named him to the Democratic Forum, a group trying to reform and revitalize the state party; Biden subsequently reregistered as a Democrat. He and another attorney also formed a law firm.
Corporate law Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules t ...
, however, did not appeal to him, and
criminal law Criminal law is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its env ...
did not pay well. He supplemented his income by managing properties. In 1970, Biden ran for the 4th district seat on the
New Castle County Council New Castle County is the northernmost of the three counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in ...
on a liberal platform that included support for public housing in the suburbs. The seat had been held by Republican Henry R. Folsom, who was running in the 5th District following a reapportionment of council districts. Biden won the general election by defeating Republican Lawrence T. Messick, and took office on January 5, 1971. He served until January 1, 1973, and was succeeded by Democrat Francis R. Swift. During his time on the county council, Biden opposed large highway projects, which he argued might disrupt Wilmington neighborhoods.


1972 U.S. Senate campaign in Delaware

In 1972, Biden defeated Republican incumbent to become the junior U.S. senator from Delaware. He was the only Democrat willing to challenge Boggs. With minimal campaign funds, he was given no chance of winning. Family members managed and staffed the campaign, which relied on meeting voters face-to-face and hand-distributing position papers, an approach made feasible by Delaware's small size. He received help from the
AFL–CIO The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL–CIO) is the largest federation of Labor unions in the United States, unions in the United States. It is made up of fifty-five national and international unions, toge ...
and Democratic pollster
Patrick Caddell Patrick Hayward Caddell (May 19, 1950 – February 16, 2019) was an American public opinion pollster and a political film consultant who served in the Carter administration and worked on presidential campaigns. Life and career Caddell wa ...
. His platform focused on the environment, withdrawal from Vietnam, civil rights, mass transit, equitable taxation, health care, and public dissatisfaction with "politics as usual". A few months before the election, Biden trailed Boggs by almost thirty percentage points, but his energy, attractive young family, and ability to connect with voters' emotions worked to his advantage, and he won with 50.5 percent of the vote. At the time of his election, he was still 29 years old, but reached the constitutionally required age of 30 before he was sworn in as Senator.


Death of wife and daughter

On December 18, 1972, a few weeks after the election, Biden's wife Neilia and one-year-old daughter Naomi were killed in an automobile accident while Christmas shopping in
Hockessin, Delaware Hockessin () is a census-designated place (CDP) in New Castle County, Delaware, New Castle County, Delaware, United States. The population was 13,527 at the United States Census, 2010, 2010 census. History Hockessin came into existence as a littl ...

Hockessin, Delaware
. Neilia's station wagon was hit by a
semi-trailer truck A semi-tractor-trailer truck, also known as simply a semi-trailer truck, semi-tractor truck, semi-tractor-trailer or tractor-trailer truck, is the combination of a tractor unit A tractor unit (also known as a truck unit, prime mover, ...
as she pulled out from an intersection. Their sons Beau (aged3) and Hunter (aged2) survived the accident and were taken to the hospital in fair condition, Beau with a broken leg and other wounds and Hunter with a minor skull fracture and other head injuries. Witcover (2010), pp. 93, 98. Biden considered resigning to care for them, but
Senate Majority Leader The positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader are held by two United States senators The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress or U.S. Congress is the bicame ...
Mike Mansfield Michael Joseph Mansfield (March 16, 1903 – October 5, 2001) was an American politician and diplomat. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as a US Representative (1943–1953) and a US Senator (1953–1977) from Montana Monta ...

Mike Mansfield
persuaded him not to. Years later, Biden said he had heard that the truck driver allegedly drank alcohol before the collision. The driver's family denied that claim, and the police never substantiated it. Biden later apologized to the family. The accident had filled him with anger and religious doubt. He wrote that he "felt God had played a horrible trick" on him, and he had trouble focusing on work.


Second marriage

Biden credits his second wife, teacher , with the renewal of his interest in politics and life; they met in 1975 on a and were married at the United Nations chapel in New York on June 17, 1977. They spent their honeymoon at
Lake Balaton Lake Balaton (, german: Plattensee, la, Lacus Pelso, sh, Blatno jezero, sk, Blatenské jazero, Slovene: ''Blatno jezero'') is a freshwater Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water Water is an Inorganic compou ...
in the
Hungarian People's Republic The Hungarian People's Republic ( hu, Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party state, one-party socialist state from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989. It was governed by the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, which was under the influence ...
, behind the
Iron Curtain The Iron Curtain was a political boundary dividing Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geo ...
. They are Roman Catholics and attend Mass at St. Joseph's on the Brandywine in Greenville, Delaware. Their daughter Ashley Biden (born 1981) is a social worker. She is married to physician Howard Krein. Beau Biden became an Army Judge Advocate in Iraq and later Delaware Attorney General; he died of brain cancer in 2015. Hunter Biden is a Washington lobbyist and investment adviser.


Teaching

From 1991 to 2008, as an adjunct professor, Biden co-taught a seminar on constitutional law at Widener University School of Law. The seminar often had a waiting list. Biden sometimes flew back from overseas to teach the class.


U.S. Senate (1973–2009)


Senate activities

In January 1973, Secretary of the United States Senate, secretary of the Senate Francis R. Valeo swore Biden in at the Delaware Division of the Wilmington Medical Center. Present were his sons Beau (whose leg was still in traction from the automobile accident) and Hunter and other family members. At 30, he was the sixth-youngest senator in U.S. history. To see his sons, Biden traveled by Amtrak, train between his Delaware home and D.C.—74 minutes each way—and maintained this habit throughout his 36 years in the Senate. During his early years in the Senate, Biden focused on consumer protection and environmental issues and called for greater government accountability. In a 1974 interview, he described himself as liberal on civil rights and liberties, senior citizens' concerns and healthcare but conservative on other issues, including abortion and military conscription. In his first decade in the Senate, Biden focused on arms control.''Current Biography Yearbook 1987'', p. 45. After Congress failed to ratify the SALT II Treaty signed in 1979 by General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Soviet general secretary Leonid Brezhnev and President Jimmy Carter, Biden met with Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko to communicate American concerns and secured changes that addressed the Senate Foreign Relations Committee's objections. When the Reagan administration wanted to interpret the 1972 SALT I treaty loosely to allow development of the Strategic Defense Initiative, Biden argued for strict adherence to the treaty. He received considerable attention when he excoriated Secretary of State George Shultz at a Senate hearing for the Reagan administration's support of South Africa despite its continued policy of apartheid. Biden became ranking minority member of the
Senate Judiciary Committee The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, informally the Senate Judiciary Committee, is a Standing committee (United States Congress), standing committee of 22 U.S. senators whose role is to oversee the United States Department of Jus ...
in 1981. In 1984, he was a Democratic floor manager for the successful passage of the Comprehensive Crime Control Act. His supporters praised him for modifying some of the law's worst provisions, and it was his most important legislative accomplishment to that time. In 1994, Biden helped pass the
Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, commonly referred to as the 1994 Crime Bill, the Clinton Crime Bill, or the Biden Crime Law, is an Act of Congress An Act of Congress is a statute A statute is a formal written ena ...
, also known as the Biden Crime Law, which included Federal Assault Weapons Ban, a ban on assault weapons, Cover story. and the
Violence Against Women Act The Violence Against Women Act of 1994 (VAWA) was a United States federal law (Title IV of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, ) signed by US President, President Bill Clinton on September 13, 1994. The Act provided $1.6 billion t ...
, which he has called his most significant legislation. The 1994 crime law was unpopular among progressives and criticized for resulting in mass incarceration; in 2019, Biden called his role in passing the bill a "big mistake", citing its policy on crack cocaine and saying that the bill "trapped an entire generation". In 1993, Biden voted for a provision that deemed homosexuality incompatible with military life, thereby banning gays from serving in the armed forces. In 1996, he voted for the Defense of Marriage Act, which prohibited the federal government from recognizing same-sex marriages, thereby barring individuals in such marriages from equal protection under federal law and allowing states to do the same. In 2015, the act was ruled unconstitutional in ''Obergefell v. Hodges''. Elected to the Senate in 1972, Biden was reelected in United States Senate election in Delaware, 1978, 1978, United States Senate election in Delaware, 1984, 1984, United States Senate election in Delaware, 1990, 1990, United States Senate election in Delaware, 1996, 1996, United States Senate election in Delaware, 2002, 2002, and United States Senate election in Delaware, 2008, 2008, regularly receiving about 60% of the vote. He was junior senator to William Roth, who was first elected in 1970, until Roth was defeated in 2000. , he was the List of members of the United States Congress by longevity of service, 18th-longest-serving senator in U.S. history.


Opposition to busing

In the mid-1970s, Biden was one of the Senate's strongest opponents of race-integration busing. His Delaware constituents strongly opposed it, and such opposition nationwide later led his party to mostly abandon school integration policies. In his first Senate campaign, Biden had expressed support for busing to remedy ''de jure'' Racial segregation, segregation, as in the South, but opposed its use to remedy ''de facto'' segregation arising from racial patterns of neighborhood residency, as in Delaware; he opposed a proposed constitutional amendment banning busing entirely. In May 1974, Biden voted to table a proposal containing anti-busing and anti-desegregation clauses but later voted for a modified version containing a qualification that it was not intended to weaken the judiciary's power to enforce the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, 5th Amendment and Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, 14th Amendment. In 1975, he supported a proposal that would have prevented the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare from cutting federal funds to districts that refused to integrate; he said busing was a "bankrupt idea [violating] the cardinal rule of common sense" and that his opposition would make it easier for other liberals to follow suit.''Current Biography Yearbook 1987'', p. 44. At the same time he supported initiatives on housing, job opportunities and voting rights. Biden supported a measure forbidding the use of federal funds for transporting students beyond the school closest to them. In 1977, he co-sponsored an amendment closing loopholes in that measure, which President Carter signed into law in 1978.


Brain surgeries

In February 1988, after several episodes of increasingly severe neck pain, Biden was taken by ambulance to Walter Reed Army Medical Center for surgery to correct a leaking intracranial berry aneurysm. While recuperating, he suffered a pulmonary embolism, a serious complication. After a second aneurysm was surgically repaired in May, Biden's recuperation kept him away from the Senate for seven months.


1988 presidential campaign

Biden formally declared his candidacy for the 1988 Democratic Party presidential primaries, 1988 Democratic presidential nomination on June 9, 1987. He was considered a strong candidate because of his moderate image, his speaking ability, his high profile as chair of the Senate Judiciary Committee at the upcoming Robert Bork Supreme Court nomination hearings, and his appeal to Baby Boomers; he would have been the second-youngest person elected president, after
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
. He raised more in the first quarter of 1987 than any other candidate. Taylor (1990), p. 83. By August his campaign's messaging had become confused due to staff rivalries, and in September, he was accused of plagiarism, plagiarizing a speech by British Labour Party (UK), Labour Party leader Neil Kinnock. Biden's speech had similar lines about being the first person in his family to attend university. Biden had credited Kinnock with the formulation on previous occasions, but did not on two occasions in late August. Earlier that year he had also used passages from a 1967 speech by Robert F. Kennedy (for which his aides took blame) and a short phrase from inaugural address of John F. Kennedy, John F. Kennedy's inaugural address; two years earlier he had used a 1976 passage by Hubert Humphrey. Biden responded that politicians often borrow from one another without giving credit, and that one of his rivals for the nomination, Jesse Jackson, had called him to point out that he (Jackson) had used the same material by Humphrey that Biden had used. A few days later, an incident in law school in which Biden drew text from a ''Fordham Law Review'' article with inadequate citations was publicized. He was required to repeat the course and passed with high marks. At Biden's request the Delaware Supreme Court's Board of Professional Responsibility reviewed the incident and concluded that he had violated no rules. Biden has made several false or exaggerated claims about his early life: that he had earned three degrees in college, that he attended law school on a full scholarship, that he had graduated in the top half of his class, and that he had marched in the civil rights movement. The limited amount of other news about the presidential race amplified these disclosures and on September 23, 1987, Biden withdrew his candidacy, saying it had been overrun by "the exaggerated shadow" of his past mistakes. Kinnock himself was more forgiving; the two men met in 1988, forming an enduring friendship.


Senate Judiciary Committee

Biden was a longtime member of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary. He chaired it from 1987 to 1995 and was a ranking member, ranking minority member from 1981 to 1987 and again from 1995 to 1997. As chair, Biden presided over two highly contentious
U.S. Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a coun ...

U.S. Supreme Court
confirmation hearings. When Robert Bork Supreme Court nomination, Robert Bork was nominated in 1988, Biden reversed his approvalgiven in an interview the previous yearof a hypothetical Bork nomination. Conservatives were angered,Bronner, ''Battle for Justice'', pp. 138–139, 214, 305. but at the hearings' close Biden was praised for his fairness, humor, and courage. Rejecting the arguments of some Bork opponents, Biden framed his objections to Bork in terms of the conflict between Bork's strong originalism and the view that the U.S. Constitution provides rights to liberty and privacy beyond those explicitly enumerated in its text. Bork's nomination was rejected in the committee by a 9–5 vote and then in the full Senate, 58–42. During Clarence Thomas Supreme Court nomination, Clarence Thomas's nomination hearings in 1991, Biden's questions on constitutional issues were often convoluted to the point that Thomas sometimes lost track of them,Mayer; Abramson, ''Strange Justice'', p. 213, 218, 336. and Thomas later wrote that Biden's questions were akin to "beanballs". After the committee hearing closed, the public learned that Anita Hill, a University of Oklahoma law school professor, had accused Thomas of Sexual harassment, making unwelcome sexual comments when they had worked together. Biden had known of some of these charges, but initially shared them only with the committee because Hill was then unwilling to testify. The committee hearing was reopened and Hill testified, but Biden did not permit testimony from other witnesses, such as a woman who had made similar charges and experts on harassment, saying he wanted to preserve Thomas's privacy and the hearings' decency. The full Senate confirmed Thomas by a 52–48 vote, with Biden opposed. Liberal legal advocates and women's groups felt strongly that Biden had mishandled the hearings and not done enough to support Hill. Biden later sought out women to serve on the Judiciary Committee and emphasized women's issues in the committee's legislative agenda. In 2019, he told Hill he regretted his treatment of her, but Hill said afterward she remained unsatisfied. Biden was critical of United States Office of the Independent Counsel, Independent Counsel Ken Starr during the 1990s Whitewater controversy and Lewinsky scandal investigations, saying "it's going to be a cold day in hell" before another independent counsel would be granted similar powers. He voted to acquit during the impeachment of President Clinton. During the 2000s, Biden sponsored bankruptcy legislation sought by credit card issuers. Clinton vetoed the bill in 2000, but it passed in 2005 as the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act, with Biden one of only 18 Democrats to vote for it, while leading Democrats and consumer rights organizations opposed it. As a senator, Biden strongly supported increased Amtrak funding and rail security.


Senate Foreign Relations Committee

Biden was a longtime member of the
Senate Foreign Relations Committee The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the ...
. He became its ranking minority member in 1997 and chaired it from June 2001 to 2003 and 2007 to 2009. His positions were generally liberal internationalist. He collaborated effectively with Republicans and sometimes went against elements of his own party. During this time he met with at least 150 leaders from 60 countries and international organizations, becoming a well-known Democratic voice on foreign policy. Biden voted against authorization for the Gulf War in 1991, siding with 45 of the 55 Democratic senators; he said the U.S. was bearing almost all the burden in the Coalition of the Gulf War, anti-Iraq coalition. Biden became interested in the Yugoslav Wars after hearing about Serbs, Serbian abuses during the Croatian War of Independence in 1991. Once the Bosnian War broke out, Biden was among the first to call for the "Lift and strike (Bosnia), lift and strike" policy of lifting the arms embargo, training Bosnian Muslims and supporting them with NATO air strikes, and investigating war crimes. The George H. W. Bush administration and Clinton administration were both reluctant to implement the policy, fearing Balkan entanglement. In April 1993, Biden spent a week in the Balkans and held a tense three-hour meeting with Serbian leader Slobodan Milošević. Biden related that he had told Milošević, "I think you're a damn war criminal and you should be tried as one." Biden wrote an amendment in 1992 to compel the Bush administration to arm the Bosnians, but deferred in 1994 to a somewhat softer stance the Clinton administration preferred, before signing on the following year to a stronger measure sponsored by Bob Dole and Joe Lieberman. The engagement led to a successful NATO peacekeeping effort. Biden has called his role in affecting Balkans policy in the mid-1990s his "proudest moment in public life" related to foreign policy. As chair, Biden contributed to successfully encouraging the Clinton administration to commit the resources and political capital to broker what became the 1998 Good Friday Agreement between the governments of Ireland and the United Kingdom through the Northern Ireland peace process. In 1999, during the Kosovo War, Biden supported the 1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. He and Senator
John McCain John Sidney McCain III (August 29, 1936 – August 25, 2018) was an American politician, statesman, and United States Navy officer who served as a United States Senator for Arizona from 1987 until his death in 2018. He previously served ...

John McCain
co-sponsored the McCain-Biden Kosovo Resolution, which called on Clinton to use all necessary force, including ground troops, to confront Milošević over Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav actions toward Kosovo Albanians, ethnic Albanians in Kosovo.


Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq

Biden was a strong supporter of the War in Afghanistan (2001–present), War in Afghanistan, saying, "Whatever it takes, we should do it." As head of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he said in 2002 that Iraqi president Saddam Hussein was a threat to national security and there was no other option than to "eliminate" that threat. In October 2002, he voted in favor of the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq, approving the U.S. Invasion of Iraq, U.S. invasion of Iraq. As chair of the committee, he assembled a series of witnesses to testify in favor of the authorization. They gave testimony grossly misrepresenting the intent, history, and status of Saddam and his secular government, which was an avowed enemy of al Qaida, al-Qaida, and touted Iraq's fictional possession of Weapons of Mass Destruction, weapons of mass destruction. Biden eventually became a critic of the war and viewed his vote and role as a "mistake", but did not push for withdrawal. He supported the appropriations for the occupation, but argued that the war should be internationalized, that more soldiers were needed, and that the Bush administration should "level with the American people" about its cost and length.''Almanac of American Politics'' 2008, p. 365. By late 2006, Biden's stance had shifted considerably. He opposed the Iraq War troop surge of 2007, troop surge of 2007, saying General David Petraeus was "dead, flat wrong" in believing the surge could work. Biden instead advocated dividing Iraq into a loose federalism, federation of three ethnic group, ethnic states. In November 2006, Biden and Leslie H. Gelb, president emeritus of the Council on Foreign Relations, released a comprehensive strategy to end Civil war in Iraq (2006-07), sectarian violence in Iraq. Rather than continue the existing approach or withdrawing, the plan called for "a third way": federalizing Iraq and giving Kurds, Shiites, and Sunni Islam, Sunnis "breathing room" in their own regions. In September 2007, a non-binding resolution endorsing the plan passed the Senate, but the idea was unfamiliar, had no political constituency, and failed to gain traction. Iraq's political leadership denounced the resolution as ''de facto'' partitioning of the country, and the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad issued a statement distancing itself from it. In May 2008, Biden sharply criticized President George W. Bush's speech to Israel's Knesset in which Bush compared some Democrats to Western leaders who Munich Agreement, appeased Hitler before World WarII; Biden called the speech "bullshit", "malarkey", and "outrageous". He later apologized for his language.


2008 presidential campaign

After exploring the possibility of a run in several previous cycles, in January 2007, Biden declared 2008 Democratic Party presidential primaries, his candidacy in the 2008 elections. During his campaign, Biden focused on the Iraq War, his record as chairman of major Senate committees, and his foreign-policy experience. In mid-2007, Biden stressed his foreign policy expertise compared to Obama's. Biden was noted for his one-liners during the campaign; in one debate he said of Republican candidate Rudy Giuliani: "There's only three things he mentions in a sentence: a noun, and a verb and 9/11." Biden had difficulty raising funds, struggled to draw people to his rallies, and failed to gain traction against the high-profile candidacies of Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton. He never rose above single digits in Nationwide opinion polling for the Democratic Party 2008 presidential candidates, national polls of the Democratic candidates. In the first contest on January 3, 2008, Biden placed fifth in the Iowa Democratic caucuses, 2008, Iowa caucuses, garnering slightly less than one percent of the state delegates. He withdrew from the race that evening. Despite its lack of success, Biden's 2008 campaign raised his stature in the political world. In particular, it changed the relationship between Biden and Obama. Although they had served together on the
Senate Foreign Relations Committee The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the ...
, they had not been close: Biden resented Obama's quick rise to political stardom,Wolffe, ''Renegade'', p. 218. while Obama viewed Biden as garrulous and patronizing. Having gotten to know each other during 2007, Obama appreciated Biden's campaign style and appeal to working-class voters, and Biden said he became convinced Obama was "the real deal".


2008 vice-presidential campaign

Shortly after Biden withdrew from the presidential race, Obama privately told him he was interested in finding an important place for Biden in his administration. Biden declined Obama's first request to vet him for the vice-presidential slot, fearing the vice presidency would represent a loss in status and voice from his Senate position, but he later changed his mind. In early August, Obama and Biden met in secret to discuss the possibility, and developed a strong personal rapport. On August 22, 2008, Obama announced that Biden would be his running mate. ''The New York Times'' reported that the strategy behind the choice reflected a desire to fill out the ticket with someone with foreign policy and national security experience—and not to help the ticket win a swing state or to emphasize Obama's "change" message. Others pointed out Biden's appeal to middle-class and blue-collar voters, as well as his willingness to aggressively challenge Republican nominee
John McCain John Sidney McCain III (August 29, 1936 – August 25, 2018) was an American politician, statesman, and United States Navy officer who served as a United States Senator for Arizona from 1987 until his death in 2018. He previously served ...

John McCain
in a way that Obama seemed uncomfortable doing at times. In accepting Obama's offer, Biden ruled out running for president again in 2016, but his comments in later years seemed to back off that stance, as he did not want to diminish his political power by appearing uninterested in advancement. Biden was officially nominated for vice president on August 27 by voice vote at the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Denver. Biden's vice-presidential campaigning gained little media visibility, as far greater press attention was focused on the Republican running mate, List of Governors of Alaska, Alaska Governor
Sarah Palin Sarah Louise Palin (; née Heath; born February 11, 1964) is an American politician, commentator, author, and reality television personality, who served as the List of Governors of Alaska, ninth governor of Alaska from 2006 until Resignation o ...

Sarah Palin
. During one week in September 2008, for instance, the Pew Research Center's Project for Excellence in Journalism found that Biden was included in only five percent of coverage of the race, far less than the other three candidates on the tickets received. Biden nevertheless focused on campaigning in economically challenged areas of swing states and trying to win over blue-collar Democrats, especially those who had supported Hillary Clinton. Biden attacked McCain heavily despite a long-standing personal friendship. He said, "That guy I used to know, he's gone. It literally saddens me." As the financial crisis of 2007–2010 reached a peak with the financial crisis of 2007–2010, liquidity crisis of September 2008 and the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, proposed bailout of the United States financial system became a major factor in the campaign, Biden voted in favor of the $700billion HR1424, Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, which went on to pass in the Senate 74–25. On October 2, 2008, Biden participated in the United States vice-presidential debate, 2008, vice-presidential debate with Palin at Washington University in St. Louis. Post-debate polls found that while Palin exceeded many voters' expectations, Biden had won the debate overall. During the campaign's final days, he focused on less populated, older, less well-off areas of battleground states, especially Florida, Ohio, and Pennsylvania, where polling indicated he was popular and where Obama had not campaigned or performed well in the Democratic primaries. He also campaigned in some normally Republican states, as well as in areas with large Catholic populations. Under instructions from the campaign, Biden kept his speeches succinct and tried to avoid offhand remarks, such as one he made about Obama's being tested by a foreign power soon after taking office, which had attracted negative attention. Privately, Biden's remarks frustrated Obama. "How many times is Biden gonna say something stupid?" he asked. Obama campaign staffers referred to Biden blunders as "Joe bombs" and kept Biden uninformed about strategy discussions, which in turn irked Biden. Relations between the two campaigns became strained for a month, until Biden apologized on a call to Obama and the two built a stronger partnership. Publicly, Obama strategist David Axelrod (political consultant), David Axelrod said Biden's high popularity ratings had outweighed any unexpected comments. Nationally, Biden had a 60% favorability rating in a Pew Research Center poll, compared to Palin's 44%. On November 4, 2008, Obama and Biden were elected with 53% of the popular vote and 365 Electoral College (United States), electoral votes to McCain–Palin's 173. At the same time Biden was running for vice president he was also running for reelection to the Senate, as permitted by Delaware law.''Almanac of American Politics'' 2008, p. 366. On November4, he was 2008 United States Senate election in Delaware, reelected to the Senate, defeating Republican Christine O'Donnell. Having won both races, Biden made a point of waiting to resign from the Senate until he was sworn in for his seventh term on January 6, 2009. He became the youngest senator ever to start a seventh full term, and said, "In all my life, the greatest honor bestowed upon me has been serving the people of Delaware as their United States senator." Biden cast his last Senate vote on January 15, supporting the release of the second $350billion for the Troubled Asset Relief Program, and resignation from the United States Senate, resigned from the Senate later that day. In an emotional farewell, Biden told the Senate: "Every good thing I have seen happen here, every bold step taken in the 36-plus years I have been here, came not from the application of pressure by interest groups, but through the maturation of personal relationships." Delaware Governor Ruth Ann Minner appointed longtime Biden adviser Ted Kaufman to fill Biden's vacated Senate seat.


Vice presidency (2009–2017)


First term, 2009–2013

Biden said he intended to eliminate some explicit roles assumed by George W. Bush's vice president, Dick Cheney, and did not intend to emulate any previous vice presidency. He chaired Obama's transition team and headed an initiative to improve middle-class economic well-being. In early January 2009, in his last act as chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, he visited the leaders of Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan, and on January 20 he was sworn in as the 47th vice president of the United Statesthe first vice president from Delaware and the first Roman Catholic vice president. Obama was soon comparing Biden to a basketball player "who does a bunch of things that don't show up in the stat sheet". In May, Biden visited Kosovo and affirmed the U.S. position that its "independence is irreversible". Biden lost an internal debate to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton about sending 21,000 new troops to War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Afghanistan, but his skepticism was valued, and in 2009, Biden's views gained more influence as Obama reconsidered his Afghanistan strategy. Biden visited Iraq about every two months, becoming the administration's point man in delivering messages to Iraqi leadership about expected progress there. More generally, overseeing Iraq policy became Biden's responsibility: Obama was said to have said, "Joe, you do Iraq." Biden said Iraq "could be one of the great achievements of this administration". His January 2010 visit to Iraq in the midst of turmoil over banned candidates from the Iraqi parliamentary election, 2010, upcoming Iraqi parliamentary election resulted in 59 of the several hundred candidates being reinstated by the Iraqi government two days later. By 2012, Biden had made eight trips there, but his oversight of U.S. policy in Iraq receded with the exit of U.S. troops in 2011. Biden oversaw American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009#Infrastructure Investment, infrastructure spending from the Obama stimulus package intended to help counteract the Late-2000s recession, ongoing recession. During this period, Biden was satisfied that no major instances of waste or corruption had occurred, and when he completed that role in February 2011, he said the number of fraud incidents with stimulus monies had been less than one percent. In late April 2009, Biden's off-message response to a question during the beginning of the 2009 flu pandemic, swine flu outbreak, that he would advise family members against traveling on airplanes or subways, led to a swift retraction by the White House. The remark revived Biden's reputation for Political gaffe, gaffes. Confronted with rising unemployment through July 2009, Biden acknowledged that the administration had "misread how bad the economy was" but maintained confidence the stimulus package would create many more jobs once the pace of expenditures picked up. On March 23, 2010, a microphone picked up Biden telling the president that his signing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was "a big fucking deal" during live national news telecasts. Despite their different personalities, Obama and Biden formed a friendship, partly based around Obama's daughter Sasha and Biden's granddaughter Maisy, who attended Sidwell Friends School together. Members of the Obama administration said Biden's role in the White House was to be a contrarian and force others to defend their positions. Rahm Emanuel, White House chief of staff, said that Biden helped counter groupthink. White House press secretary Jay Carney, Biden's former communications director, said Biden played the role of "the bad guy in the Situation Room". Another senior Obama advisor said Biden "is always prepared to be the skunk at the family picnic to make sure we are as intellectually honest as possible." Obama said, "The best thing about Joe is that when we get everybody together, he really forces people to think and defend their positions, to look at things from every angle, and that is very valuable for me." The Bidens maintained a relaxed atmosphere at their Number One Observatory Circle, official residence in Washington, often entertaining their grandchildren, and regularly returned to their home in Delaware. Biden campaigned heavily for Democrats in the United States elections, 2010, 2010 midterm elections, maintaining an attitude of optimism in the face of predictions of large-scale losses for the party. Following big Republican gains in the elections and the departure of White House chief of staff Rahm Emanuel, Biden's past relationships with Republicans in Congress became more important. He led the successful administration effort to gain Senate approval for the New START treaty. In December 2010, Biden's advocacy for a middle ground, followed by his negotiations with Senate minority leader Mitch McConnell, were instrumental in producing the administration's compromise tax package that included a temporary extension of the Bush tax cuts. Biden then took the lead in trying to sell the agreement to a reluctant Democratic caucus in Congress. The package passed as the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010. In March 2011, Obama delegated Biden to lead negotiations with Congress to resolve federal spending levels for the rest of the year and avoid a government shutdown. By May 2011, a "Biden panel" with six congressional members was trying to reach a bipartisan deal on raising the United States public debt, U.S. debt ceiling as part of an overall Government budget deficit, deficit reduction plan. The United States debt-ceiling crisis of 2011, U.S. debt ceiling crisis developed over the next few months, but Biden's relationship with McConnell again proved key in breaking a deadlock and bringing about a deal to resolve it, in the form of the
Budget Control Act of 2011 The Budget Control Act of 2011 () is a federal statute enacted by the 112th United States Congress and signed into law by US President Barack Obama on August 2, 2011. The Act brought conclusion to the 2011 US debt-ceiling crisis. The law in ...
, signed on August 2, 2011, the same day an unprecedented Sovereign default, U.S. default had loomed. Biden had spent the most time of anyone in the administration bargaining with Congress on the debt question, and one Republican staffer said, "Biden's the only guy with real negotiating authority, and [McConnell] knows that his word is good. He was a key to the deal." Some reports suggest that Biden opposed proceeding with the May 2011 U.S. mission to kill Osama bin Laden, lest failure adversely affect Obama's reelection prospects. He took the lead in notifying Congressional leaders of the successful outcome.


Reelection

In October 2010, Biden said Obama had asked him to remain as his running mate for the 2012 United States presidential election, 2012 presidential election, but with Obama's popularity on the decline, White House Chief of Staff William M. Daley conducted some secret polling and focus group research in late 2011 on the idea of replacing Biden on the ticket with Hillary Clinton. The notion was dropped when the results showed no appreciable improvement for Obama, and White House officials later said Obama had never entertained the idea. Biden's May 2012 statement that he was "absolutely comfortable" with same-sex marriage gained considerable public attention in comparison to Obama's position, which had been described as "evolving". Biden made his statement without administration consent, and Obama and his aides were quite irked, since Obama had planned to shift position several months later, in the build-up to the party convention, and since Biden had previously counseled the president to avoid the issue lest key Catholic voters be offended. Gay rights advocates seized upon Biden's statement, and within days, Obama announced that he too supported same-sex marriage, an action in part forced by Biden's remarks. Biden apologized to Obama in private for having spoken out, while Obama acknowledged publicly it had been done from the heart. The incident showed that Biden still struggled at times with message discipline, as ''Time'' wrote, "Everyone knows Biden's greatest strength is also his greatest weakness." Relations were also strained between the vice presidential and presidential campaigns when Biden appeared to use his position to bolster fundraising contacts for a possible run for president in 2016 United States presidential election, 2016, and he ended up being excluded from Obama campaign strategy meetings. The Obama campaign nevertheless valued Biden as a retail-level politician who could connect with disaffected blue-collar workers and rural residents, and he had a heavy schedule of appearances in swing states as the Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2012, reelection campaign began in earnest in spring 2012. An August 2012 remark before a mixed-race audience that Republican proposals to relax Wall Street regulations would "put y'all back in chains" led to a similar analysis of Biden's face-to-face campaigning abilities versus his tendency to go off track. The ''Los Angeles Times'' wrote, "Most candidates give the same stump speech over and over, putting reporters if not the audience to sleep. But during any Biden speech, there might be a dozen moments to make press handlers cringe, and prompt reporters to turn to each other with amusement and confusion." Time (magazine), ''Time'' magazine wrote that Biden often went too far and "Along with the familiar Washington mix of neediness and overconfidence, Biden's brain is wired for more than the usual amount of goofiness." Biden was nominated for a second term as vice president at the 2012 Democratic National Convention in September. Debating his Republican counterpart, Representative
Paul Ryan Paul Davis Ryan (born January 29, 1970) is an American retired politician who served as the List of Speakers of the United States House of Representatives, 54th speaker of the United States House of Representatives from October 2015 to January ...

Paul Ryan
, in the 2012 United States presidential debates#October 11: Vice presidential debate (Centre College), vice-presidential debate on October 11 he made a spirited and emotional defense of the Obama administration's record and energetically attacked the Republican ticket. On November 6, Obama and Biden won reelection over
Mitt Romney Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) is an American politician and businessman serving as the Seniority in the United States Senate, junior United States Senate, United States senator from Utah since January 2019, succeeding Orrin Hatch ...

Mitt Romney
and Paul Ryan with 332 of 538 Electoral College (United States), Electoral College votes and 51% of the popular vote. In December 2012, Obama named Biden to head the Gun Violence Task Force, created to address the causes of gun violence in the United States in the aftermath of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Later that month, during the final days before the United States fell off the " fiscal cliff", Biden's relationship with McConnell again proved important as the two negotiated a deal that led to the
American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (ATRA; ) was enacted (January 1, 2013) and was passed by the United States Congress on January 2, 2013, and was signed into law by US President Barack Obama the next day. The Act centers on a partial resolu ...
being passed at the start of 2013. It made many of the Bush tax cuts permanent but raised rates on upper income levels.


Second term, 2013–2017

Biden was Second inauguration of Barack Obama, inaugurated to a second term on January 20, 2013, at a small ceremony at Number One Observatory Circle, his official residence, with Justice Sonia Sotomayor presiding (a public ceremony took place on January 21). Biden played little part in discussions that led to the October 2013 passage of the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014, which resolved the 2013 United States federal government shutdown, federal government shutdown of 2013 and the United States debt-ceiling crisis of 2013, debt-ceiling crisis of 2013. This was because Senate majority leader Harry Reid and other Democratic leaders cut him out of any direct talks with Congress, feeling Biden had given too much away during previous negotiations. Biden's Violence Against Women Act was reauthorized again in 2013. The act led to related developments, such as the White House Council on Women and Girls, begun in the first term, as well as the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault, begun in January 2014 with Biden and Valerie Jarrett as co-chairs. Biden discussed federal guidelines on sexual assault on university campuses while giving a speech at the University of New Hampshire. He said, "No means no, if you're drunk or you're sober. No means no if you're in bed, in a dorm or on the street. No means no even if you said yes at first and you changed your mind. No means no." Biden favored arming Timber Sycamore, Syria's rebel fighters. As Timeline of the Iraq War, Iraq fell apart during 2014, renewed attention was paid to the Biden-Gelb Iraqi federalization plan of 2006, with some observers suggesting Biden had been right all along. Biden himself said the U.S. would follow ISIL "to the gates of hell". Biden had close relationships with several Latin American leaders and was assigned a focus on the region during the administration; he visited the region 16 times during his vice presidency, the most of any president or vice president. In 2015, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Speaker of the House John Boehner and Party leaders of the United States Senate, Senate majority leader Mitch McConnell invited Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu to address a joint session of Congress without notifying the Obama administration. This defiance of protocol led Biden and more than 50 congressional Democratic Party (United States), Democrats to skip Netanyahu's speech. In August 2016, Biden visited Serbia, where he met with Serbian president Aleksandar Vučić and expressed his condolences for civilian victims of the bombing campaign during the Kosovo War. In Kosovo, he attended a ceremony renaming a highway after his son Beau, in honor of Beau's service to Kosovo in training its judges and prosecutors. Biden never List of tie-breaking votes cast by vice presidents of the United States, cast a tie-breaking vote in the Senate, making him the longest-serving vice president with this distinction.


Role in the 2016 presidential campaign

During his second term, Biden was often said to be preparing for a possible bid for the 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2016 Democratic presidential nomination. With his family, many friends, and donors encouraging him in mid-2015 to enter the race, and with Hillary Clinton's favorability ratings in decline at that time, Biden was reported to again be seriously considering the prospect and a "Draft (politics), Draft Biden 2016" Political action committee, PAC was established. , Biden was still uncertain about running. He felt his son's recent death had largely drained his emotional energy, and said, "nobody has a right... to seek that office unless they're willing to give it 110% of who they are." On October 21, speaking from a podium in the White House Rose Garden, Rose Garden with his wife and Obama by his side, Biden announced his decision not to run for president in 2016. In January 2016, Biden affirmed that it was the right decision, but admitted to regretting not running for president "every day". After Obama endorsed Hillary Clinton on June 9, 2016, Biden endorsed her later that day. Throughout the 2016 United States presidential election, 2016 election, Biden strongly criticized Clinton's opponent, Donald Trump, in often colorful terms.


Subsequent activities (2017–2019)

After leaving the vice presidency, Biden became a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, while continuing to lead efforts to find treatments for cancer. In 2017 he wrote a memoir, ''Promise Me, Dad'', and went on a book tour. Biden earned $15.6million in 2017–2018. In 2018, he gave a eulogy for Senator
John McCain John Sidney McCain III (August 29, 1936 – August 25, 2018) was an American politician, statesman, and United States Navy officer who served as a United States Senator for Arizona from 1987 until his death in 2018. He previously served ...

John McCain
, praising McCain's embrace of American ideals and bipartisan friendships. Biden remained in the public eye, endorsing candidates while continuing to comment on politics, climate change, and the presidency of Donald Trump. He also continued to speak out in favor of LGBT rights, continuing advocacy on an issue he had become more closely associated with during his vice presidency. In 2019, Biden criticized Brunei for its intention to implement Sharia, Islamic laws that would allow death by stoning for adultery and homosexuality, calling it "appalling and immoral" and saying, "There is no excuse—not culture, not tradition—for this kind of hate and inhumanity." By 2019, Biden and his wife reported that their assets had increased to between $2.2 million and $8 million from speaking engagements and a contract to write a set of books.


2020 presidential campaign


Speculation and announcement

Between 2016 and 2019, media outlets often mentioned Biden as a likely candidate for president in 2020. When asked if he would run, he gave varied and ambivalent answers, saying "never say never". At one point he suggested he did not see a scenario where he would run again, but a few days later, he said, "I'll run if I can walk." A political action committee known as Time for Biden was formed in January 2018, seeking Biden's entry into the race. He finally launched his campaign on April 25, 2019, saying he was prompted to run, among other reasons, by his "sense of duty."


Campaign

In September 2019, it was reported that Trump had pressured Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelensky to investigate Biden–Ukraine conspiracy theory, alleged wrongdoing by Biden and his son Hunter Biden. Despite the allegations, no evidence was produced of any wrongdoing by the Bidens. The media widely interpreted this pressure to investigate the Bidens as trying to hurt Biden's chances of winning the presidency, resulting in Trump–Ukraine scandal, a political scandal and First impeachment of Donald Trump, Trump's impeachment by the House of Representatives. Beginning in 2019, Trump and his allies falsely accused Biden of getting the Ukrainian prosecutor general Viktor Shokin fired because he was supposedly pursuing an investigation into Burisma Holdings, which employed Hunter Biden. Biden was accused of withholding $1billion in aid from Ukraine in this effort. In 2015, Biden pressured the Ukrainian parliament to remove Shokin because the United States, the European Union and other international organizations considered Shokin corrupt and ineffective, and in particular because Shokin was not assertively investigating Burisma. The withholding of the $1billion in aid was part of this official policy. The Senate Homeland Security Committee and Senate Finance Committee, led by Republicans, investigated allegations of wrongdoing by the Bidens in Ukraine, ultimately releasing a report in September 2020 that detailed no evidence of wrongdoing by Joe Biden, and concluded that it was "not clear" whether Hunter Biden's role in Burisma "affected U.S. policy toward Ukraine". In March 2019 and April 2019, Biden was accused by eight women of previous instances of inappropriate physical contact, such as embracing, touching or kissing. Biden had previously described himself as a "tactile politician" and admitted this behavior has caused trouble for him. In April 2019, Biden pledged to be more "respectful of people's personal space". Throughout 2019, Biden stayed generally ahead of other Democrats in national polls. Despite this, he finished fourth in the 2020 Iowa caucuses, Iowa caucuses, and eight days later, fifth in the New Hampshire presidential primary, New Hampshire primary. He performed better in the Nevada presidential caucuses, Nevada caucuses, reaching the 15% required for delegates, but still was behind Bernie Sanders 2020 presidential campaign, Bernie Sanders by 21.6 percentage points. Making strong appeals to black voters on the campaign trail and in the South Carolina debate, Biden won the 2020 South Carolina Democratic primary, South Carolina primary by more than 28 points. After the withdrawals and subsequent endorsements of candidates Pete Buttigieg and Amy Klobuchar, he made large gains in the March3 Super Tuesday primary elections. Biden won Results of the 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries, 18 of the next 26 contests, including Alabama, Arkansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia, putting him in the lead overall. Elizabeth Warren and Mike Bloomberg soon dropped out, and Biden expanded his lead with victories over Sanders in four states (Idaho, Michigan, Mississippi, and Missouri) on March 10. In late March 2020, Tara Reade, one of the eight women who previously accused Biden of inappropriate physical contact, made a new allegation against Biden, Joe Biden sexual assault allegation, accusing him of a 1993 sexual assault. There were inconsistences between Reade's 2019 and 2020 allegations. Biden and his campaign vehemently denied the sexual assault allegation. When Sanders suspended his campaign on April 8, 2020, Biden became the Democratic Party's presumptive nominee for president. On April 13, Sanders endorsed Biden in a live-streamed discussion from their homes. Former President
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
endorsed Biden the next day. In March 2020, Biden committed to choosing a woman as his running mate. In June, Biden met the 1,991-delegate threshold needed to secure the party's presidential nomination. On August 11, he announced U.S. Senator
Kamala Harris Kamala Devi Harris ( ; born October 20, 1964) is an American politician and attorney who is the 49th and current vice president of the United States. She is the first female vice president and the highest-ranking female official in U.S. histor ...

Kamala Harris
of California as his running mate, making her the first African American and first South Asian American vice-presidential nominee on a major-party ticket. On August 18, 2020, Biden was officially nominated at the 2020 Democratic National Convention as the Democratic Party nominee for president in the 2020 United States presidential election, 2020 election.


Presidential transition

Biden was 2020 United States presidential election, elected the 46th president of the United States in November 2020. He defeated the incumbent,
Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective reci ...

Donald Trump
, becoming the first candidate to defeat a sitting president since Bill Clinton defeated George H. W. Bush, George H.W. Bush in 1992 United States presidential election, 1992. Trump refused to concede, insisting the election had been "stolen" from him through "voter fraud", challenging the results in court and promoting numerous conspiracy theories about the voting and vote-counting processes, in an attempt to Attempts to overturn the 2020 United States presidential election, overturn the election results. Biden's transition was delayed by several weeks as the White House ordered federal agencies not to cooperate. On November23, General Services Administration, General Services Administrator Emily W. Murphy formally recognized Biden as the apparent winner of the 2020 election and authorized the start of a transition process to the Biden administration. On January 6, 2021, during Congress's electoral vote count, Trump told supporters gathered in front of the White House to march to the Capitol, saying, "We will never give up. We will never concede. It doesn't happen. You don't concede when there's theft involved." Soon after, they storming of the United States Capitol, stormed the Capitol. During the insurrection at the Capitol, Biden addressed the nation, calling the events "an unprecedented assault unlike anything we've seen in modern times." He specifically called on Trump to "go on national television now to fulfill his oath and defend the Constitution and demand an end to this siege", adding, "it must end now." After the Capitol was cleared, Congress resumed its joint session and officially certified the election results with Pence declaring Biden and Harris the winners. In December 2020, Biden received his first dose of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine at the Christiana Hospital in
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
, publicly taking the vaccine on live television to build trust in the vaccine and to encourage Americans to get inoculated. He returned for his second dose in January 2021.


Presidency (2021–present)


Inauguration

Inauguration of Joe Biden, Biden was inaugurated as the 46th president of the United States on January 20, 2021. At 78, he is the oldest person to have assumed the office. He is the second Catholic president (after
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
) and the first president whose home state is
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...
. He is the second non-incumbent vice president (after
Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power o ...

Richard Nixon
in 1968 United States presidential election, 1968) to be elected president. He is also the first president from the Silent Generation. Biden's inauguration was "a muted affair unlike any previous inauguration" due to COVID-19 precautions as well as massively increased security measures because of a threat of 2021 United States inauguration week protests, widespread civil unrest. Biden took the oath of office on the Capitol's west steps and gave an inaugural address, but there were no spectators on the Mall and no in-person parades or inaugural balls. Trump did not attend, becoming the first outgoing president since First inauguration of Ulysses S. Grant, 1869 to not attend his successor's inauguration.


First 100 days

In his first two days as president, Biden signed 17 executive orders, more than most recent presidents did in their first 100 days. By his third day, orders had included rejoining the Paris Agreement, Paris Climate Agreement, ending the state of national emergency at the Mexico–United States border, border with Mexico, directing the government to rejoin the World Health Organization, 100 Days Masking Challenge, face mask requirements on Federal lands, federal property, measures to combat hunger in the United States, and revoking permits for the construction of the Keystone XL pipeline. In his first two weeks in office, Biden signed more executive orders than any other president since Franklin D. Roosevelt had in their first month in office. On February 4, 2021, the Biden administration announced that the United States was ending its support for the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, Saudi-led bombing campaign in Yemen. In his first visit to the State Department as president, Biden said "this war has to end" and that the conflict had created a "humanitarian and strategic catastrophe." On February 25, the Biden administration "February 2021 United States airstrike in Syria, struck a site in Syria used by two Iranian-backed militia groups in response to rocket attacks on American forces." This marked the first known action by the military under Biden. On March 11, the first anniversary of COVID-19 being declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization, Biden signed into law the
American Rescue Plan Act of 2021 The American Rescue Plan Act of 2021, also called the COVID-19 Stimulus Package or American Rescue Plan, is a $1.9 trillion economic stimulus bill passed by the 117th United States Congress The 117th United States Congress is the current m ...
, a $1.9 trillion Stimulus (economics), economic stimulus relief package he proposed and lobbied for that aimed to speed up the United States' recovery from the Economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, economic and health effects of the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...
and the ongoing COVID-19 recession#United States, recession. The package included direct payments to most Americans, an extension of increased unemployment benefits, funds for vaccine distribution and school reopenings, support for small businesses and state and local governments, and expansions of health insurance subsidies and the child tax credit. Biden's initial proposal included an increase of the Minimum wage in the United States, federal minimum wage to $15 per hour, but after Parliamentarian of the United States Senate, Senate parliamentarian Elizabeth MacDonough determined that including the increase in a budget reconciliation bill would violate Senate rules, Democrats declined to pursue overruling her and removed the increase from the package. Also in March, amid Mexico–United States border crisis, a rise in migrants entering the U.S. from Mexico, Biden told migrants, "Don't come over." He said that the U.S. was arranging a plan for migrants to "apply for asylum in place", without leaving their original locations. In the meantime, migrant adults "are being sent back", Biden said, in reference to the continuation of the Trump administration's Title 42 policy for quick deportations. Biden earlier announced that his administration would not deport unaccompanied migrant children; the rise in arrivals of such children exceeded the capacity of facilities meant to shelter them (before they were sent to sponsors), leading the Biden administration in March to direct the Federal Emergency Management Agency to help manage these children. On April 14, Biden announced that the United States 2021 withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan, would delay the withdrawal of all troops from the War in Afghanistan (2001–present), war in Afghanistan until September 11, signalling an end to the country's direct military involvement in Afghanistan after nearly 20 years. In February 2020, the Trump administration had Doha Agreement (2020), made a deal with the Taliban to completely withdraw U.S. forces by May 1, 2021. Biden's decision met with a wide range of reactions, from support and relief to trepidation at the possible collapse of the Afghan government without American support. On April 22–23, Biden held an 2021 Leaders' Climate Summit, international climate summit at which he announced that the U.S. would cut its greenhouse gas emissions by 50%–52% by 2030 compared to 2005 levels. Other countries also increased their pledges. If the pledges made at the summit are met, they will cut global greenhouse gas emissions by 2.6–3.7 GtCO2e, Gte by 2030. On April 28, the eve of his 100th day in office, Biden delivered his 2021 Joe Biden speech to a joint session of Congress, first address to a joint session of Congress, in which he highlighted the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines and addressed withdrawing troops from Afghanistan, the murder of George Floyd, and the 2021 storming of the United States Capitol, storming of the U.S. Capitol while urging Congress to pass comprehensive immigration, gun, and health care reform. According to some analysts, such as Alexander Nazaryan, Biden broke with both Obama and Trump. Nazaryan writes that Biden's approach "has been marked by an obvious rejection of the daily chaos of the Trump years but also, more subtly, by a no-less-decisive rejection of Obama's proceduralism. His aggressive approach to governing has put Republicans on the back foot, while delighting progressives who didn't think that the 78-year-old former Delaware senator had a wholly original act in the works."


Rest of 2021

In May 2021, during 2021 Israel–Palestine crisis, a flareup in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Biden expressed his support for Israel, saying "my party still supports Israel" amid disagreement from some Democrats. In June 2021, Biden took his first trip abroad as president. In eight days he visited Belgium, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. He attended 47th G7 summit, a G7 summit, 2021 Brussels summit, a NATO summit, and an European Union, EU summit, and held 2021 Russia–United States summit, one-on-one talks with Russian president Vladimir Putin. On June 17, Biden signed the Juneteenth National Independence Day Act, which officially declared Juneteenth a Federal holidays in the United States, federal holiday. Juneteenth is the first new federal holiday since Martin Luther King Jr. Day was declared a holiday in 1986. In July 2021, amid a slowing of COVID-19 vaccination in the United States, the COVID-19 vaccination rate in the country and the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, Biden said that the country has "a pandemic for those who haven't gotten the vaccination" and that it was therefore "gigantically important" for Americans to be vaccinated, touting the vaccines' effectiveness against hospitalizations and deaths from COVID-19. He also criticized the prevalence of COVID-19 misinformation on social media, saying it was "killing people". In September 2021, Biden announced AUKUS, a Defense pact, security pact between Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States, to ensure "peace and stability in the Indo-Pacific over the long term"; the deal included nuclear-powered submarines built for Australia's use.


Withdrawal from Afghanistan

American forces began withdrawing from Afghanistan in 2021, under the provisions of a Doha Agreement (2020), February 2020 US-Taliban agreement. By April 2021, the State Department was urging American civilians in Afghanistan to leave as soon as possible. The Taliban began 2021 Taliban offensive, an offensive on May 1. As late as July, American intelligence assessments estimated Kabul would fall to the Taliban months or weeks after the withdrawal of American forces from Afghanistan. By early July, most American troops in Afghanistan had withdrawn. Biden addressed the withdrawal in July, saying, "The likelihood there's going to be the Taliban overrunning everything and owning the whole country is highly unlikely." On August 15, Fall of Kabul (2021), the Afghan government collapsed under the Taliban offensive, and Afghan President Ashraf Ghani fled the country. Biden reacted by ordering 6,000 American troops to assist in the evacuation of American personnel and Afghan allies. He was widely criticized for the manner of the withdrawal, with allegations of poor planning for the evacuation of Americans and Afghan allies, and for his silence and absence during the days before the collapse of the Afghan government. On August 16, Biden addressed the "messy" situation, taking responsibility for it, and admitting that the situation "unfolded more quickly than we had anticipated". He defended his decision to withdraw, saying that Americans should not be "dying in a war that Afghan forces are not willing to fight for themselves. On August 22, Biden said that his administration knew that ISIS-K was a "likely source" of threat. On August 26, a 2021 Kabul airport attack, suicide bombing at the Kabul airport killed 13 U.S. service members and 169 Afghans. Biden declared to the attackers that the United States "will hunt you down and make you pay". On August 27, an American drone strike killed two ISIS-K targets, who were "planners and facilitators", according to a U.S. Army general. On August 29, another American drone strike killed 10 civilians, including seven children; the Defense Department initially claimed the strike was conducted on an Islamic State suicide bomber threatening Kabul Airport, but admitted the mistake on September 17 and apologized. The U.S. military left Afghanistan on August 30, with Biden saying that the evacuation effort was an "extraordinary success", by extracting over 120,000 Americans, Afghans and other allies. He acknowledged that between "100 to 200" Americans who wanted to leave were left in Afghanistan, despite his August 18 pledge to stay in Afghanistan until all Americans who wanted to leave had left. The Biden administration, joining governments of almost 100 countries, said that the Taliban had given "assurances" that anyone "with travel authorization from [these] countries" would continue to be allowed to leave Afghanistan.


Infrastructure and climate

As part of Biden's Build Back Better agenda, in late March 2021, he proposed the American Jobs Plan, a $2 trillion package addressing issues including transport infrastructure, utilities infrastructure, broadband infrastructure, housing, schools, manufacturing, research and workforce development. After months of negotiations among Biden and lawmakers, in August 2021 the Senate passed a $1 trillion bipartisan infrastructure bill called the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, while the House, also in a bipartisan manner, approved that bill in early November 2021, covering infrastructure related to transport, utilities, and broadband. Biden signed the bill into law in mid-November 2021. As COP26, scheduled for October 31 to November 12, 2021, approached, Biden increased his efforts to address climate change domestically and internationally. He promoted an agreement that the U.S. and the European Union cut methane emissions by a third by 2030 and tried to add dozens of other countries to the effort. He tried to convince China and Australia to do more. He convened an online Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate Change to press other countries to strengthen their climate policy. Biden pledged to double climate funding to developing countries by 2024. Also at COP26, the U.S. and China reached a deal on greenhouse gas emission reduction. The two countries are responsible for 40% of global emissions.


Political positions

Biden is considered a moderate Democrat and a centrist, though more recently he has been seen as shifting to the left. He has a lifetime Modern liberalism in the United States, liberal 72% score from the Americans for Democratic Action through 2004, while the American Conservative Union gave him a lifetime conservatism in the United States, conservative rating of 13% through 2008. Biden supported the fiscal stimulus in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; the Obama administration's proposed increase in infrastructure spending; subsidies for mass transit, including Amtrak, bus, and subway; and the reduced military spending in the Obama administration's fiscal year 2014 budget. He has proposed partially reversing the corporate tax cuts of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, saying that doing so would not hurt businesses' ability to hire. He voted for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Biden is a staunch supporter of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). He has promoted a plan to expand and build upon it, paid for by revenue gained from reversing some Trump administration tax cuts. Biden's plan aims to expand Health insurance coverage in the United States, health insurance coverage to 97% of Americans, including by creating a public health insurance option. Biden has supported same-sex marriage since 2012 and also supports ''Roe v. Wade'' and repealing the Hyde Amendment. He opposes drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and supports governmental funding to find new energy sources. As a senator, he forged deep relationships with police groups and was a chief proponent of a Law Enforcement Officers' Bill of Rights, Police Officer's Bill of Rights measure that police unions supported but police chiefs opposed. As vice president, he served as a White House liaison to police. Biden believes action must be taken on global warming. As a senator, he co-sponsored the Sense of the Senate resolution calling on the United States to take part in the United Nations climate negotiations and the Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act of 2007, Boxer–Sanders Global Warming Pollution Reduction Act, the most stringent climate bill in the
United States Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, politi ...
. He wants to achieve a carbon-free power sector in the U.S. by 2035 and stop emissions completely by 2050. His program includes reentering the
Paris Agreement The Paris Agreement (french: l'accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), on climate change mitigation, Climate change adaptation, adaptation, and Climate finance, finance, signed i ...
, nature conservation, and green building. Biden wants to pressure China and other countries to cut greenhouse gas emissions by carbon tariffs if necessary. Biden has said the U.S. needs to "get tough" on China and build "a united front of U.S. allies and partners to confront China's abusive behaviors and human rights violations". He has called China the "most serious competitor" that poses challenges to the United States' "prosperity, security, and democratic values". Biden has voiced concerns about China's "coercive and unfair" economic practices and human rights abuses in the Xinjiang region to the Chinese Communist Party leader Xi Jinping. He also pledged to sanction and commercially restrict Chinese government officials and entities who carry out repression. Biden has said he is against regime change, but for providing non-military support to opposition movements. He opposed direct U.S. 2011 military intervention in Libya, intervention in Libya, voted against U.S. participation in the Gulf War, voted in favor of the Iraq War, and supports a two-state solution in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Biden has pledged to end U.S. support for the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen and to reevaluate the United States' relationship with Saudi Arabia. He has called North Korea a "paper tiger". As vice president, Biden supported Obama's Cuban thaw. He has said that, as president, he would restore U.S. membership in key United Nations bodies, such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the World Health Organization, and possibly the United Nations Human Rights Council, Human Rights Council. Biden supports extending the New START arms control treaty with Russia to limit the number of nuclear weapons deployed by both sides. In 2021, Biden Armenian genocide recognition, recognized the Armenian genocide, becoming the first U.S. president to do so.


Reputation

Biden was consistently ranked one of the least wealthy members of the Senate, which he attributed to his having been elected young. Feeling that less-wealthy public officials may be tempted to accept contributions in exchange for political favors, he proposed Campaign finance reform in the United States, campaign finance reform measures during his first term. , Biden's net worth was $27,012. , the Bidens were worth $9 million, largely due to sales of Biden's books and speaking fees after his vice presidency. The political writer Howard Fineman has written, "Biden is not an academic, he's not a theoretical thinker, he's a great street pol. He comes from a long line of working people in Scranton—auto salesmen, car dealers, people who know how to make a sale. He has that great Irish gift." Political columnist David S. Broder wrote that Biden has grown over time: "He responds to real people—that's been consistent throughout. And his ability to understand himself and deal with other politicians has gotten much much better." Journalist James Traub has written that "Biden is the kind of fundamentally happy person who can be as generous toward others as he is to himself." In recent years, especially after the 2015 death of his elder son Beau, Biden has been noted for his empathetic nature and ability to communicate about grief. In 2020, CNN wrote that his presidential campaign aimed to make him "healer-in-chief", while ''The New York Times'' described his extensive history of being called upon to give eulogies. Journalist and TV anchor Wolf Blitzer has described Biden as wikt:loquacious, loquacious. He often deviates from prepared remarks and sometimes "puts his foot in his mouth." ''The New York Times'' wrote that Biden's "weak filters make him capable of blurting out pretty much anything." In 2018, Biden called himself "a gaffe machine". Some of his gaffes have been characterized as racially insensitive.


Distinctions


Electoral history


Publications

Books * * * * * * * * * * * * Also paperback edition, Random House 2008, . * Book contributions * * Biden, Joseph R., Jr. (2009). "Foreword." In: ''Choosing Equality: Essays and Narratives on the Desegregation Experience''. Edited by Robert L. Hayman, Jr. and Leland Ware. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009. . Pamphlets * Biden, Joseph R., Jr., and Les Aspin, William Louis Dickinson, Brent Scowcroft (1982)
''Arms Sales: A Useful Foreign Policy Tool?''
American Enterprise Institute. AEI Forum 56. Moderated by John Charles Daly. Articles * Biden, Joseph R., Jr., and Miga Purev-Ochir (Spring 2015)
"U.S.-Russian Relations in a Post-Cold War World: A Strategic Vision: Mapping a Future for U.S.-Russian Relations."
''Harvard International Review'', vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 72–76. .


Notes


References


Works cited

* * * * * * * * *


External links


Official


President Joe Biden
official website
Presidential campaign website

Obama White House biography
(archived)


Other

* * *

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