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The Jiaqing Emperor (13 November 1760 - 2 September 1820), whose personal name is Yongyan, was the sixth
emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''commander'' under the Roma ...
of the
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in ...
-led
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over
China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym a ...

China proper
, from 1796 to 1820. He was the 15th son of the
Qianlong Emperor The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynasty and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western wri ...

Qianlong Emperor
. During his reign, he prosecuted
Heshen Heshen (; ; 1 July 1750 – 22 February 1799) of the Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and g ...

Heshen
, the corrupt
favorite by Diego Velázquez Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized June 6, 1599August 6, 1660) was a Spaniards, Spanish painter, the leading artist in the Noble court, court of King Philip IV of Spain, Philip IV and of the Spanish Golden Age ...

favorite
of his father, and attempted to restore order within the Qing Empire while curbing the smuggling of
opium Opium (or poppy tears, scientific name: ''Lachryma papaveris'') is dried latex Latex is a stable dispersion (emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally Miscibility, immiscible (unmixable or unblendable) o ...

opium
into China.


Early years

Yongyan was born in the
Old Summer Palace The Old Summer Palace, also known as Yuanmingyuan () or Yuanmingyuan Park, originally called the Imperial Gardens (), and sometimes called the Winter Palace, was a complex of palaces and gardens in present-day Haidian District Haidian Distric ...
, 8 km (5 mi) northwest of the walls of
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
. His personal name, "Yongyan" (永琰), was later changed to "Yongyan" (顒琰) when he became the emperor. The
Chinese character Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, ...

Chinese character
for ''yong'' in his name was changed from the more common 永 to the less common 顒. This novelty was introduced by the Qianlong Emperor, who believed that it was not proper to have a commonly used Chinese character in an emperor's personal name due to the longstanding practice of
naming taboo A naming taboo is a cultural taboo against speaking or writing the given names of exalted persons, for example in China and within the Chinese cultural sphere. It was enforced by several laws throughout Imperial China, but its cultural and possib ...
in the imperial family. Yongyan was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. His mother was Noble Consort Ling, the daughter of Wei Qingtai (魏清泰), a
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
official whose family had been long integrated into the Manchu
Eight Banners The Eight Banners (in Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and Chi ...
as part of a Han Banner. The Qianlong Emperor originally had two other sons in mind for succeeding him, but both of them died early from diseases, hence in December 1773 he secretly chose Yongyan as his successor. In 1789, the Qianlong Emperor instated Yongyan as "Prince Jia
of the First Rank
of the First Rank
" (嘉親王; or simply "Prince Jia").


Accession to the throne

In October 1795, the 60th year of his reign, the Qianlong Emperor announced his intention to abdicate in favour of Prince Jia. He made this decision because he felt that it was disrespectful for him to rule longer than his grandfather, the
Kangxi Emperor The Kangxi Emperor (Xuanye; 4 May 1654– 20 December 1722) was the third Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Wester ...

Kangxi Emperor
, who was on the throne for 61 years. Prince Jia ascended the throne and adopted the
era name A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The word is borrowed from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Rom ...
"Jiaqing" in February 1796, hence he is historically known as the Jiaqing Emperor. For the next three years however, the Jiaqing Emperor was emperor in name only because decisions were still made by his father, who became a ''
Taishang Huang In Chinese history The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty that r ...
'' (emperor emeritus) after his abdication. After the death of the Qianlong Emperor in the beginning of February 1799, the Jiaqing Emperor took control of the government and prosecuted
Heshen Heshen (; ; 1 July 1750 – 22 February 1799) of the Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and g ...

Heshen
, a
favourite by Diego Velázquez Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized June 6, 1599August 6, 1660) was a Spaniards, Spanish painter, the leading artist in the Noble court, court of King Philip IV of Spain, Philip IV and of the Spanish Golden Age ...
official of his father. Heshen was charged with corruption and abuse of power, stripped of his titles, had his property confiscated, and ordered to commit suicide. Heshen's daughter-in-law, Princess Hexiao, a half-sister of the Jiaqing Emperor, was spared from punishment and given a few properties from Heshen's estates. At the time, the Qing Empire faced internal disorder, most importantly the large-scale
White Lotus The White Lotus () is a syncretic Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs and various schools of thought A school of thought, or intellectual tradition, is the perspective of a group of people who share common characteristics of op ...
(1796–1804) and
MiaoMiao may refer to: * Miao people, linguistically and culturally related group of people, recognized as such by the government of the People's Republic of China * Miao script or Pollard script, writing system used for Miao languages * Miao (Unicode b ...
(1795–1806) rebellions, as well as an empty imperial treasury. The Jiaqing Emperor engaged in the pacification of the empire and the quelling of rebellions. He endeavored to bring China back to its 18th-century prosperity and power.


Renaming Vietnam

The Jiaqing Emperor refused the Vietnamese ruler
Gia Long Gia Long ( (''North North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions. It is the opposite of south and is perpendicular to East and West. ''North'' is a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating Direction (geometry), direction or ...
's request to change his country's name to Nam Việt. He changed the name instead to
Việt Nam , image_map = , map_caption = , capital = Hanoi , coordinates = , largest_city = Ho Chi Minh City , languages_type = National language , languages ...
. Gia Long's Đại Nam thực lục contains the diplomatic correspondence over the naming.


Opposition to Christianity

The
Great Qing Legal Code The Great Qing Legal Code (or Great Ching Legal Code), also known as the Qing Code (Ching Code) or, in Hong Kong law The law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region has its foundation in the English common law English law is the ...
includes one statute titled "Prohibitions Concerning Sorcerers and Sorceresses" (禁止師巫邪術). In 1811, a clause was added to it with reference to Christianity. It was modified in 1815 and 1817, settled in its final form in 1839 under the
Daoguang Emperor The Daoguang Emperor (; 16 September 1782 – 26 February 1850), born Mianning, was the seventh Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was ...
, and abrogated in 1870 under the Tongzhi Emperor. It sentenced Europeans to death for spreading
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
among Han Chinese and Manchus. Christians who would not repent their conversion were sent to
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
cities in
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
, to be given as slaves to Muslim leaders and
bey "Bey" ( ota, بك “''Beik''”, chg, بك “''Bek''”, tk, beg, uz, bek, kz, бек, tt, bäk, sq, beu, bs, beg, fa, بیگ “''Beigh''” or “''Beg''”, tg, бе, ar, بيه “''Beyeh''”) is a Turkic Turkic may refer to: ...
s.


Chinese nobility

The Jiaqing Emperor granted the title ''Wujing Boshi'' () to the descendants of
Han Yu Han Yu (; 76825 December 824), courtesy name A courtesy name (), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name. This practice is a tradition in the East Asian cultural sphere, includi ...

Han Yu
.


Death and burial

On 2 September 1820, the Jiaqing Emperor died at the Rehe (Jehol) Traveling Palace (熱河行宫), 230 km (140 mi) northeast of
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
, where the imperial court was in summer quarters. The ''
Draft History of Qing The ''Draft History of Qing'' () is a draft of the official history of the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford ...
'' did not record a cause of death. Some have alleged that he died after being struck by lightning, but others prefer the theory that he died of a
stroke A stroke is a medical condition A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function (biology), function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Di ...

stroke
, as the emperor was quite obese. He was succeeded by his second son, Mianning, who became known as the
Daoguang Emperor The Daoguang Emperor (; 16 September 1782 – 26 February 1850), born Mianning, was the seventh Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was ...
. Renzong was interred amidst the
Western Qing Tombs The Western Qing tombs (; ) are located some southwest of Beijing Beijing ( ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Peking ( ), is the Capital city, capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the world's List of ...
, 120 km (75 mi) southwest of
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
, in the Chang (昌; lit. "splendid") mausoleum complex.


Family


Parent

Father —
Hongli, the Qianlong Emperor
Hongli, the Qianlong Emperor
() of the
Aisin Gioro Aisin Gioro was the Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China ...

Aisin Gioro
Clan (愛新覺羅) Mother —
Empress Xiaoyichun Empress Xiaoyichun (23 October 1727 – 28 February 1775), of the Weigiya clan, was a consort of the . Life Family background Empress Xiaoyichun's personal name was not recorded in history. She was a of the Plain Yellow Banner by birth. * ...
() of the Weigiya Clan (魏佳)


Consorts and Issue

Empress *
Empress Xiaoshurui Empress Xiaoshurui (孝淑睿皇后), of the Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic ...
() of the
Hitara Hitara (, pinyin: Xitala), earlier known as Hitan (溪滩氏, pinyin: xitanshi), was a clan of Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and e ...
Clan (喜塔臘)
Titles: Primary Consort of the Fifteenth Prince (十五王子福晋) → Princess Consort Jia of the First Rank (嘉親王妃) → Empress (皇后) ** Second daughter (2 June 1780 – 6 September 1783) ** Minning (; 16 September 1782 – 26 February 1850), the
Daoguang Emperor The Daoguang Emperor (; 16 September 1782 – 26 February 1850), born Mianning, was the seventh Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China proper China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was ...
(), second son ** Princess Zhuangjing of the First Rank (; 20 October 1784 – 27 June 1811), fourth daughter. Married Manibadala (; d. 1832) of the Tumed Borjigit clan in November/December 1802. ** Miscarriage at three months (18 August 1785) *
Empress Xiaoherui Empress Xiaoherui (20 November 1776 – 23 January 1850), of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Niohuru clan, was a posthumous name bestowed to the wife and second empress consort of Yongyan, the Jiaqing Emperor. She was Empress consort of Qi ...
() of the
Niohuru The Niohuru (Manchu language, Manchu: ; in Manchu language, Manchu) were a prominent Manchu people, Manchu clan during the Qing dynasty. The clan had inhabited the Changbai Mountains since as early as the Liao dynasty. The clan was well known d ...

Niohuru
Clan (鈕祜祿)
Titles: Secondary Consort (侧福晋) → Noble Consort (貴妃) → Imperial Noble Consort (皇貴妃) → Empress (皇后) → Empress Dowager Gongci (恭慈皇太后) ** Seventh daughter (2 August 1793 – July/August 1795) ** Miankai, Prince Dunke of the First Rank (; 6 August 1795 – 18 January 1838), third son ** Mianxin, Prince Ruihuai of the First Rank (; 9 March 1805 – 27 September 1828), fourth son Imperial Noble Consort * Imperial Noble Consort Heyu () of the Liugiya Clan (劉佳氏)
Titles: Mistress (格格) → Consort Xian (諴妃) → Noble Consort Xian (諴貴妃) → Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Xianxi (諴禧太皇貴妃) ** Prince Mu of the Second Rank (; 4 February 1779 – 10 June 1780), first son ** Princess Zhuangjing of the Second Rank (; 30 January 1782 – 4 April 1811), third daughter. Married Sodnamdorji (; d. 1825) of the Khorchin Borjigit clan on 24 December 1801.(one daughter) * Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun () of the
Niohuru The Niohuru (Manchu language, Manchu: ; in Manchu language, Manchu) were a prominent Manchu people, Manchu clan during the Qing dynasty. The clan had inhabited the Changbai Mountains since as early as the Liao dynasty. The clan was well known d ...

Niohuru
Clan (鈕祜祿)
Titles: Noble Lady Ru (如貴人) → Imperial Concubine Ru (如嬪) → Consort Ru (如妃) → Dowager Noble Consort Ru (如貴太妃)→ Dowager Imperial Noble Consort Ru (如太皇貴妃) ** ''Eighth daughter'' (8 March 1805 – December 1805 or January 1806) ** Princess Huimin of the First Rank (; 18 February 1811 – June/July 1815), ninth daughter ** Mianyu, Prince Huiduan of the First Rank (; 8 March 1814 – 9 January 1865), fifth son Consort * Consort Hua (華妃) of the Hougiya Clan (侯佳氏)
Titles: Servant (管女子) → Mistress (格格) → Imperial Concubine Ying (莹嫔) → Consort Hua (华妃) ** ''Sixth daughter'' (2 August 1789 – 1790) * Consort Zhuang () of the Wanggiya Clan (王佳氏)
Titles: Mistress (格格) → First Class Female Attendant Chun (春常在) → Noble Lady Chun (春貴人) → Imperial Concubine Ji (吉嬪) → Consort Zhuang (莊妃) * Consort Xin (信妃) of the Liugiya Clan (劉佳氏)
Titles: Noble Lady Xin (信贵人) → Imperial Concubine Xin (信嫔) → Dowager Consort Xin (信太妃) *Consort Shu (恕妃) of the
Wanyan The Wanyan (; Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Nort ...
Clan (完顏氏)
Titles: Secondary Consort (侧福晋) Concubine * Concubine Chun (淳嬪) of the Donggiya Clan (董佳氏)
Titles: Noble Lady Chun (淳贵人) → Imperial Concubine Chun (淳嫔) *Concubine Rong () of the Liang Clan (梁氏) * Concubine En () of the
Uya Uya (Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast ...

Uya
Clan (烏雅氏) *Concubine An () of the
Gūwalgiya Gūwalgiya ( Manchu Chinese: ; ) was one of the most powerful Manchu clans. It is often listed by historians as the first of the eight prominent Manchu clans of the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was t ...
Clan (瓜爾佳氏)
Titles: First Class Female Attendant An (安常在) → Dowager Imperial Concubine Kaoan (皇考安嫔). *Concubine Jian () of the Guan Clan (關)
Titles: Mistress (格格) ** ''First daughter'' (14 May 1780 – 24 November 1783) * Concubine Xun () of the Shen Clan (沈)
Titles: Mistress (格格) ** Princess Hui'an of the Second Rank (; 31 December 1786 – June/July 1795), fifth daughter Noble Lady *Noble Lady Yun (芸贵人) of a certain clan
Titles: Noble Lady Yun (芸贵人) *Noble Lady Yu (玉贵人) of a certain clan
Titles: Noble Lady Yu (玉贵人) First Class Female Attendant *First Class Female Attendant Hui (慧常在) of a certain clan
Titles: First Class Female Attendant Hui (慧常在)


Ancestry


In fiction and popular culture

* Portrayed by Yu Yang in ''
War and Beauty ''War and Beauty'' () is a Hong Kong television period drama serial that originally aired on TVB Jade TVB Jade (), or simply Jade, is a Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's ...
'' (2004) * Portrayed by Xin Baiqing ''Legend of Jiaqing'' (2005) * Portrayed by Shaun Tam in '' Succession War'' (2018) * Portrayed by Tang Jiatong in ''
Story of Yanxi Palace ''Story of Yanxi Palace'' () is a Chinese period drama series recounting the struggles of a palace maid in the court of the Qianlong Emperor The Qianlong Emperor (25 September 17117 February 1799) was the fifth Emperor of the Qing dynast ...
'' (2018) * Portrayed in '' Throne of Jade'' (2006), a historical fantasy novel by
Naomi Novik Naomi Novik (born April 30, 1973) is an American author of speculative fiction. She is best known for the Temeraire (series), ''Temeraire'' series, an alternate history of the Napoleonic Wars involving dragons, and the standalone fantasy novels ' ...
.


See also

*
Chinese emperors family tree (late) This is a family tree of Chinese emperors from the Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or c ...


References


Citations


Sources

* * *


Further reading

*


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Jiaqing Emperor 1760 births 1820 deaths Qing dynasty emperors 18th-century Chinese monarchs 19th-century Chinese monarchs Persecution of Christians 1790s in China 1800s in China 1810s in China Qianlong Emperor's sons