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Jilin (; alternately romanized as Kirin or Chilin) is one of the three provinces of
Northeast China
Northeast China
. Its capital and largest city is Changchun. Jilin borders
North Korea North Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Chosŏn''; literally /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Pukchosŏn'', or /, Revised Romanization of Korean, RR: ''Bukhan'' in South Korean usage), officially the Democrati ...
( Rasŏn, North Hamgyong, Ryanggang and Chagang) and
Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering and encompassing mo ...
( Primorsky Krai) to the east,
Heilongjiang Heilongjiang (; formerly romanized as Heilungkiang) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial an ...
to the north,
Liaoning Liaoning (), is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Ro ...
to the south, and
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол), officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked and Mongolic autonomous region An autonomous adminis ...

Inner Mongolia
to the west. Along with the rest of
Northeast China
Northeast China
, Jilin underwent an early period of industrialization. However, Jilin's economy, characterized by
heavy industry Heavy industry is an Industry (economics), industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and weight, heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, huge buildings and ...
, has been facing economic difficulties with
privatization Privatization (or privatisation in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, ea ...
. This prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called " Revitalize the Northeast". The region contains large deposits of oil shale.


Name

The name "Jilin" originates from ''girin ula'' () , a Manchu language, Manchu phrase meaning "along the river", shortened to Kirin in English. This Manchu term was transcription (linguistics), transcribed into ''jilin wula'' (traditional characters, t , simplified characters, s ) in Chinese characters and shortened the first two characters, which are transcribed in English as Chi-lin (Wade-Giles) and later "Jilin" (Hanyu Pinyin).


History

In ancient times, Jilin was inhabited by the Xianbei, Sushen, the Mohe people, Mohe, Jurchens, and the Wuji (people), Wùjí (). The Korean kingdoms of Buyeo kingdom, Buyeo, Goguryeo and Balhae ruled parts of this area. The region then fell successively under the domination of the Xiongnu, Xianbei state, Khitan people, Khitan Liao Dynasty, the Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jurchen Jin Dynasty, 1115–1234, Jin Dynasty, and the Mongol Yuan dynasty.''History of Mongolia'', Volume II, 2003 During the Qing Dynasty, much of the area was under the control of the General of Jilin (Girin i Jiyanggiyūn), whose area of control extended to the Sea of Japan to encompass much of what is
Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering and encompassing mo ...
's Primorsky Krai today. After the Primorsky Krai area was ceded to Russia in 1860, the Qing government began to open the area up to Han Chinese migrants, most of whom came from Shandong. By the beginning of the 20th century, Han Chinese had become the dominant ethnic group of the region. In 1932, the area was incorporated into Manchukuo, a puppet state set up by Japan. Changchun (then called Hsinking), capital of Jilin today, was made the capital of Manchukuo. After the defeat of Japan in 1945, the Red Army captured Jilin after Operation August Storm.LTC David M. Glantz
"August Storm: The Soviet 1945 Strategic Offensive in Manchuria"
Leavenworth Papers No. 7, Combat Studies Institute, February 1983, Fort Leavenworth Kansas.
The region, with the rest of northeastern China, was ceded to the Communists by the Soviet Union. Manchuria was the staging ground from which the communists eventually conquered the rest of China in the Chinese Civil War#Post-war power struggle (1945–1947), Chinese Civil War. In 1949, Jilin province was smaller, encompassing only the environs of Changchun and Jilin City, and the capital was at Jilin City, while Changchun was a municipality independent from the province. In the 1950s, Jilin was expanded to its present borders. During the Cultural Revolution, Jilin was expanded again to include a part of
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia or Nei Mongol (; ''Öbür Monggol'', /ɵwɵr mɔŋɢɔɮ/, Mongolian Cyrillic: Өвөр Монгол), officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked and Mongolic autonomous region An autonomous adminis ...

Inner Mongolia
, giving it a border with the independent state of Mongolia, though this was later reversed. In recent times Jilin has, with the rest of
heavy industry Heavy industry is an Industry (economics), industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and weight, heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, huge buildings and ...
-based
Northeast China
Northeast China
, been facing economic difficulties with
privatization Privatization (or privatisation in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, ea ...
. This prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called " Revitalize the Northeast".


Geography

Jilin lies in the central part of northeastern China, bordering
Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, largest country in the world, covering and encompassing mo ...
and
North Korea North Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Chosŏn''; literally /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Pukchosŏn'', or /, Revised Romanization of Korean, RR: ''Bukhan'' in South Korean usage), officially the Democrati ...
in the east and southeast respectively. Jilin has an area of and a population of 27.3 million. Its capital is Changchun, which lies west of Jilin City. Jilin is rich in natural mineral deposits with 136 types of minerals, of which 70 have been extracted. Jilin has an abundance of Traditional Chinese medicine resources, with approximately 27,000 kinds of wild plants and 9,000 kinds of medicinal herbs. The province is rich in large reserves of oil, gas, coal, iron, nickel, molybdenum, talc, graphite, gypsum, cement rock, gold and silver; its reserves of oil shale are the largest in the country. Jilin is highest in altitude in the southeast and drops gently towards the northwest. The Changbai Mountains run through its southeastern regions and contains the highest peak of the province, Paektu Mountain at . Other ranges include the Jilinhada Mountains, Zhang Guangcai Mountains, and Longgang Mountains. Jilin is drainage basin, drained by the Yalu River, Yalu and Tumen River, Tumen rivers in the extreme southeast (which together form parts of the border between the People's Republic of China and
North Korea North Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Chosŏn''; literally /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Pukchosŏn'', or /, Revised Romanization of Korean, RR: ''Bukhan'' in South Korean usage), officially the Democrati ...
), by tributaries of the Liao River in the southwest, and by the Songhua and Nen River, Nen rivers in the north, both eventually flowing into the Amur River, Amur. Jilin has a northerly continental climate, continental monsoon climate, with long, cold winters and short, warm summers. Average January temperatures range from . Rainfall averages at . Major cities in this province include Changchun, Jilin City, Baishan, Baicheng, Siping City, Siping, Yanji, Songyuan, Tonghua and Liaoyuan.


Administrative divisions

Jilin consists of nine Administrative divisions of China#Prefectural level, prefecture-level divisions: eight Prefecture-level city, prefecture-level cities (including a Sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, sub-provincial city) and one autonomous prefecture: These nine prefecture-level divisions are in turn subdivided into 60 county-level divisions (21 District of China, districts, 20 county-level cities, 16 County (People's Republic of China), counties, and three Autonomous counties of the People's Republic of China, autonomous counties). (See List of administrative divisions of Jilin.) These administrative divisions are explained in greater detail at Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China. At the end of the year 2017, the total population is 27.17 millio


Urban areas


Politics

The politics of Jilin is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Jilin is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Jilin. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Jilin Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Jilin CPC Party Chief".


Economy

In 2011, the nominal GDP of Jilin province totaled RMB 1053.1 billion (US$167.1 billion). Its GDP has been rising at a double-digit rate since 2003, growing 51 percent from 2003 to 2007. Per capita nominal GDP increased to RMB 26,289 (US$3,848) in 2009. Meanwhile, the incremental value and profit of large enterprises witnessed an increase of 19 percent and 30 percent respectively, compared with 2005 figures. Jilin's agricultural production is centered upon rice, wheat, maize, and sorghum. Rice is mostly cultivated in the eastern parts, such as Yanbian Prefecture. The Changbai Mountains are an important source of lumber. Sheep herding is an important activity in the western parts, such as Baicheng. Among its natural resources, Jilin has the largest reserves of shale oil and one of the top five largest mineral reserves in China.
/ref> Compared to other provinces of China, Jilin has extensive deposits of Kieselguhr, wollastonite, floatstone, and molybdenum. Industry in Jilin is concentrated on automobiles, train carriages, and iron alloy. Jilin is one of the most important commodity grain bases in China. It is ranked 6th in timber production. Traditionally, Jilin has been known as a major pharmaceutical center, with yields of ginseng and deer antlers among the largest in China, being used extensively in Traditional Chinese medicine.


Economic and technological development zones


Jilin New and Hi-tech Industry Development Zone

The zone was founded in 1992 and is in Jilin city, covering of planned area with established. The leading industries in the zone are new materials, refined chemical products, integration of photoelectron and mechanism, Electronics industry in China, electronics, medicine and bioengineering. A mere from Songhua Lake, the nearest bus and train stations are within . The Jilin Economic and Technological Development Zone was founded in May 1998 and is in the northeast of Jilin city. The zone has a total planned area of . It is from Changchun, from Jilin Airport, and from Jilin Railway Station. Major industries include refined chemicals, bioengineering, fine processing of chemical fiber, and farm products. It is divided into four parts: the Chemical Industrial Park, the Food Industrial Park, the Textile Industrial Park, and the Medical Industrial Park. The latter specializes in the development of traditional Chinese pharmaceuticals, mini molecule medicine, bio-pharmaceuticals and health products.


State-level ETDZs Changchun Economic and Technological Development Zone

In 1993, with the approval of the state, Changchun Economic & Technological Development Zone (CETDZ) became a state-level economic and technological development zone. The total area of CETDZ is , of which has been set aside for development and use. By the end of 2006, the total fixed assets investment of the Changchun Economic and Technological Development Zone reached 38.4 billion yuan. There were 1656 registered enterprises in this zone including 179 foreign-funded enterprises. The regional gross product of the zone reached 101.8 billion yuan; industrial output value reached 233.0 billion Yuan; overall financial revenue reached 15.7 billion yuan. Changchun is also the location of one of the largest factories where China Railway Construction Corporation Limited, CRRC manufactures bullet trains. In November 2016, CRCC Changchun unveiled the first bullet train carriages in the world that would have sleeper berths, and would be capable of running in ultra low temperature environments. Nicknamed ''Panda'', they are capable of running at 250 kmph, operate at -40 degrees Celsius, have Wi-Fi hubs and contain sleeper berths that fold into seats during the day. ;State-level HIDZs Changchun High-Tech Industrial Development Area Changchun High-Tech Industrial Development Area is connected by four roads and one light-rail line to the downtown area. The nearest train station, Changchun Station, is twenty minutes away by light rail. In 2002, Changchun HDA became the first area in Northeast China to qualify for the environmental certification of ISO14001. Its landscaping ratio reaches 38%. ;Hunchun Border Economic Cooperation Zone Huichun Border Economic Cooperation Zone was approved to be national-level border economic cooperation zone in 1992, with a planning area of . In 2002 and 2001, the Huichun Export Processing Zone and Huichun Sino-Russia Trade Zone were set up in it. It has a strategic location at the junction of the borders of China, Russia and Korea. It focuses on the development of sea food processing, electronic product manufacture, bio-pharmaceuticals, textile industry and other industries. ;Hunchun Export Processing Zone The Hunchun Export Processing Zone is in area is in the Hunchun Border Economic Cooperation Zone. Its planned area is . It relies on the same infrastructure and policies as its parent zone.


Infrastructure

There are of highways, including over of expressways. The province has an excellent rail network, begun by the Japanese, with Changchun as its main hub. There are four major new railway projects which started construction in 2007. One of these, the Harbin–Dalian High-Speed Railway connecting Harbin with Dalian via Changchun was completed in 2012. Trains on the line can travel at up to . The four railway projects were estimated to cost RMB13 billion, and the province urged foreign investors to invest in them. A line from Changchun to Jilin City, expected to be completed in 2015, was expected to cut the journey times between the cities from 96 minutes to 30. The railway network in Jilin can be divided into two directions in the northwest–southeast and southwest–northeast. The main trunk line Beijing-Harbin railway runs through the north and south of Jilin. From Jilin Province, it can go directly to Harbin, Shenyang, Dalian, Beijing, Tianjin, Xi'an, Shijiazhuang, Wuhan, Jinan, and so on. By the end of 2015, the railway business mileage of Jilin province reached . The main commercial airport is Changchun Longjia International Airport; other commercial airports include Yanji Chaoyangchuan International Airport, Tonghua Sanyuanpu Airport, Baicheng Chang'an Airport, Songyuan Chaganhu Airport and Changbaishan Airport. Jilin is landlocked. River navigation is possible from April to November. The major river ports are at Da'an, Jilin city and Fuyu. In 2007, Jilin started construction on a two-phase RMB60 million comprehensive river port; the first phase is finished. The port is on the Songhua River, has an annual throughput of two million tons, and will connect to the waterways of Northeast China. Aviation takes Changchun as the center, supplemented by Yanji and Baishan. It can go directly to Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Haikou, Ningbo, Dalian, Kunming, Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and so on. Changchun Longjia Airport, Yanji Airport, Tonghua Sanyuanpu Airport and Changbaishan Airport, etc.


Demographics

Jilin is inhabited by Han Chinese, Manchus, Hui people, Hui, Mongols and Xibe people, Xibe. Most ethnic Koreans live in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture. The Manchu people were once the majority in the area of Jilin, making it part of their historical region. With the adoption of Han culture and the Chinese languages by the Manchu people, the Manchu language is considered a critically endangered language. Koreans comprise about 4% of the population, owing to its proximity to the Korean Peninsula. The majority of the province speaks Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin. Excludes members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.


Culture

Jilin is part of and shares many similarities in culture to neighbouring regions, such as Errenzhuan and Yangge. Among Music of Jilin, its music, Jiju, or Jilin Opera, is a form of traditional entertainment that Jilin has innovated over its short migrant history. The ethnic Koreans of Jilin have a distinct culture, closely tied to Korea.


Languages

The majority of the province speaks Mandarin, the official language of China. Closer to the east, many people speak Korean language, Korean. Some people of Qian Gorlos autonomous county speak Mongolian.


Tourism

The Goguryeo sites and tombs found in Ji'an, Jilin, including Hwando, Hwando Mountain City, Gungnae City, and the pyramidal Tomb of the General, have been listed as part of the Capital Cities and Tombs of the Ancient Koguryo Kingdom, a World Heritage Site. Paektu Mountain, especially Heaven Lake on the border with
North Korea North Korea (Korean language, Korean: /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Chosŏn''; literally /, McCune–Reischauer, MR: ''Pukchosŏn'', or /, Revised Romanization of Korean, RR: ''Bukhan'' in South Korean usage), officially the Democrati ...
, are popular tourist destinations due to their natural scenery. Ancient Tombs at Longtou Mountain, including the Mausoleum of Princess Jeonghyo, are royal tombs of Balhae found in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.


Education


Universities and colleges

* Jilin University () * Jilin Medical College () * Northeast Normal University () * Jilin Agricultural University () * Jilin Normal University () * Changchun University of Science and Technology () * Changchun University of Technology () * Changchun Normal University () * Changchun University () * Changchun Taxation College () * Yanbian University of Science and Technology () * Yanbian University () * Northeast China Institute of Electric Power Engineering () * Jilin College of Electrification * Changchun Institute of Post & Telecommunications () * Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics * Beihua University * Jilin Agricultural Science and Technology University * Changchun Institute of Technology ()Changchun Institute of Technology Homepage
/ref>


Sports


Professional teams

* Chinese Basketball Association ** Jilin Northeast Tigers * Chinese Football Association League ** Changchun Yatai ** Yanbian FC


Notable individuals

* O Kuk-ryol, Chinese people in Korea, Chinese-born North Korean Daejang, general and Politics of North Korea, politician * Choe Hyon, Chinese people in Korea, Chinese-born North Korean Daejang, general and Politics of North Korea, politician * Ri Tu-ik, Chinese people in Korea, Chinese-born North Korean Chasu, vice-marshal and Politics of North Korea, politician * Li Hongbo, sculptor * Guo Junchen, actor * Huang Renjun, main vocalist and lead dancer of K-pop boyband NCT (band), NCT and NCT Dream


See also

* List of Major National Historical and Cultural Sites in Jilin


References


External links


Jilin Government website

Jilin Administration of Industry and Commerce

Development zones and ports


at Hong Kong Trade Development Council, HKTDC {{Authority control Jilin, Manchuria Provinces of the People's Republic of China