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In
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
,
Jesus Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...

Jesus
is the
Son of God Historically, many rulers have assumed titles such as the son of God, the son of a God or the son of heaven. The term "son of God" is used in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical ...
and in many mainstream
Christian denomination A Christian denomination is a distinct religious Religion is a - of designated and practices, , s, s, , , , , or , that relates humanity to , , and elements; however, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a rel ...
s he is
God the Son God the Son ( el, Θεὸς ὁ υἱός, la, Deus Filius) is the second person of the Trinity in Christian theology. The doctrine of the Trinity identifies Jesus in Christianity, Jesus as the Incarnation (Christianity), incarnation of God in ...
, the second Person in the
Trinity The Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian ...

Trinity
. He is believed to be the
Jewish messiah The Messiah in Judaism () is the savior and liberator figure in Jewish eschatology, whose role is to restore Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of Judah, Judah", via Ancient Greek ...
(Christ) who is prophesied in the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites ...

Hebrew Bible
, which is called the
Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon A biblical canon or canon of scripture is a set of texts (or "books") which a particular Jewish or Christian religious community regards as aut ...
in Christianity. Jesus debated with fellow
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...

Jews
on how to best follow
God In monotheism, monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, creator, and principal object of Faith#Religious views, faith.Richard Swinburne, Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Ted Honderich, Honderich, Ted. (ed)''The Oxfo ...
, performed
miracles A miracle is an event that seems inexplicable by natural or scientific law Scientific laws or laws of science are statements, based on repeated experiments or observations, that describe or predict a range of natural phenomena. The term ' ...
, taught in
parables A parable is a succinct, Didacticism, didactic story, in prose or Verse (poetry), verse, that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles. It differs from a fable in that fables employ animals, plants, inanimate objects, or forces ...
, and gathered disciples. It is believed that through his crucifixion and subsequent resurrection, God offered humans
salvation Salvation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in re ...
and eternal life, that Jesus died to atone for
sin In a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ...
to make humanity right with God. These teachings emphasize that as the
Lamb of God Lamb of God ( el, Ἀμνὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ, Amnòs toû Theoû; la, Agnus Dei, ) is a title for Jesus that appears in the Gospel of John The Gospel according to John ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, translit=Eu ...
, Jesus chose to suffer nailed to the cross at
Calvary Calvary, or Golgotha ( grc-koi, Γολγοθᾶ ''Golgothâ ', traditionally interpreted as reflecting syr, ܓܓܘܠܬܐ ''gāgūlṯā'', as it were Hebrew ''gulgōleṯ'' "skull" (); ar, جلجثة), was, according to the canonical ...

Calvary
as a sign of his obedience to the will of God, as an "agent and servant of God".''The Christology of Anselm of Canterbury'' by Dániel Deme 2004 pages 199-200 Jesus's choice positions him as a man of obedience, in contrast to
Adam Adam (; Aramaic Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that originated among the in the ancient , at the end of the , and later became one of the most prominent languages of the . During its three thousand years long his ...

Adam
's disobedience.''Systematic Theology, Volume 2'' by Wolfhart Pannenberg 2004 0567084663 ISBN pages 297-303 According to the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
, after God raised him from the dead, Jesus
ascended Ascendency is a quantitative attribute of an ecosystem, defined as a function of the ecosystem's trophic network. Ascendency is derived using mathematical tools from information theory. It is intended to capture in a single index the ability of ...
to heaven to sit at the
right hand of God The right hand of God (''Dextera Domini'' "right hand of the Lord" in Latin) or God's right hand may refer to the Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scr ...
, and he will return to earth again for the
Last Judgment The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Reckoning, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday or The Day of the Lord ( he, יום הדין, Yom ha-din, ar, یوم القيامة, Yawm al-qiyāmah, Day of Resurrection or ar, یوم الدین, ...
and the establishment of the
Kingdom of God The concept of the kingship of God appears in all Abrahamic religions, where in some cases the terms Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven are also used. The notion of God's kingship goes back to the Hebrew Bible, which refers to "his kingdom" but ...
. While there has been theological debate over the nature of Jesus,
Trinitarian The Christian theology, Christian doctrine of the Trinity (, from "threefold") defines God in Christianity , God as being Monotheism, one god existing in three wikt:coequal , coequal, wikt:coeternal , coeternal, Consubstantiality , consubsta ...

Trinitarian
Christians believe that Jesus is the
Logos ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος, lógos; from , , ) is a term in Western philosophy Western philosophy refers to the philosophy, philosophical thought and work of the W ...
, God incarnate, God the Son, and " true God and true man"—both fully divine and fully human. Jesus, having become fully human in all respects, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, yet he did not sin.


Core teachings

Although Christian views of Jesus vary, it is possible to summarize the key elements of the beliefs shared by major Christian denominations by analyzing their
catechetical Catechesis (; from Greek: , "instruction by word of mouth", generally "instruction") is basic Christian religious education In secular usage, religious education is the teaching of a particular religion (although in the United Kingdom the ter ...
or
confessional A confessional is a box, cabinet, booth, or stall in which the priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more dei ...
texts.Jackson, Gregory Lee, ''Catholic, Lutheran, Protestant: a doctrinal comparison'' 1993 Part One: "Areas of Agreement", pages 11-17 Christian views of Jesus are derived from various biblical sources, particularly from the
canonical gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel"), but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out. In this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrative of the words an ...
and
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as ...

New Testament
letters such as the
Pauline epistles The Pauline epistles, also known as Epistles of Paul or Letters of Paul, are the thirteen books of the New Testament attributed to Paul the Apostle, although the authorship of some is in dispute. Among these epistles are some of the earliest extant ...
. Christians predominantly hold that these works are historically true. Those Christian groups or denominations which are committed to what are considered biblically
orthodox Orthodox, Orthodoxy, or Orthodoxism may refer to: Religion * Orthodoxy, adherence to accepted norms, more specifically adherence to creeds, especially within Christianity and Judaism, but also less commonly in non-Abrahamic religions like Neo-paga ...
Christianity nearly all agree that Jesus: *was born of a virgin *is a human being who is also fully God *had never sinned during his existence *was crucified and buried in a tomb *rose from the dead on the third day *eventually ascended back to God the Father *will return to earth Some groups which are considered to be Christian hold beliefs which are considered to be
heterodox In religion, heterodoxy (from Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply a ...
. For example, believers in
monophysitism Monophysitism ( or ) or monophysism () is a Christological In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, t ...
reject the idea that
Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew/Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, the Major religious groups, world's largest ...
has two natures, one human and one divine. The five major milestones in the gospel narrative of the life of Jesus are his
baptism Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian rite of initiation, admission and Adoption (theology), adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. It may be pe ...

baptism
, transfiguration, Crucifixion, Resurrection and Ascension.''Essays in New Testament interpretation'' by Charles Francis Digby Moule 1982 page 63 These are usually bracketed by two other episodes: his nativity at the beginning and the sending of the
Paraclete Paraclete ( el, παράκλητος, la, paracletus) means advocate or helper. In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teac ...
(Holy Spirit) at the end.''Scripture in tradition'' by John Breck 2001 page 12 The gospel accounts of the teachings of Jesus are often presented in terms of specific categories involving his "works and words", e.g., his ministry,
parables A parable is a succinct, Didacticism, didactic story, in prose or Verse (poetry), verse, that illustrates one or more instructive lessons or principles. It differs from a fable in that fables employ animals, plants, inanimate objects, or forces ...
and
miracles A miracle is an event that seems inexplicable by natural or scientific law Scientific laws or laws of science are statements, based on repeated experiments or observations, that describe or predict a range of natural phenomena. The term ' ...
.''The Bible Knowledge Commentary'' by John F. Walvoord, Roy B. Zuck 1983 page 100''The words and works of Jesus Christ'' by J. Dwight Pentecost 2000 page 212 Christians not only attach theological significance to the ''works'' of Jesus, but also to his ''name''. Devotions to the name of Jesus go back to the earliest days of Christianity.Hunter, Sylvester. ''Outlines of dogmatic theology'', Volume 2. 2010 p. 443Houlden, Leslie. ''Jesus: the Complete Guide'', 2006. p. 426 These exist today both in
Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct American airline that operated from 1926 to 1991 *Eastern Air Lin ...
and
Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings ...
—both Catholic and Protestant. Christians predominantly profess that through Jesus' life, death, and Resurrection, he restored humanity's communion with God with the blood of the
New Covenant The New Covenant (Biblical Hebrew, Hebrew '; Koine Greek, Greek ''diatheke kaine'') is a biblical interpretation originally derived from a Book of Jeremiah#Sections of the Book, phrase in the Book of Jeremiah (Jeremiah 31:31-34), in the Hebrew ...
. His death on a cross is understood as a redemptive sacrifice: the source of humanity's
salvation Salvation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in re ...

salvation
and the
atonement Atonement (also atoning, to atone) is the concept of a person taking action to correct previous wrongdoing on their part, either through direct action to undo the consequences of that act, equivalent action to do good for others, or some other e ...
for
sin In a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, ...

sin
which had entered human history through the sin of Adam.


Christ, Logos and Son of God

Most Christians generally consider Jesus to be the Christ, the long-awaited
Messiah In Abrahamic religions, a messiah or messias (; , ; , ; ) is a salvation, saviour or liberator of a group of people. The concepts of ''Messiah in Judaism, mashiach'', Messianism#Judaism, messianism, and of a Messianic Age#Judaism, Messianic Ag ...
, as well as the one and only Son of God. The opening words in the
Gospel of Mark The Gospel according to Mark ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Μᾶρκον , translit=Euangélion katà Mârkon), also called the Gospel of Mark, or simply Mark, is the second of the four Gospel#Canonical_gospels, canonical gospels and of ...
( 1:1), "The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God", provide Jesus with the two distinct attributions as Christ and as the Son of God. His
divinity Divinity or the divine are things that are either related to, devoted to, or proceeding from a deity A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena that are not subject to the laws of nature.https://ww ...

divinity
is again re-affirmed in Mark 1:11. Matthew 1:1 which begins by calling Jesus the Christ and in verse 16 explains it again with the affirmation: "Jesus, who is called Christ". In the Pauline epistles, the word ''
Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew/Aramaic ( AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, the Major religious groups, world's largest ...
'' is so closely associated with Jesus that apparently for the
early Christians The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religi ...
there was no need to claim that Jesus was Christ, for that was considered widely accepted among them. Hence Paul could use the term ''Christos'' with no confusion about who it referred to, and as in 1 Corinthians 4:15 and Romans 12:5 he could use expressions such as "in Christ" to refer to the followers of Jesus. In the New Testament, the title "Son of God" is applied to Jesus on many occasions, from the
Annunciation The Annunciation (from Latin '), also referred to as the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Annunciation of Our Lady, or the Annunciation of the Lord, is the Christian celebration of the announcement by the Archangel Gabriel to the ...

Annunciation
up to the Crucifixion.Catholic Encyclopedia: Son of God
/ref> The declaration that Jesus is the Son of God is made by many individuals in the New Testament, and on two occasions by
God the Father God the Father is a title given to God in various religions, most prominently in Christianity. In mainstream trinity, trinitarian Christianity, God the Father is regarded as the first person of the Trinity, followed by the second person, God t ...

God the Father
as a voice from Heaven, and is asserted by Jesus himself.''One teacher: Jesus' teaching role in Matthew's gospel'' by John Yueh-Han Yieh 2004 pages 240-241Dwight Pentecost ''The words and works of Jesus Christ'' 2000 page 234''The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia'' by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1988 page 571-572 In
Christology In Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Major religio ...
, the concept that Christ is the ''
Logos ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος, lógos; from , , ) is a term in Western philosophy Western philosophy refers to the philosophy, philosophical thought and work of the W ...
'' (i.e., "The Word") has been important in establishing the doctrine of the divinity of Christ and his position as God the Son in the Trinity as set forth in the
Chalcedonian Creed The Chalcedonian Definition (also called the Chalcedonian Creed or the Definition of Chalcedon) is a declaration of Christ's nature, adopted at the Council of Chalcedon The Council of Chalcedon (; la, Concilium Chalcedonense; grc-gre, Σ ...
. This derives from the opening of the Gospel of John, commonly translated into English as: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." λόγος in the original
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
is translated as ''Word'' and in theological discourse, this is often left in its English
transliterated Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of ha ...

transliterated
form, ''
Logos ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος ''Logos'' (, ; grc, λόγος, lógos; from , , ) is a term in Western philosophy Western philosophy refers to the philosophy, philosophical thought and work of the W ...

Logos
''. The
pre-existence of Christ The pre-existence of Christ asserts the existence of Christ before his Incarnation (Christianity), incarnation as Jesus. One of the relevant Bible passages is where, in the Trinity, Trinitarian interpretation, Christ is identified with a pre-exi ...
refers to the existence of Christ before his
incarnation Incarnation literally means ''embodied in flesh'' or ''taking on flesh''. It refers to the conception and birth of a sentient Sentience is the capacity to be aware of feeling Feeling was originally used to describe the physical sensation of to ...

incarnation
as Jesus. One of the relevant New Testament passages is John 1:1-18 where, in the Trinitarian view, Christ is identified with a pre-existent divine hypostasis called the Logos or Word. This doctrine is reiterated in John 17:5 when Jesus refers to the glory which he had with the Father "before the world was" during the
Farewell Discourse In the New Testament, wikisource:Bible (American Standard)/John#14:1, Chapters 14–17 of the Gospel of John are known as the Farewell Discourse given by Jesus to eleven of his Disciple (Christianity), disciples immediately after the conclusion of ...
.''Creation and Christology'' by Masanobu Endo 2002 page 233 also refers to the Father loving Jesus "before the foundation of the world".
Non-Trinitarian Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazare ...
views about the pre-existence of Christ vary, with some rejecting it and others accepting it. Following the
Apostolic Age Christianity in the 1st century covers the formative history of Christianity The history of Christianity concerns the Christian religion, Christian countries, and the Church with its various denominations, from the 1st century to the pr ...
, from the 2nd century forward, several controversies developed about how the human and divine are related within the person of Jesus. Eventually in 451, the concept of a
hypostatic union Hypostatic union (from the Greek: ''hypóstasis'', "sediment, foundation, substance, subsistence") is a technical term in Christianity, Christian theology employed in mainstream Christology to describe the union of Christ's humanity and divinity ...
was decreed, namely that Jesus is both fully divine and fully human. However, differences among Christian denominations continued thereafter, with some rejecting the hypostatic union in favor of monophysitism.


Incarnation, Nativity and Second Adam

The above verse from Colossians regards the birth of Jesus as the model for all creation.
Paul the Apostle Paul; el, Παῦλος, translit=Paulos; cop, ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ; he, פאולוס השליח, name=, group= (born Saul of Tarsus;; ar, بولس الطرسوسي; el, Σαῦλος Ταρσεύς, Saũlos Tarseús; tr, Tarsuslu Pavlus AD ...
viewed the birth of Jesus as an event of cosmic significance which brought forth a "new man" who undid the damage caused by the fall of the first man, Adam. Just as the Johannine view of Jesus as the incarnate Logos proclaims the universal relevance of his birth, the Pauline perspective emphasizes the birth of a new man and a new world in the birth of Jesus. Paul's
eschatological Eschatology is a part of theology Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the Divinity, divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an Discipline (academia), academic discipline, typically in universities and sem ...
view of Jesus counter-positions him as a new man of morality and obedience, in contrast to Adam. Unlike Adam, the new man born in Jesus obeys God and ushers in a world of morality and salvation. In the Pauline view, Adam is positioned as the first man and Jesus as the second: Adam, having corrupted himself by his disobedience, also infected humanity and left it with a curse as its inheritance. The birth of Jesus counterbalanced the fall of Adam, bringing forth redemption and repairing the damage done by Adam.Daille, Jean. ''An exposition of the epistle of Saint Paul to the Philippians'', 1995. . pp. 194-195 In the 2nd century Church Father
Irenaeus Irenaeus (; grc-gre, Εἰρηναῖος ''Eirēnaios''; c. 130 – c. 202 AD) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Rep ...
writes:
"When He became incarnate and was made man, He commenced afresh the long line of human beings, and furnished us, in a brief, comprehensive manner, with salvation; so that what we had lost in Adam—namely to be according to the image and likeness of God- that we might recover in Christ Jesus."Bethune-Baker, James Franklin. ''An introduction to the early history of Christian doctrine'', 2005. . p. 334Walker, Williston. ''A History of the Christian Church'', 2010. . pp. 65-66
In
patristic Patristics or patrology is the study of the early Christian writers who are designated Church Fathers. The names derive from the Classical compound, combined forms of Latin ''pater'' and Greek ''patḗr'' (father). The period is generally consider ...
theology, Paul's contrasting of Jesus as the new man versus Adam provided a framework for discussing the uniqueness of the birth of Jesus and the ensuing events of his life. The nativity of Jesus thus began to serve as the starting point for "cosmic Christology" in which the birth, life and Resurrection of Jesus have universal implications. The concept of Jesus as the "new man" repeats in the cycle of birth and rebirth of Jesus from his nativity to his Resurrection: following his birth, through his morality and obedience to the Father, Jesus began a "new harmony" in the relationship between God the Father and man. The nativity and Resurrection of Jesus thus created the author and exemplar of a new humanity. In this view, the birth, death and Resurrection of Jesus brought about salvation, undoing the damage of Adam. As the biological son of David, Jesus would be of the Jewish race, ethnicity, nation, and culture. One argument against this would be a contradiction in Jesus' genealogies: Matthew saying he is the son of
Solomon Solomon (; he, , ), ''Šlēmūn''; : سُلَيْمَان ', also : ' or '; el, Σολομών ''Solomōn''; : Salomon) also called Jedidiah (, ), was, according to the and Christian , a fabulously wealthy and wise monarch of the who suc ...

Solomon
and Luke saying he is the son of Nathan—Solomon and Nathan being brothers.
John of Damascus John of Damascus (or John Damascene, gr, Ἰωάννης ὁ Δαμασκηνός, Ioánnēs ho Damaskēnós, ; la, Ioannes Damascenus) was a Christian monk, priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, ...

John of Damascus
taught that there is no contradiction, for Nathan wed Solomon's wife after Solomon died in accordance with scripture, namely,
yibbum Yibbum (, Hebrew: ייבום) is the form of levirate marriage found in Judaism Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', "Kingdom of Judah, Judah", via Ancient Greek, Greek ''Ioudaismos''; the term its ...
(the
mitzvah In its primary meaning, the Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Jud ...
that a man must marry his brother's childless widow). Jesus grew up in Galilee and much of his ministry took place there. The languages spoken in Galilee and Judea during the 1st century AD include
Jewish Palestinian Aramaic Jewish Palestinian Aramaic (abbreviated JPA) was a Western Aramaic language spoken by the Jews during the Classic Era in Judea Judea or Judaea, and the modern version of Judah (; from he, יהודה, Hebrew language#Modern Hebrew, Standa ...
,
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-survivi ...
, and
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
, with Aramaic being predominant. There is substantial consensus that Jesus gave most of his teachings in Aramaic in the
Galilean dialect The Galilean dialect was the form of Jewish Palestinian Aramaic spoken by people in Galilee during the late Second Temple period, for example at the time of Apostolic Age, Jesus and the disciples, as distinct from a Judean dialect spoken in Jerusal ...
. The canonical gospels describe Jesus wearing
tzitzit ''Tzitzit'' ( he, ''ṣīṣīṯ'', ; plural ''ṣīṣīyyōt'', Ashkenazi Ashkenazi Jews ( are a Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are members of an ethnoreligious grou ...

tzitzit
– the tassels on a
tallit A tallit ( he, טַלִּית ''talit'' in Modern Hebrew Modern Hebrew ( he, עברית חדשה, ''ʿivrít ḥadašá ', , ''Literal translation, lit.'' "Modern Hebrew" or "New Hebrew"), also known as Israeli Hebrew or Israeli, and genera ...

tallit
– in and . Besides this, the New Testament includes no descriptions of Jesus' appearance before his death and the gospel narratives are generally indifferent to people's racial appearance or features.


Ministry

In the canonical gospels, the Ministry of Jesus begins with his baptism in the countryside of
Judea Judea or Judaea ( or ; from he, יהודה, Standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrolog ...

Judea
, near the
River Jordan ) , name_native_lang = , name_other = , name_etymology = Hebrew: ירדן (yardén, ''“descender”''), from ירד (yarad, ''“descended”'') , image = 20100923 mer morte13.JPG , image_size = , ima ...

River Jordan
and ends in
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...
, following the
Last Supper Image:The Last Supper - Leonardo Da Vinci - High Resolution 32x16.jpg, 500px, alt=''The Last Supper'' by Leonardo da Vinci - Clickable Image, Depictions of the Last Supper in Christian art have been undertaken by artistic masters for centuries, ...

Last Supper
.McGrath, Alister E. ''Christianity: an introduction'', 2006 . pp. 16-22 The
Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euangélion katà Loukân), also called the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, tells of the origins, Nativity of Jesus, birth, Ministry of Jesus, ministry, Cr ...
( 3:23) states that Jesus was "about 30 years of age" at the start of his ministry. Köstenberger, Andreas J., L. Scott Kellum. ''The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament'', 2009. . p. 114Paul L. Maier, Maier, Paul L. "The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus" in Vardaman, Jerry and Edwin M. Yamauchi.''Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies'', 1989. . pp. 113-129 The date of the start of his ministry has been estimated at around AD 27 to 29 and the end in the range AD 30 to 36.Barnett, Paul. ''Jesus & the Rise of Early Christianity: A History of New Testament Times'', 2002. . pp. 19-21 Jesus' early Galilean ministry begins when after his baptism, he goes Return of Jesus to Galilee, back to Galilee from his time in the Temptation of Jesus, Judean desert. In this early period he preaches around Galilee and recruits first disciples of Jesus, his first disciples who begin to travel with him and eventually form the core of the early Church.Redford, Douglas. ''The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels'', 2007 . pp. 117-130 The major Galilean ministry which begins in Matthew 8 includes the commissioning of the Twelve Apostles, and covers most of the ministry of Jesus in Galilee.Redford, Douglas. ''The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels'', 2007. . pp. 143-160 The final Galilean ministry begins after the death of John the Baptist as Jesus prepares to go to Jerusalem.Redford, Douglas. ''The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels'', 2007. . pp. 165-180 In the later Judean ministry Jesus starts his final journey to Jerusalem through Judea.Kingsbury, Jack Dean. ''The Christology of Mark's Gospel'', 1983 . pp. 91-95Barton, Stephen C. ''The Cambridge companion to the Gospels''. . pp. 132-133 As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the later Perea (Bible), Perean ministry, about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the River Jordan, he returns to the area where he was baptized. The final ministry in Jerusalem is sometimes called the ''Passion of Jesus, Passion Week'' and begins with the Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem.Cox, Steven L., Kendell H Easley. ''Harmony of the Gospels'', 2007 . p. 155-170 The gospels provide more details about the final ministry than the other periods, devoting about one third of their text to the Holy Week, last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem.Turner, David L. ''Matthew'', 2008. . p.613


Teachings, parables and miracles

In the New Testament the teachings of Jesus are presented in terms of his "words and works". The words of Jesus include several sermons, in addition to parables that appear throughout the narrative of the Synoptic Gospels (the gospel of John includes no parables). The works include the miracles and other acts performed during his ministry. Although the Canonical Gospels are the major source of the teachings of Jesus, the Pauline epistles, which were likely written decades before the gospels, provide some of the earliest written accounts of the teachings of Jesus.Blomberg, Craig L. ''Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey''. B & H Academic, 2009. . pp. 441-442 The New Testament does not present the teachings of Jesus as merely his own teachings, but equates the words of Jesus with divine revelation, with John the Baptist stating in s:Bible (NIV)/John#3:34, John 3:34: "For the one whom God has sent speaks the words of God, for God gives the Spirit without limit." and Jesus stating in s:Bible (NIV)/John#7:16, John 7:16: “My teaching is not my own. It comes from the one who sent me".Osborn, Eric Francis. ''The Emergence of Christian Theology''. Cambridge University Press, 1993. p.98Köstenberger, Andreas J. ''The missions of Jesus and the disciples according to the Fourth Gospel''. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1998. pages 108-109 In s:Bible (American Standard)/Matthew#11:27, Matthew 11:27 Jesus claims divine knowledge, stating: "No one knows the Son except the Father and no one knows the Father except the Son", asserting the mutual knowledge he has with the Father.


Discourses

The gospels include several discourses by Jesus on specific occasions, such as the Farewell discourse delivered after the
Last Supper Image:The Last Supper - Leonardo Da Vinci - High Resolution 32x16.jpg, 500px, alt=''The Last Supper'' by Leonardo da Vinci - Clickable Image, Depictions of the Last Supper in Christian art have been undertaken by artistic masters for centuries, ...

Last Supper
, the night before his Crucifixion.O'Day, Gail R., Susan Hylen. ''John (Westminster Bible Companion)'' Westminster John Knox Press, 2006. , Chapter 15: The Farewell Discourse, pages 142-168 Although some of the teachings of Jesus are reported as taking place within the formal atmosphere of a synagogue (e.g., in ) many of the discourses are more like conversations than formal lectures.Howick, E. Keith. ''The Sermons of Jesus the Messiah''. WindRiver Publishing, 2003. pp. 7-9 The Gospel of Matthew has a structured set of sermons, often grouped as the Five Discourses of Matthew which present many of the key teachings of Jesus.Köstenberger, Andreas J.L. Scott Kellum, Charles L. Quarles. ''The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament''. B&H Academic, 2009. . pp. 194-196Keener, Craig S. ''The Gospel of Matthew''. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2009. . pp. 37-38 Each of the five discourses has some parallel passages in the
Gospel of Mark The Gospel according to Mark ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Μᾶρκον , translit=Euangélion katà Mârkon), also called the Gospel of Mark, or simply Mark, is the second of the four Gospel#Canonical_gospels, canonical gospels and of ...
or the
Gospel of Luke The Gospel according to Luke ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Λουκᾶν , translit=Euangélion katà Loukân), also called the Gospel of Luke or simply Luke, tells of the origins, Nativity of Jesus, birth, Ministry of Jesus, ministry, Cr ...
.France, R.T. ''The Gospel of Matthew (New International Commentary on the New Testament)''. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2007. . p.9 The five discourses in Matthew begin with the Sermon on the Mount, which encapsulates many of the moral teaching of Jesus and which is one of the best known and most quoted elements of the New Testament.Vaught, Carl G. ''The Sermon on the Mount: a Theological Investigation''. Baylor University Press; 2nd edition, 2001. . pp. xi-xiv The Sermon on the Mount includes the ''Beatitudes'' which describe the character of the people of the
Kingdom of God The concept of the kingship of God appears in all Abrahamic religions, where in some cases the terms Kingdom of God and Kingdom of Heaven are also used. The notion of God's kingship goes back to the Hebrew Bible, which refers to "his kingdom" but ...
, expressed as "blessings". The Beatitudes focus on love and humility rather than force and exaction and echo the key ideals of Jesus' teachings on spirituality and compassion.Hastings, James. ''A Dictionary Of The Bible''. Oxford University Press, USA; 3rd Revised edition, 2005. pp.15-19Jegen, Carol Frances. ''Jesus the Peacemaker''. Sheed & Ward, 1986. . pp. 68-71Majerník Ján, Joseph Ponessa, Laurie Watson Manhardt. ''The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke''. Sheed & Ward, 2005. , pp.63-68 The other discourses in Matthew include the ''Missionary Discourse'' in Matthew 10 and the ''Discourse on the Church'' in Matthew 18, providing instructions to the disciples and laying the foundation of the codes of conduct for the anticipated community of followers.Toussaint, Stanley D. ''Behold the King: A Study of Matthew''. Kregel Academic & Professional, 2005. . pp.215-216


Parables

The parables of Jesus represent a major component of his teachings in the gospels, the approximately thirty parables forming about one third of his recorded teachings.Lockyer, Herbert. ''All the Parables of the Bible''. Zondervan, 1988. . p.174Pentecost, J. Dwight. ''The parables of Jesus: Lessons in Life from the Master Teacher''. Zondervan, 1998. . p.10 The parables may appear within longer sermons, as well as other places within the narrative. Jesus' parables are seemingly simple and memorable stories, often with imagery, and each conveys a teaching which usually relates the physical world to the Spirituality, spiritual world.Lisco, Friedrich Gustav, and Patrick Fairbairn. ''The parables of Jesus Explained and Illustrated Volume 29''. Nabu Press, 2010. . pp.9-11 In the 19th century, Lisco and Patrick Fairbairn, Fairbairn stated that in the parables of Jesus, "the image borrowed from the visible world is accompanied by a truth from the invisible (spiritual) world" and that the parables of Jesus are not "mere similitudes which serve the purpose of illustration, but are internal analogies where nature becomes a witness for the spiritual world". Similarly, in the 20th century, calling a parable "an earthly story with a heavenly meaning", William Barclay states that the parables of Jesus use familiar examples to lead others' minds towards heavenly concepts. He suggests that Jesus did not form his parables merely as analogies but based on an "inward affinity between the natural and the spiritual order."Barclay, William. ''The Parables of Jesus''. Westminster John Knox Press, 1999. p.12.


Miracles of Jesus

In Christian teachings, the miracles of Jesus were as much a vehicle for his message as were his words. Many of the miracles emphasize the importance of faith, for instance in cleansing ten lepers, Jesus did not say: "My power has saved you" but says "Rise and go; your faith has saved you." Similarly, in the Jesus walks on water, Walking on Water miracle, Apostle Peter learns an important lesson about faith in that as his faith wavers, he begins to sink. One characteristic shared among all miracles of Jesus in the Gospel accounts is that he delivered benefits freely and never requested or accepted any form of payment for his healing miracles, unlike some high priests of his time who charged those who were healed. In s:Bible (NIV)/Matthew#10:8, Matthew 10:8 he advised his disciples to heal the sick, raise the dead, cleanse those who have leprosy, and drive out demons without payment and stated: "Freely you have received; freely give". Christians in general believe that Jesus' miracles were actual historical events and that his miraculous works were an important part of his life, attesting to his divinity and the Hypostatic union, i.e., the dual natures of Christ's humanity and divinity in one hypostasis (philosophy), hypostasis.Catholic Encyclopedia on Miracles
/ref> Christians believe that while Jesus' experiences of hunger, weariness, and death were evidences of his humanity, the miracles were evidences of his deity. Christian authors also view the miracles of Jesus not merely as acts of power and omnipotence, but as works of love and mercy: they were performed to show compassion for sinful and suffering humanity. Authors Ken and Jim Stocker state that "every single miracle Jesus performed was an act of love". And each miracle involves specific teachings. Since according to the Gospel of John it was impossible to narrate all the miracles performed by Jesus, the Catholic Encyclopedia states that the miracles presented in the Gospels were selected for a twofold reason: first for the manifestation of God's glory, and then for their evidential value. Jesus referred to his "works" as evidences of his mission and his divinity, and in he declared that his miracles have greater evidential value than the testimony of John the Baptist.


Crucifixion and atonement

The accounts of the Crucifixion and subsequent Resurrection of Jesus provide a rich background for Christological analysis, from the
canonical gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message ("the gospel"), but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was set out. In this sense a gospel can be defined as a loose-knit, episodic narrative of the words an ...
to the Pauline epistles. Johannine "agency christology" combines the concept that Jesus is the Son of his Father with the idea that he has come into the world as his Father's agent, commissioned and sent by the Father to represent the Father and to accomplish his Father's work. Implied in each Synoptic portrayal of Jesus is the doctrine that the salvation Jesus gives is inseparable from Jesus himself and his divine identity. Sonship and agency come together in the Synoptic gospels only in the Parable of the Vineyard (; ; ). The submission of Jesus to crucifixion is a sacrifice made as an ''agent of God'' or ''servant of God'', for the sake of eventual victory. This builds upon the salvation in Christianity, salvific theme of the Gospel of John which begins in s:Bible (American Standard)/John#1:36, John 1:36 with John the Baptist's proclamation: "The Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world". Further reinforcement of the concept is provided in s:Bible (American Standard)/Revelation#21:14, Revelation 21:14 where the "lamb slain but standing" is the only one worthy of handling the scroll (i.e., the book) containing the names of those who are to be saved. A central element in the Christology presented in the Acts of the Apostles is the affirmation of the belief that the death of Jesus by crucifixion happened "with the foreknowledge of God, according to a definite plan". In this view, as in s:Bible (American Standard)/Acts#2:23, Acts 2:23, the cross is not viewed as a scandal, for the Crucifixion of Jesus "at the hands of the lawless" is viewed as the fulfilment of the plan of God. Paul's Christology has a specific focus on the death and Resurrection of Jesus. For Paul, the Crucifixion of Jesus is directly related to his Resurrection and the term "the cross of Christ" used in s:Bible (American Standard)/Galatians#6:12, Galatians 6:12 may be viewed as his abbreviation of the message of the gospels. For Paul, the Crucifixion of Jesus was not an isolated event in history, but a cosmic event with significant eschatological consequences, as in s:Bible (American Standard)/1 Corinthians#2:8, 1 Corinthians 2:8. In the Pauline view, Jesus, obedient to the point of death (s:Bible (American Standard)/Philippians#2:8, Philippians 2:8) died "at the right time" (s:Bible (American Standard)/Romans#4:25, Romans 4:25) based on the plan of God. For Paul the "power of the cross" is not separable from the Resurrection of Jesus. John Calvin supported the "agent of God" Christology and argued that in his trial in Pilate's Court Jesus could have successfully argued for his innocence, but instead submitted to crucifixion in obedience to the Father. This Christological theme continued into the 20th century, both in the Eastern Church, Eastern and Western Churches. In the Eastern Church Sergei Bulgakov argued that the Crucifixion of Jesus was "Pre-existence of Christ, pre-eternally" determined by the Father before the creation of the world, to redeem humanity from the disgrace caused by the fall of Adam. In the Western Church, Karl Rahner elaborated on the analogy that the blood of the Lamb of God (and the water from the side of Jesus) shed at the Crucifixion had a cleansing nature, similar to baptismal water. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Mormons believe that the Crucifixion was the culmination of Christ's atonement, which began in the Gethsemane, Garden of Gethsemane.


Resurrection, Ascension, and Second Coming

The New Testament teaches that the Resurrection of Jesus is a foundation of the Christian faith. Christians, through Faith in Christianity, faith in the working of God are spiritually resurrected with Jesus, and are Redeemer (Christianity), redeemed so that they may walk in a new way of life. In the teachings of the Apostolic Age, apostolic Church, the Resurrection was seen as heralding a World to Come, new era. Forming a theology of the Resurrection fell to Apostle Paul. It was not enough for Paul to simply repeat elementary teachings, but as states, "go beyond the initial teachings about Christ and advance to maturity". Fundamental to Pauline theology is the connection between Christ's Resurrection and redemption. Paul explained the importance of the Resurrection of Jesus as the cause and basis of the hope of Christians to share a similar experience in :
But Christ has indeed been raised from the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep. For since death came through a man, the resurrection of the dead comes also through a man. For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive.
If the cross stands at the center of Paul's theology, so does the Resurrection: unless the one died the death of ''all'', the ''all'' would have little to celebrate in the Resurrection of the one. Paul taught that, just as Christians share in Jesus' death in baptism, so they will share in his Resurrection for Jesus was designated the Son of God by his Resurrection. Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, USA. 2006. Paul's views went against the thoughts of the Greek philosophers to whom a bodily resurrection meant a new imprisonment in a corporeal body, which was what they wanted to avoid, given that for them the corporeal and the material fettered the spirit. At the same time, Paul believed that the newly resurrected body would be a spiritual body—immortal, glorified and powerful, in contrast to an earthly body which is mortal, dishonored and weak. The Apostolic Fathers, discussed the death and Resurrection of Jesus, including Ignatius of Antioch, Ignatius (50−115), Polycarp (69−155), and Justin Martyr (100−165). Following the Constantine I and Christianity, conversion of Constantine and the liberating Edict of Milan in 313, the First seven Ecumenical Councils, ecumenical councils of the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries, that focused on Christology helped shape the Christian understanding of the redemptive nature of Resurrection, and influenced both the development of its iconography, and its use within liturgy.


Nontrinitarian perspectives

The doctrine of the Trinity—including the belief that Jesus is a Person of the Trinity—is not universally accepted among Christians. Nontrinitarian Christian groups include The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Unitarianism, Unitarians and Jehovah's Witnesses. Though modern nontrinitarian groups all reject the doctrine of the Trinity, their views still differ widely on the nature of Jesus. Some do not believe that Jesus is God, instead believing that he was a messenger from God, or prophet, or the perfect created human. This is the view espoused by ancient sects such as the Ebionites, and modern-day Unitarians.


See also

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References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Christian Views Of Jesus Jesus in Christianity,