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Edmund Gerald Brown Jr. (born April 7, 1938) is an American lawyer, author, and politician who served as the 34th and 39th
governor of California The governor of California is the head of government of the U.S. state of California. The governor is the commander-in-chief of the California National Guard and the California State Guard. Established in the Constitution of California, the go ...
from 1975 to 1983 and 2011 to 2019. A member of the
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
, he was elected
Secretary of State of California The secretary of state of California is the chief clerk of the U.S. state of California, overseeing a department of 500 people. The Secretary of state (U.S. state government), secretary of state is elected for four year terms, like the state's oth ...
in the early 1970s; Brown later served as Mayor of
Oakland Oakland is the largest city and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a ...
from 1999 to 2007 and
Attorney General of California The Attorney General of California is the state attorney general of the Government of California. The officer's duty is to ensure that "the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced" (Constitution of California, Article V, Section ...
from 2007 to 2011. He was both the oldest and sixth-youngest governor of California due to the 28-year gap between his second and third terms. Upon completing his fourth term in office, Brown became the third longest-serving governor in U.S. history, serving 16 years and 5 days in office. Born in
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
, he is the son of
Bernice Layne Brown Bernice E. Layne Brown (November 19, 1908 – May 9, 2002) was the wife of the 32nd Governor of California Pat Brown, Edmund "Pat" Brown and the mother of the 34th and 39th governor of California, Jerry Brown. Bernice Layne was born on November ...
and
Pat Brown Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown (April 21, 1905 – February 16, 1996) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 32nd governor of California from 1959 to 1967. His first elected office was as district attorney for San Francisco, and he ...
, who was the 32nd Governor of California (1959–1967). After graduating from the
University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...

University of California, Berkeley
and
Yale University Yale University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly two ...
, he practiced law and began his political career as a member of the
Los Angeles Community College District The Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) is the community college district serving Los Angeles, California, and some of its neighboring cities and certain unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County. Its headquarters are in Downtown Los An ...
Board of Trustees (1969–1971). He was elected to serve as the 23rd Secretary of State of California from 1971 to 1975. At 36, Brown was elected to his first term as governor in
1974 Major events in 1974 include the aftermath of the 1973 oil crisis and the resignation of United States President The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public ...
, making him the youngest California Governor in 111 years. In
1978 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day since the day ...
, he won his second term. During his governorship, Brown ran unsuccessfully as a candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in
1976 Events January * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , r ...
and
1980 Events January * January 4 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter proclaims a United States grain embargo against the Soviet Union, grain embargo against the USSR with the support of the European Commission. * January 6 – Global Positioning Syst ...
. He declined to pursue a third term as governor in 1982, instead making an unsuccessful run for the
United States Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, politi ...
that
same year Same may refer to: *Sameness or identity Places * Same (Homer), an island mentioned by Homer in the ''Odyssey'' * Same (polis), an ancient city * Same, East Timor, the capital of the Manufahi district * Samé, Mali * Same, Tanzania * Same District, ...
. After traveling abroad, he returned to California and served as the sixth Chairman of the
California Democratic Party The California Democratic Party is the affiliate of the Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Pa ...
(1989–1991), attempting to run for U.S. President once more in 1992. He then moved to Oakland, where he hosted a
talk radio Talk radio is a radio format A radio format or programming format (not to be confused with broadcast programming Broadcast programming is the practice of organizing and/or ordering (scheduling) of broadcast media shows, typically radio and ...
show; Brown soon returned to public life, serving as
Mayor of Oakland This is the list of mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or , regardless whether it carries an actual with it) in an or government and participates in the ...
(1999–2007) and
Attorney General of California The Attorney General of California is the state attorney general of the Government of California. The officer's duty is to ensure that "the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced" (Constitution of California, Article V, Section ...
(2007–2011). He ran for his third and fourth terms as governor in
2010 2010 was designated as: *International Year of Biodiversity The International Year of Biodiversity (IYB) was a year-long celebration of biological diversity and its importance, taking place internationally in 2010. Coinciding with the dat ...
and
2014 2014 was designated as: * International Year of Crystallography * International Year of Family Farming * International Year of Small Island Developing States * International Year of Solidarity with the Palestinian People __TOC__ Events Jan ...
, his eligibility to do so having stemmed from California's constitutional
grandfather clause A grandfather clause (or grandfather policy, grandfathering, or grandfathered in) is a provision in which an old rule continues to apply to some existing situations while a new rule will apply to all future cases. Those exempt from the new rule ...
. On October 7, 2013, he became the longest-serving governor in the
history of California The history of California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territories of the United States by population, ...
, surpassing
Earl Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was an American politician and jurist who served as 30th governor of California The governor of California is the head of government of the U.S. state of California. The governor is the command ...

Earl Warren
.


Early life, education, and private career

Brown was born in
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
, California, the only son of four children born to District Attorney of San Francisco and later Governor of California, Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown Sr., and his wife, Bernice Layne. Brown's father was of half Irish and half German descent. His great-grandfather August Schuckman, a German immigrant, settled in California in 1852 during the
California Gold Rush The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) was a that began on January 24, 1848, when was found by at in . The news of gold brought approximately 300,000 people to from the rest of the United States and abroad. The sudden influx of gold into ...
. Brown was a member of the California Cadet Corps at St. Ignatius High School, where he graduated in 1955. In 1955, Brown entered
Santa Clara University Santa Clara University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Dusty Springfield, after an absence of nearly tw ...
for a year and left to attend Sacred Heart Novitiate, a
Jesuit , image = Ihs-logo.svg , caption = Christogram A Christogram (Latin ') is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a Christian symbolism ...
novice house in
Los Gatos Los Gatos (; ) is an incorporated town An incorporated town is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary consid ...
, intent on becoming a
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...
priest A priest is a religious leader Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social w ...

priest
. "A story appeared in the ''New York Times'' on May 16, 1976, reporting that Brown 'now admits he is no longer a practicing Roman Catholic.' The ''Times'' story prompted a member of the staff of ''The Monitor'', the newspaper of the archdiocese of San Francisco, to query Brown, whose answer was, "I was born a Catholic. I was raised a Catholic. I am a Catholic." Brown resided at the novitiate from August 1956 to January 1960 before enrolling at the
University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an organization ...

University of California, Berkeley
, where he graduated with a
Bachelor of Arts Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB; from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to ...
in Classics in 1961. With his tuition paid for by the Louis Lurie Foundation, including a $675 scholarship in 1963, Brown went on to
Yale Law School Yale Law School (often referred to as Yale Law or YLS) is the law school A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education Legal education is the education of individuals in the ...
and graduated with a
Bachelor of Laws Bachelor of Laws ( la, Legum Baccalaureus; LL.B.) is an undergraduate law degree in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guard ...
in 1964. After law school, Brown worked as a
law clerk A law clerk or a judicial clerk is an individual—generally an attorney Attorney may refer to: Roles * Attorney at law, an official title of lawyers in some jurisdictions * Attorney general, the principal legal officer of (or advisor to) a gover ...
for
California Supreme Court The Supreme Court of California is the highest and final court of appeals in the courts A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, g ...
Justice Mathew Tobriner. Returning to California, Brown took the state
bar Bar or BAR may refer to: Food *Bar (establishment) A bar is a long raised narrow table or bench designed for dispensing beer or other alcoholic beverage, alcoholic drinks. They were originally chest high, and a bar, often brass, ran the len ...
exam and passed on his second attempt. He then settled in
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be u ...

Los Angeles
and joined the
law firm A law firm is a business entity formed by one or more lawyers A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with some ...
of Tuttle & Taylor. In 1969, Brown ran for the newly created Los Angeles Community College Board of Trustees, which oversaw
community college A community college is a type of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, ...
s in the city, and placed first in a field of 124.


California Secretary of State (1971–1975)

In 1970, Brown was elected
California Secretary of State The secretary of state of California is the chief clerk of the U.S. state of California, overseeing a department of 500 people. The Secretary of state (U.S. state government), secretary of state is elected for four year terms, like the state's o ...
. Brown argued before the
California Supreme Court The Supreme Court of California is the highest and final court of appeals in the courts A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, g ...
and won cases against
Standard Oil of California Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag) In heraldry Heraldry () is a broad term, encompassing the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such ...
,
International Telephone and Telegraph ITT Inc., formerly ITT Corporation, is an American worldwide manufacturing company based in White Plains, New York. The company produces specialty components for the aerospace, transportation, energy and industrial markets. ITT's three busines ...
,
Gulf Oil Gulf Oil was a major global oil company from 1901 until March 15, 1985. The eighth-largest American manufacturing company in 1941 and the ninth-largest in 1979, Gulf Oil was one of the so-called Seven Sisters oil companies. Prior to its merger w ...

Gulf Oil
, and
Mobil Mobil Corporation, (originally Standard Oil Company of New York and then Socony-Vacuum Oil Company) was an American oil company that merged with Exxon Exxon is the brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature th ...
for election law violations. In addition, he forced legislators to comply with campaign disclosure laws. Brown also drafted and helped to pass the California Political Reform Act of 1974, Proposition 9, passed by 70% of California's voters in June 1974. Among other provisions, it established the
California Fair Political Practices Commission The Fair Political Practices Commission (FPPC) of California is a five-member independent nonpartisan commission that has primary responsibility for the impartial and effective administration of the Political Reform Act of 1974. The Commission's o ...
.


34th Governor of California (1975–1983)


First term

In 1974, Brown ran in a highly contested Democratic primary for Governor of California against Speaker of the California Assembly Bob Moretti, San Francisco Mayor Joseph L. Alioto, Representative , and others. Brown won the primary with the name recognition of his father, Pat Brown, whom many people admired for his progressive administration. In the General Election on November 5, 1974, Brown was elected Governor of California over California State Controller Houston I. Flournoy; Republicans ascribed the loss to anti-Republican feelings from
Watergate The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal in the United States involving the administration Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organiz ...

Watergate
, the election being held only ninety days after President
Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of the and is the of the . The power o ...

Richard Nixon
resigned from office. Brown succeeded Republican Governor
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of ...

Ronald Reagan
, who retired after two terms. After taking office, Brown gained a reputation as a
fiscal conservative Fiscal conservatism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations between indiv ...
. ''
The American Conservative ''The American Conservative'' (''TAC'') is a magazine published by the American Ideas Institute which was founded in 2002. The publication states that it exists to promote a Conservatism in the United States, conservatism that opposes unchecked p ...
'' later noted he was "much more of a fiscal conservative than ". His fiscal restraint resulted in one of the biggest budget surpluses in state history, roughly $5 billion. For his personal life, Brown refused many of the privileges and perks of the office, forgoing the newly constructed 20,000 square-foot governor's residence in the suburb of Carmichael and instead renting a $275-per-month apartment at 1228 N Street, adjacent to Capitol Park in downtown Sacramento. Rather than riding as a passenger in a chauffeured
limousine A limousine ( or ), or limo for short, is a large luxury vehicle A luxury car is a car A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of ''cars'' say that they run primarily on roads, seat one ...

limousine
as previous governors had done, Brown walked to work and drove in a
Plymouth Satellite The Plymouth Satellite is a mid-size automobile A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle Electric bicycles parked in Yangzhou's main street, Wenchang Lu. They are a very common way of transport in this city, in some areas almost ou ...
sedan Sedan may refer to: Transportation * Sedan (automobile), a passenger car in a three-box configuration * Litter (vehicle), or sedan chair, a human-powered, wheelless device for transport of persons * Franklin Sedan, built by H. H. Franklin Manufa ...
. When
Gray Davis Joseph Graham "Gray" Davis Jr. (born December 26, 1942) is an American attorney and former politician who served as the 37th governor of California from 1999 to 2003. In 2003, only a few months into his second term, Davis was recalled and remov ...

Gray Davis
, who was chief of staff to Governor Brown, suggested that a hole in the rug in the governor's office be fixed, Brown responded: “That hole will save the state at least $500 million, because legislators cannot come down and pound on my desk demanding lots of money for their pet programs while looking at a hole in my rug!” As governor, Brown held a strong interest in
environmental issues Environmental issues are harmful Human impact on the environment, effects of human activity on the biophysical environment. Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on the individual, organizational or governme ...
. He appointed
J. Baldwin James Tennant Baldwin (May 6, 1933 – March 2, 2018), often known as Jay Baldwin or J. Baldwin, was an American industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object o ...
to work in the newly created California Office of Appropriate Technology,
Sim Van der Ryn Sim Van der Ryn is an American architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within ...
as State Architect,
Stewart Brand Stewart Brand (born December 14, 1938) is an American writer, best known as editor of the ''Whole Earth Catalog The ''Whole Earth Catalog'' (WEC) was an American counterculture of the 1960s, counterculture magazine and product catalog published ...
as Special Advisor, as chairman of the California State Water Board. Brown also reorganized the
California Arts Council The California Arts Council is a state agency based in Sacramento ) , image_map = Sacramento County California Incorporated and Unincorporated areas Sacramento Highlighted.svg , mapsize = 250x20 ...
, boosting its funding by 1300 percent and appointing artists to the council, and appointed more women and minorities to office than any other previous California governor. In 1977, he sponsored the "first-ever tax incentive for rooftop solar", among many environmental initiatives. In 1975, Brown obtained the repeal of the " depletion allowance", a tax break for the state's oil industry, despite the efforts of
lobbyist In politics, lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of lawfully attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of government officials, most often legislators or members of regulatory agency, regulatory agenc ...
Joe Shell, a former intraparty rival to
Richard M. Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president di ...
. In 1975, Brown opposed Vietnamese immigration to California, saying that the state had enough poor people. He added, “There is something a little strange about saying ‘Let's bring in 500,000 more people’ when we can't take care of the 1 million (Californians) out of work.” Brown strongly opposed the
death penalty Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ' ...

death penalty
and vetoed it as governor, which the legislature overrode in 1977. He also appointed judges who opposed capital punishment. One of these appointments,
Rose Bird Rose Elizabeth Bird (November 2, 1936 – December 4, 1999) was the 25th Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court. Her career was marked by firsts. She was the first female clerk of the Nevada Supreme Court, the first female deputy publi ...
as the Chief Justice of the
California Supreme Court The Supreme Court of California is the highest and final court of appeals in the courts A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, g ...
, was voted out in 1987 after a strong campaign financed by business interests upset by her "pro-labor" and "pro-free speech" rulings. The death penalty was only "a trumped-up excuse" to use against her, even though the Bird Court consistently upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty. In 1960, he lobbied his father, then governor, to spare the life of
Caryl Chessman Caryl Whittier Chessman (May 27, 1921 – May 2, 1960) was a convicted robber Robbery is the crime of taking or attempting to take anything of value by force, threat of force, or by putting the victim in fear. According to common law, robbery ...
and reportedly won a 60-day stay for him. Brown was both in favor of a
Balanced Budget Amendment A balanced budget amendment is a constitutional rule requiring that a state cannot spend more than its income. It requires a balance between the projected receipts and expenditures of the government. Balanced-budget provisions have been added ...
and opposed to
Proposition 13 Proposition 13 (officially named the People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation) is an amendment of the Constitution of California The Constitution of California ( es, Constitución del Estado de California) is the primary organizing law ...
, the latter of which would decrease property taxes and greatly reduce revenue to cities and counties. When Proposition 13 passed in June 1978, he heavily cut state spending, and along with the Legislature, spent much of the $5 billion surplus to meet the proposition's requirements and help offset the revenue losses which made cities, counties, and schools more dependent on the state. His actions in response to the proposition earned him praise from Proposition 13 author
Howard Jarvis Howard Arnold Jarvis (September 22, 1903 – August 12, 1986) was an United States, American businessman, lobbyist, and politician. He was a tax policy activist responsible for passage of California's California Proposition 13 (1978), Propositi ...

Howard Jarvis
who went as far as to make a television commercial for Brown just before his successful re-election bid in 1978. The controversial proposition immediately cut tax revenues and required a two-thirds
supermajority A supermajority, supra-majority, qualified majority, or special majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of more than one-half used for a majority A majority, also calle ...
to raise taxes. Max Neiman, a professor at the
Institute of Governmental StudiesThe Institute of Governmental Studies (IGS) is an interdisciplinary organized research unit at UC Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public university, public research university in ...
at University of California, Berkeley, credited Brown for "bailing out local government and school districts", but felt it was harmful "because it made it easier for people to believe that Proposition 13 wasn't harmful". In an interview in 2014, Brown indicated that a "war chest" would have helped his campaign for an alternative to Proposition 13.


1976 presidential election

Brown began his first campaign for the Democratic nomination for president on March 16, 1976, late in the primary season and over a year after some candidates had started campaigning. Brown declared: "The country is rich, but not so rich as we have been led to believe. The choice to do one thing may preclude another. In short, we are entering an era of limits." Brown's name began appearing on primary ballots in May and he won in
Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware ...

Maryland
,
Nevada Nevada (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Nevada
, and his home state of California. He missed the deadline in
Oregon Oregon () is a U.S. state, state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington (state), Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of it ...

Oregon
, but he ran as a write-in candidate and finished in third behind
Jimmy Carter James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician, businessman, and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Par ...

Jimmy Carter
and Senator
Frank Church Frank Forrester Church III (July 25, 1924 – April 7, 1984), more commonly referred to as Frank Church, was an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the ...
of
Idaho Idaho () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Idaho
. Brown is often credited with winning the
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
and
Rhode Island Rhode Island (, like ''road''), officially the State of Rhode Island, is a state in the New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States The Northeastern United States (also referred to as ...
primaries, but in reality, uncommitted slates of delegates that Brown advocated in those states finished first. With support from
Louisiana Louisiana (Standard French Standard French (in French: ''le français standard'', ''le français normé'', ''le français neutre'' eutral Frenchor ''le français international'' nternational French is an unofficial term for a standard ...

Louisiana
Governor
Edwin Edwards Edwin Washington Edwards (born August 7, 1927) is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party who served as the U.S. Representative for from 1965 to 1972 and as the 50th Governor of Louisiana A governor is, in most cases, a pu ...

Edwin Edwards
, Brown won a majority of delegates at the Louisiana delegate selection convention; thus, Louisiana was the only southern state to not support Southerners Carter or Alabama Governor
George Wallace George Corley Wallace, Jr. (August 25, 1919 – September 13, 1998), was an American politician who served as the 45th governor of Alabama A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch The ...

George Wallace
. Despite this success, he was unable to stall Carter's momentum, and his rival was nominated on the first ballot at the
1976 Democratic National Convention The 1976 Democratic National Convention met at Madison Square Garden in New York City, from July 12 to July 15, 1976. The assembled United States Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party delegates at the Presidential nominating ...
. Brown finished third with roughly 300 delegate votes, narrowly behind Congressman
Morris Udall Morris King "Mo" Udall (June 15, 1922 – December 12, 1998) was an American attorney and Democratic Party (United States), Democratic politician who served as a United States House of Representatives, U.S. Representative from Arizona from May ...
and Carter.


Second term

Brown won re-election in 1978 against Republican state Attorney General . Brown appointed the first
openly gay Coming out of the closet, often shortened to coming out, is a metaphor A metaphor is a figure of speech A figure of speech or rhetorical figure is a word or phrase that entails an intentional deviation from ordinary language use in ord ...
judge in the United States when he named Stephen Lachs to serve on the Los Angeles County Superior Court in 1979. In 1981, he also appointed the first openly lesbian judge in the United States, Mary C. Morgan, to the San Francisco Municipal Court.Jim Schroeder, ''Twenty-five years of courtroom trauma'' ''The Advocate (LGBT magazine), The Advocate'' (August 23, 1994). Brown completed his second term having appointed a total of five gay judges, including Rand Schrader and Jerold Krieger.Tracy Wilkinson
Municipal Court Judge Faces Challenge of AIDS – Disease
, ''Los Angeles Times'' (November 25, 1991).
Myrna Oliver
Judge Jerold Krieger, 58; Activist Helped Open Gay-Lesbian Temple
, ''Los Angeles Times'' (February 20, 2002).
Through his first term as governor, Brown had not appointed any openly gay people to any position, but he cited the failed 1978 Briggs Initiative, which sought to ban homosexuals from working in California's public schools, for his increased support of gay rights. The Governor also signed AB 489, The Consenting Adult Sex Bill, Consenting Adult Sex Act, which decriminalized homosexual behavior between adults, adding to this reputation. He also signed AB 607, which banned homosexuals from receiving civil marriage licenses, in 1977. Brown championed the Peripheral Canal project to transport water from near Sacramento around the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta into the Central Valley Project and export it to southern California. It was submitted to the voters for approval as a ballot proposition in 1982, but was turned down. In 1981, Brown, who had established a reputation as a strong environmentalist, was confronted with a serious medfly infestation in the San Francisco Bay Area. The state's agricultural industry advised him, and the US Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), to authorize airborne spraying of the region. Initially, in accordance with his environmental protection stance, he chose to authorize ground-level spraying only. Unfortunately, the infestation spread as the medfly reproductive cycle out-paced the spraying. After more than a month, millions of dollars of crops had been destroyed, and billions of dollars more were threatened. Governor Brown then authorized a massive response to the infestation. Fleets of helicopters sprayed malathion at night, and the California National Guard set up highway checkpoints and collected many tons of local fruit; in the final stage of the campaign, entomologists released millions of sterile insect technique, sterile male medflies in an attempt to disrupt the insects' reproductive cycle. Ultimately, the infestation was eradicated, but both the Governor's delay and the scale of the action have remained controversial ever since. Some people claimed that malathion was toxic to humans, as well as insects. In response to such concerns, Brown's chief of staff, B. T. Collins, staged a news conference during which he publicly drank a glass of malathion. Many people complained that, while the malathion may not have been very toxic to humans, the aerosol spray containing it was corrosive to car paint. Brown proposed the establishment of a state space academy and the purchasing of a satellite that would be launched into orbit to provide emergency communications for the state—a proposal similar to one that was indeed eventually adopted. In 1979, an out-of-state columnist, Mike Royko, at the ''Chicago Sun-Times'', picked up on the nickname from Brown's girlfriend at the time, Linda Ronstadt, who was quoted in a 1978 ''Rolling Stone'' magazine interview humorously calling him "Moonbeam". A year later, Royko expressed his regret for publicizing the nickname, and in 1991 Royko disavowed it entirely, proclaiming Brown to be just as serious as any other politician. Some notable figures were given priority, correspondence access to him in either advisory or personal roles. These included United Farm Workers of America founder Cesar Chavez, Hewlett-Packard co-founder David Packard, labor leader Jack Henning, and Charles Manatt, then-Chairman of the California State Democratic Party. Mail was routed as VIP to be delivered directly to the governor. However, it is unclear as to exactly how long this may have occurred. In 1978, San Francisco punk band the Dead Kennedys' first single, "California über alles", from the album Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables, was released; it was performed from the perspective of then-governor Brown painting a picture of a hippie-fascist state, satirizing what they considered his mandating of liberal ideas in a fascist manner, commenting on what lyricist Jello Biafra saw as the corrosive nature of power. The imaginary Brown had become President Brown presiding over secret police and gas chambers. Biafra later said in an interview with ''Nardwuar'' that he now feels differently about Brown; as it turned out, Brown was not as bad as Biafra thought he would be, and subsequent songs have been written about other politicians deemed worse. Brown chose not to run for a third term in 1982, and instead ran for the
United States Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, politi ...
, but lost to Mayor of San Diego, San Diego Mayor Pete Wilson. He was succeeded as governor by George Deukmejian, then state attorney general, on January 3, 1983.


1980 presidential election

In 1980, Brown challenged Carter for renomination. The press had anticipated his candidacy ever since he won re-election as governor in 1978 over the Republican Evelle Younger by 1.3 million votes, the largest margin in California history. But Brown had trouble gaining traction in both fundraising and polling for the presidential nomination. This was widely believed to be because of the more prominent candidate Senator Ted Kennedy of Massachusetts. Brown's 1980 platform, which he declared to be the natural result of combining Buckminster Fuller's visions of the future and E. F. Schumacher's theory of "Buddhist economics", was much expanded from 1976. His "era of limits" slogan was replaced by a promise to, in his words, "Protect the Earth, serve the people, and explore the universe". Three main planks of his platform were a call for a constitutional convention (political meeting), constitutional convention to ratify the
Balanced Budget Amendment A balanced budget amendment is a constitutional rule requiring that a state cannot spend more than its income. It requires a balance between the projected receipts and expenditures of the government. Balanced-budget provisions have been added ...
; a promise to increase funds for the space program as a "first step in bringing us toward a solar-powered space space-based solar power, satellite to provide solar energy for this planet"; and, in the wake of the 1979 Three Mile Island accident, opposition to nuclear power. On the subject of the 1979 energy crisis, Brown decried the "deal with the Devil, Faustian bargain" that he claimed Carter had entered into with the oil industry, and declared that he would greatly increase federal funding of research into solar power. He endorsed the idea of mandatory non-military national service for the nation's youth. He suggested that the United States Defense Department, Defense Department cut back on support troops while beefing up the number of combat troops. Brown opposed Kennedy's call for universal health care, universal national health insurance and opposed Carter's call for an employer mandate to provide catastrophic private health insurance labeling it socialist.
As an alternative, he suggested a program of tax credits for those who do not smoke or otherwise damage their health, saying: "Those who abuse their bodies should not abuse the rest of us by taking our tax dollars." Brown also called for expanding the use of acupuncture and midwifery. As Brown's campaign began to attract more members of what some more conservative commentators described as "the fringe", including activists like Jane Fonda, Tom Hayden, and Jesse Jackson, his polling numbers began to suffer. Brown received only 10 percent of the vote in the New Hampshire primary, and he was soon forced to announce that his decision to remain in the race would depend on a good showing in the Wisconsin primary. Although he had polled well there throughout the primary season, an attempt to film a live speech in Madison, Wisconsin, Madison, the state's capital, into a special effects-filled, 30-minute commercial (produced and directed by Francis Ford Coppola) was disastrous.


Senate defeat and public life

In 1982, Brown chose not to seek a third term as governor; instead, he ran for the
United States Senate The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, politi ...
for the seat being vacated by Republican S.I. Hayakawa. He was defeated by Republican San Diego Mayor Pete Wilson by a margin of 52% to 45%. After his Senate defeat, Brown was left with few political options. Republican George Deukmejian, a Brown critic, narrowly won the governorship in 1982, succeeding Brown, and was re-elected overwhelmingly in 1986. After his Senate defeat in 1982, many considered Brown's political career to be over. Brown traveled to Japan to study Buddhism, studying with Christian/Zen practitioner Hugo Enomiya-Lassalle under Yamada Koun, Yamada Koun-roshi. In an interview, he explained, "Since politics is based on illusions, zazen definitely provides new insights for a politician. I then come back into the world of California and politics, with critical distance from some of my more comfortable assumptions." He also visited Mother Teresa in Kolkata, Calcutta, India, where he ministered to the sick in one of her Hospice care, hospices. He explained, "Politics is a power struggle to get to the top of the heap. Calcutta and Mother Teresa are about working with those who are at the bottom of the heap. And to see them as no different than yourself, and their needs as important as your needs. And you're there to serve them, and doing that you are attaining as great a state of being as you can." Upon his return from abroad in 1988, Brown announced that he would stand as a candidate to become chairman of the
California Democratic Party The California Democratic Party is the affiliate of the Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Pa ...
, and won against investment banker Steve Westly. Although Brown greatly expanded the party's donor base and enlarged its coffers, with a focus on grassroots organizing and get out the vote drives, he was criticized for not spending enough money on TV ads, which was felt to have contributed to Democratic losses in several close races in 1990, such as Dianne Feinstein's attempt to become the 1990 California gubernatorial election, first female governor of California. In early 1991, Brown abruptly resigned his post and announced that he would run for the Senate seat held by the retiring Alan Cranston. Although Brown consistently led in the polls for both the nomination and the general election, he abandoned the campaign, deciding instead to run for the presidency for the third time.


1992 presidential election

When Brown announced his intention to run for president against President George H. W. Bush, many in the media and his own party dismissed his campaign as having little chance of gaining significant support. Ignoring them, Brown embarked on a grassroots democracy, grassroots campaign to, in his own words, "take back America from the confederacy of political corruption, corruption, careerism, and campaign consultant, consulting in Washington". In his Stump speech (politics), stump speech, first used while officially announcing his candidacy on the steps of Independence Hall (United States), Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Brown told listeners that he would be accepting campaign finance, campaign contributions from individuals only and that he would not accept over $100. Continuing with his populist reform movement, reform theme, he assailed what he dubbed "the bipartisanship, bipartisan Incumbent Party in Washington" and called for term limits for members of Congress of the United States, Congress. Citing various recent scandals on Capitol Hill, particularly the recent House banking scandal and the large congressional pay-raises from 1990, he promised to put an end to Congress being a "convenience store, Stop-and-Shop for the moneyed special interests". As Brown campaigned in various primary states, he would eventually expand his platform beyond a policy of strict Campaign finance reform in the United States, campaign finance reform. Although he focused on a variety of issues throughout the campaign, he highlighted his endorsement of living wage laws and opposition to free trade agreements such as North American Free Trade Agreement, NAFTA; he mostly concentrated on his tax policy, which had been created specifically for him by Arthur Laffer, the famous supporter of supply-side economics who created the Laffer curve. This plan, which called for the replacement of the progressive tax, progressive income tax with a flat tax and a value added tax, both at a fixed 13-percent rate, was decried by his opponents as regressive. Nevertheless, it was endorsed by ''The New York Times'', ''The New Republic'', and ''Forbes'', and its raising of taxes on corporations and elimination of various loopholes which tended to favor the very wealthy proved to be popular with voters. Various opinion polls taken at the time found that as many as three-quarters of all Americans believed the current tax code to be unfairly biased toward the wealthy. Jesse Walker wrote in ''
The American Conservative ''The American Conservative'' (''TAC'') is a magazine published by the American Ideas Institute which was founded in 2002. The publication states that it exists to promote a Conservatism in the United States, conservatism that opposes unchecked p ...
'' that he "seemed to be the most left-wing and right-wing man in the field ... [calling] for term limits, a flat tax, reforming social security, and the abolition of the United States Department of Education, Department of Education".Jesse Walker, Walker, Jesse (November 1, 2009
Five Faces of Jerry Brown
, ''
The American Conservative ''The American Conservative'' (''TAC'') is a magazine published by the American Ideas Institute which was founded in 2002. The publication states that it exists to promote a Conservatism in the United States, conservatism that opposes unchecked p ...
''
Brown scored surprising wins in Connecticut and Colorado and seemed poised to overtake Clinton. Due to his limited budget, Brown began to use a mixture of alternative media and unusual fundraising techniques. Unable to pay for actual commercials, he frequently used cable television and
talk radio Talk radio is a radio format A radio format or programming format (not to be confused with broadcast programming Broadcast programming is the practice of organizing and/or ordering (scheduling) of broadcast media shows, typically radio and ...
interviews as a form of free media to get his message to voters. In order to raise funds, he purchased a toll-free telephone number, which adorned all of his campaign stances. During the campaign, Brown's repetition of this number combined with the moralistic language used, led some to describe him as a "political televangelism, televangelist" with an "anti-politics gospel". Despite poor showings in the Iowa caucus (1.6%) and the New Hampshire Democratic primary, 1992, New Hampshire primary (8%), Brown soon managed to win narrow victories in Maine, Colorado,
Nevada Nevada (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

Nevada
, and Vermont, but he continued to be considered a small threat for much of the campaign. It was not until shortly after Super Tuesday, when the field had been narrowed to Brown, former Senator Paul Tsongas of Massachusetts, and front-runner then-Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas, that Brown began to emerge as a major contender in the eyes of the press. On March 17, Brown forced Tsongas from the race when he received a strong third-place showing in the Illinois primary and then defeated the senator for second place in the Michigan primary by a wide margin. Exactly one week later, he cemented his position as a major threat to Clinton when he eked out a narrow win in the bitterly fought Connecticut primary. As the press focused on the primaries in New York (state), New York and Wisconsin, which were both to be held on the same day, Brown, who had taken the lead in polls in both states, made a gaffe: He announced to an audience of various leaders of New York City's Jewish community that, if nominated, he would consider the Reverend Jesse Jackson as a vice-presidential candidate. Jackson, who had made a pair of anti-Semitism, anti-semitic comments about Jews in general, and New York City's Jews in particular, while running for president in 1984, was still mistrusted within the Jewish community. Jackson also had ties to Louis Farrakhan, infamous for his own anti-semitic statements, and with Yasir Arafat, the chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization. Brown's polling numbers suffered. On April 7, he lost narrowly to Bill Clinton in Wisconsin (37%–34%), and dramatically in New York (41%–26%). Although Brown continued to campaign in a number of states, he won no further primaries. Despite being overwhelmingly outspent, Brown won upset victories in seven states and his "votes won to the money raised ratio" was by far the best of any candidate in the race. He still had a sizable number of delegates, and a big win in his home state of California would deprive Clinton of sufficient support to win the Democratic nomination, possibly bringing about a brokered convention. After nearly a month of intense campaigning and multiple debates between the two candidates, Clinton managed to defeat Brown in this final primary by a margin of 48% to 41%. Although Brown did not win the nomination, he was able to boast of one accomplishment: at the following month's 1992 Democratic National Convention, Democratic National Convention, he received the votes of 596 delegates on the first ballot, more than any other candidate but Clinton. He spoke at the convention, and to the national viewing audience, yet without endorsing Clinton, through the device of seconding his own nomination. There was animosity between the Brown and Clinton campaigns, and Brown was the first political figure to criticize Bill Clinton over what became known as the Whitewater controversy.


Move to Oakland

After his 1992 presidential bid, Brown had moved from the Pacific Heights, San Francisco, Pacific Heights neighborhood of
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
to the Jack London District, Oakland, California, Jack London District neighborhood of Oakland, California, an "overwhelmingly minority city of 400,000". He constructed a multi-million dollar work-live complex, serving both as his residence and as a workspace. Among other features, it included a broadcast studio and a 400-seat auditorium. Brown launched a national
talk radio Talk radio is a radio format A radio format or programming format (not to be confused with broadcast programming Broadcast programming is the practice of organizing and/or ordering (scheduling) of broadcast media shows, typically radio and ...
show from his Oakland complex, which he would continue to produce until October 1997. In 1995, with Brown's political career at a low point, in the motion picture Jade (film), ''Jade'', the fictional Governor of California tells an assistant district attorney to drop a case, "unless you want as much of a future in this state as Jerry Brown". The assistant DA responds, "Who's Jerry Brown?" In Oakland, Brown became involved as an activist in local political matters, including bay-front development and campaign finance reform. In 1996, Brown unsuccessfully urged Oakland mayor Elihu Harris to appoint him to a seat on the Oakland Port Commission.


Mayor of Oakland (1999–2007)

After Oakland mayor Elihu Harris decided against seeking reelection, Brown ran in the city's 1998 Oakland mayoral election, 1998 mayoral election as an independent "having left the Democratic Party, blasting what he called the 'deeply corrupted' two-party system". He won with 59% of the vote in a field of ten candidates. Prior to taking office, Brown campaigned to get the approval of the electorate to convert Oakland's Mayor-council government, "weak mayor" political structure, which structured the mayor as chairman of the city council and official greeter, to a "strong mayor" structure, where the mayor would act as chief executive over the nonpolitical and thus the various city departments, and break tie votes on the Oakland City Council. In November 1998, Oakland's electorate voted by a landslide margin of 3 to 1 in support of Measure X, which would shift the city government to the strong mayor model for a period of 6 years. A referendum permanently extending Measure X later passed in 2004, after failing to pass in 2002, thus making permanent the city's shift to the strong mayor model of governance. The political left had hoped for some of the more progressive politics from Brown's earlier governorship, but found Brown, as mayor, to be "more pragmatic than progressive, more interested in downtown redevelopment and economic growth than political ideology". As mayor, he invited the U.S. Marine Corps to use Oakland harbor lands for mock military exercises as part of Operation Urban Warrior. The city was rapidly losing residents and businesses, and Brown is credited with starting the revitalization of the city using his connections and experience to lessen the economic downturn while attracting $1 billion of investments, including refurbishing the Fox Theater (Oakland), Fox Theatre, the Port of Oakland, and Jack London Square. The downtown district was losing retailers, restaurateurs and residential developers, and Brown sought to attract thousands of new residents with disposable income to revitalize the area. Brown continued his predecessor Elihu Harris's public policy of supporting downtown housing development in the area defined as the Central Business District in Oakland's 1998 General Plan. Since Brown worked toward the stated goal of bringing an additional 10,000 residents to Downtown Oakland, Oakland, California, Downtown Oakland, his plan was known as the "10k Plan". It has resulted in redevelopment projects in the Jack London District, Oakland, California, Jack London District, where Brown himself had earlier purchased and later sold an industrial warehouse which he used as a personal residence, and in the Lakeside Apartments District, Oakland, California, Lakeside Apartments District near Lake Merritt. The 10K Plan, 10K plan has touched the historic Old Oakland district, the Chinatown, Oakland, California, Chinatown district, the Uptown Oakland, Uptown district, and Downtown Oakland, Downtown. Brown surpassed the stated goal of attracting 10,000 residents according to city records, and built more affordable housing than previous mayoral administrations. Brown had campaigned on fixing Oakland's schools, but "bureaucratic battles" dampened his efforts. He concedes he never had control of the schools, and his reform efforts were "largely a bust". He focused instead on the creation of two charter schools, the Oakland School for the Arts and the Oakland Military Institute. Defending his support of a military charter school in Oakland, Brown once told KQED reporter Stephen Talbot, "I believe that had I been sent to the military academy, as my mother and father threatened, I would have been president a long time ago." Brown sponsored nearly two dozen crime initiatives to reduce the crime rate, although crime decreased by 13 percent overall, the city still suffered a "57 percent spike in homicides his final year in office, to 148 overall". Brown's largely successful first term as mayor of Oakland was documented in a one-hour KQED documentary, "The Celebrity and the City" (2001) that evaluated his record in dealing with his four stated goals: reducing crime, improving education, attracting 10,000 new residents to a resurgent downtown, and encouraging the arts. Brown was reelected as mayor 2002 Oakland mayoral election, in 2002.


Attorney General of California (2007–2011)

In 2004, Brown expressed interest to be a candidate for the Democratic nomination for
Attorney General of California The Attorney General of California is the state attorney general of the Government of California. The officer's duty is to ensure that "the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced" (Constitution of California, Article V, Section ...
in the 2006 election, and in May 2004, he formally filed to run. He defeated his Democratic primary opponent, Los Angeles City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo, 63% to 37%. In the general election, Brown defeated Republican State Senator Charles Poochigian 56.3% to 38.2%, one of the largest margins of victory in any statewide California race. In the final weeks leading up to Election Day, Brown's eligibility to run for attorney general was challenged in what Brown called a "political stunt by a Republican office seeker" (Contra Costa County Republican Central Committee chairman and state GOP vice-chair candidate Tom Del Beccaro). Plaintiffs claimed Brown did not meet eligibility according to California Government Code §12503, "No person shall be eligible to the office of Attorney General unless he shall have been admitted to practice before the Supreme Court of the state for a period of at least five years immediately preceding his election or appointment to such office." Legal analysts called the lawsuit frivolous because Brown was admitted to practice law in the State of California on June 14, 1965, and had been so admitted to practice ever since. Although ineligible to practice law because of his voluntary inactive status in the State Bar of California from January 1, 1997, to May 1, 2003, he was nevertheless still admitted to practice. Because of this difference the case was eventually thrown out.


Death penalty

As attorney general, Brown represented the state in fighting death-penalty appeals and stated that he would follow the law, regardless of his personal beliefs against capital punishment. Capital punishment by lethal injection was halted in California by federal judge Jeremy D. Fogel until new facilities and procedures were put into place. Brown moved to resume capital punishment in 2010 with the execution of Albert Greenwood Brown after the lifting of a statewide moratorium (law), moratorium by a California court. Brown's Democratic campaign, which pledged to "enforce the laws" of California, denied any connection between the case and the gubernatorial election. Prosecutor Rod Pacheco, who supported Republican opponent Meg Whitman, said that it would be unfair to accuse Jerry Brown of using the execution for political gain as they never discussed the case.


Mortgage fraud lawsuit

In June 2008, Brown filed a fraud lawsuit claiming mortgage lender Countrywide Financial engaged in "unfair and deceptive" practices to get homeowners to apply for risky mortgages far beyond their means. Brown accused the lender of breaking the state's laws against false advertising and unfair business practices. The lawsuit also claimed the defendant misled many consumers by misinforming them about the workings of certain mortgages such adjustable-rate mortgages, interest-only loans, low-documentation loans and home-equity loans while telling borrowers they would be able to refinance before the interest rate on their loans adjusted. The suit was settled in October 2008 after Bank of America acquired Countrywide. The settlement involved the modifying of troubled 'predatory loans' up to $8.4 billion.


Proposition 8

California Proposition 8 (2008), Proposition 8, a contentious voter-approved amendment to the state constitution that banned same-sex marriage was upheld in May 2009 by the California Supreme Court. In August 2010, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California ruled that Proposition 8 violated the Due Process and the Equal Protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Brown and then Republican Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger both declined to appeal the ruling. The state appeals court declined to order the governor or Attorney-General Brown to defend the proposition.


39th Governor of California (2011–2019)


Third term

Brown announced his candidacy for governor on March 2, 2010. First indicating his interest in early 2008, Brown formed an exploratory committee in order to seek a third term as governor in 2010, following the expiration of Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's term. Brown's Republican opponent in the election was former eBay president Meg Whitman. Brown was endorsed by the ''Los Angeles Times,'' ''The Sacramento Bee,'' the ''San Francisco Chronicle,'' the ''San Jose Mercury News,'' and the Service Employees International Union. Both Whitman and Brown were criticized for negative campaigning during the election. During their final debate at the 2010 Women's Conference a week before the election, moderator Matt Lauer asked both candidates to pull attack ads for the rest of the election, which elicited loud cheers from the audience.Whitman, Brown In The Hot Seat Over Negative Ads
by Ina Jaffe.
Brown agreed and picked one ad each of his and Whitman's that he thought, if Whitman would agree, should be the only ones run, but Whitman, who had been loudly cheered earlier as the prospective first woman governor of the state, was booed when she stated that she would keep "the ads that talk about where Gov. Brown stands on the issues".
''PBS Newshour'', David Chalian and Terrance Burlij, October 27, 2010.
The ''Los Angeles Times'' reported that nearly $250 million was spent on the Governor's race. At least two spending records were broken during the campaign. Whitman broke personal spending records by spending $140 million of her own money on the campaign,"How Jerry Brown got back in the governor's saddle"
Ashley Fantz, CNN, November 3, 2010. Fetched from URL on November 3, 2010.
and independent expenditures exceeded $31.7 million, with almost $25 million of that spent in support of Brown. Despite being significantly outspent by Whitman, Brown won the gubernatorial race 53.8% to Whitman's 40.9%. Brown was sworn in for his third term as governor on January 3, 2011, succeeding Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger who had been term-limited. Brown was working on a budget that would shift many government programs from the state to the local level, a reversal of trends from his first tenure as governor. On June 28, 2012, Brown signed a budget that made deep cuts to social services with the assumption that voters would pass $8 billion in tax increases in November 2012 to close California's $15.7-billion budget deficit. Brown stated: "We need budget cuts. We need the continued growth of the economy for a long period of time. We're suffering from the mortgage meltdown that killed 600,000 jobs in the construction industry. ... We're recovering from a national recession slowly—over 300,000 jobs [gained] since the recession. We've got a million to go. That needs to continue, but that depends not only on Barack Obama and the Congress and the Federal Reserve, but also on [German Chancellor Angela] Merkel, China, the European Union, and the self-organizing quality of the world economy." In September 2012, Brown signed legislation sponsored by California State Senator Ted Lieu that prohibits protesters at funerals within 300 feet, with convicted violators punishable with fines and jail time; the legislation was in response to protests conducted by the Westboro Baptist Church. In the November 2012 general elections, voters approved Brown's proposed tax increases in the form of California Proposition 30 (2012), Proposition 30. Prop 30 raised the state personal income tax increase over seven years for California residents with an annual income over US$250,000 and increased in the state sales tax by 0.25 percent over four years. It allowed the state to avoid nearly $6 billion in cuts to public education. In 2013, Brown proposed a large, $25 billion Bay Delta Conservation Plan (later renamed the California Water Fix and Eco Restore project) to build two large, four-story tall, long tunnels to carry fresh water from the Sacramento River under the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta toward the intake stations for the State Water Project and the Central Valley Project. Unlike his earlier Peripheral Canal project, the two tunnels are to be funded by the agencies and users receiving benefit from the project and do not require voter approval. In July 2014, Brown traveled to Mexico to hold meetings with Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto and other Central American leaders about the ongoing children's immigration crisis. On September 16, 2014, Gov. Brown signed a Sustainable Groundwater Management Act, historic package of groundwater legislation. The plan will regulate local agencies and also implement management plans to achieve water sustainability within 20 years.


Fourth term

Brown announced his bid for re-election on February 27, 2014. On June 3, he came first in the primary election by over 1.5 million votes. He received 54.3% of the vote and advanced to the general election with Republican Neel Kashkari, who took 19.38% of the vote. There was only one gubernatorial debate. When asked to schedule another, Brown declined. During the debate in Sacramento on September 4, 2014, Kashkari accused Brown of failing to improve California's business climate. His leading example was the Tesla Motors factory investment, creating 6,500 manufacturing jobs, going to Nevada rather than California. Brown responded that the cash payment upfront required by the investment would have been unfair to California taxpayers. A range of issues were debated, including recent legislation for a Phase-out of lightweight plastic bags#California, ban on plastic bags at grocery stores that Brown promised to sign and Kashkari thought unimportant. Brown said that if he were elected to a fourth and final term, he would continue transferring power to local authorities, particularly over education and criminal justice policy, and would resist fellow Democrats' "gold rush for new programs and spending". In the general election, Brown was re-elected by 3,645,835 votes (59.2%) to Kashkari's 2,511,722 (40.8%). His stated goals for his unprecedented fourth term in office were to construct the California High-Speed Rail, to create Bay Delta Conservation Plan, tunnels to shore up the state's water system and to curb carbon dioxide emissions. He still had $20 million in campaign funds to advance his ballot measures in case the legislature didn't support his plans. In October 2015, Brown signed off the California End of Life Option Act allowing residents of California who fulfilled strict criteria to exercise the right to die by accessing Euthanasia, medical aid in dying. During the sign off he took the unusual step of adding a personal message indicating his dilemma regarding the consideration of the ethical issues involved and stating that he felt unable to deny the right of choice to others. On December 18, 2015, Brown moved into the Historic Governor's Mansion, now part of Governor's Mansion State Historic Park. In 2016, Brown vetoed a bill to exempt feminine hygiene products from state sales taxes, at the same time that he vetoed other bills which would also have exempted diapers, saying that collectively, these exemptions would have reduced state revenues by $300 million annually, and stated “As I said last year, tax breaks are the same as new spending – they both cost the general fund money.” In the 2018–19 budget plan that Brown released on January 10, 2018, the Governor proposed spending $120 million to establish California's first fully online community college by fall 2019. Legislative accomplishments in Brown's final term include passing California Senate Bill 54 (2017), California Sanctuary Law SB 54, which prevents police from complying with most requests by the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to hold illegal immigrants for deportation; California Senate Bill 32, which requires the state to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 40% below 1990 levels by 2030, extending the state's cap and trade system (which had originally been outlined by the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006) to achieve this goal; and passing the Road Repair and Accountability Act. Brown has opposed the California Proposition 6 (2018), Proposition 6 ballot measure to repeal the Road Repair and Accountability Act, and endorsed Gavin Newsom to succeed him. Brown has been criticized for his links to the oil and gas industry, notably for contributions from, and his family ties to, Sempra Energy. By September 2018, Brown had granted more than 1,100 pardons since returning to office in 2011; more pardons than any California governor in recent history. Brown commuted more than 82 sentences, the highest number since at least the 1940s.


Electoral history


Personal life

A bachelor as governor and mayor, Brown attracted attention for dating famous women, the most notable of whom was singer Linda Ronstadt.Alternate Link
via ProQuest.
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via ProQuest.
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via ProQuest.
In March 2005, Brown announced his engagement to his girlfriend since 1990, Anne Gust Brown, Anne Gust, former chief administrative officer for Gap (clothing retailer), The Gap. They were married on June 18, 2005 in a ceremony officiated by Senator Dianne Feinstein in the Rotunda Building in downtown Oakland. They had a second, religious ceremony later in the day in the Roman Catholic Church in San Francisco where Brown's parents had been married. Brown and Gust lived in the Oakland Hills in a home purchased for $1.8 million. , they live on a ranch in Colusa County, California, Colusa County. Beginning in 1995, Brown hosted a daily call-in talk show on the local Pacifica Radio station, KPFA-FM, in Berkeley, California, Berkeley broadcast to major U.S. markets. Both the radio program and Brown's political action organization, based in
Oakland Oakland is the largest city and the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a ...
, were called ''We the People''. His programs, usually featuring invited guests, generally explored alternative views on a wide range of social and political issues, from education and health care to spirituality and the death penalty. The official gubernatorial portrait of Jerry Brown, commemorating his first period as Governor of California, was painted by Don Bachardy and unveiled in 1984. The painting has long been controversial due to its departure from the traditional norms of portraiture. Brown has a long-term friendship with his aide Jacques Barzaghi, whom he met in the early 1970s and put on his payroll. Author Roger Rapaport wrote in his 1982 Brown biography ''California Dreaming: The Political Odyssey of Pat & Jerry Brown'', "This combination clerk, chauffeur, fashion consultant, decorator, and trusted friend had no discernible powers. Yet, late at night, after everyone had gone home to their families and TV consoles, it was Jacques who lingered in the Secretary (of state's) office." Barzaghi and his sixth spouse Aisha lived with Brown in the warehouse in Jack London Square; Barzaghi was brought into Oakland city government upon Brown's election as mayor, where Barzaghi first acted as the mayor's armed bodyguard. Barzaghi left Brown's staff in July 2004, six days after police had responded to his residence over a complaint of domestic violence. In April 2011, Brown had surgery to remove a basal-cell carcinoma from the right side of his nose. In December 2012, media outlets reported that Brown was being treated for early stage (the precise stage and grade was not stated) localized prostate cancer with a very good prognosis. In 2011, Jerry and Anne Gust Brown acquired a Pembroke Welsh corgi, Sutter Brown, dubbed the "first dog" of California.Judy Lin
California gov's newest ally? A 'fur ball' with charm
, Associated Press (February 18, 2011).
Sutter was frequently seen in the company of the governor, accompanying him to political events and softening the governor's cerebral image.Nick Miller
How Sutter Brown saved California
, ''Sacramento News & Review'', September 26, 2013.
In 2015, the couple obtained a second dog, Colusa "Lucy" Brown, a Pembroke Welsh corgi/border collie Mixed-breed dog, mix.David Siders
California's 'first dog' falls critically ill
, ''Politico'' (October 11, 2016).
Sutter died in December 2016 from cancer. In 2019, Brown was appointed to be a visiting professor at UC Berkeley, Berkeley. Brown's accent has been described as reminiscent of the "California_English#Mission_brogue_(San_Francisco), Mission Brogue," particularly with his Rhoticity in English, non-rhoticity.


References


Further reading

* Bollens, John C. and G. Robert Williams. ''Jerry Brown: In a Plain Brown Wrapper'' (Pacific Palisades, California: Palisades Publishers, 1978). * Brown, Jerry. ''Thoughts'' (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1976) * Brown, Jerry. ''Dialogues'' (Berkeley, California: Berkeley Hills Books, 1998). * * Lorenz, J. D. ''Jerry Brown: The Man on the White Horse'' (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 1978). * McDonald, Heather
"Jerry Brown's No-Nonsense New Age for Oakland"
''City Journal (New York), City Journal'', Vol. 9, No. 4, Autumn 1999. * McFadden, Chuck and Joe Barrett. ''Trailblazer: A Biography of Jerry Brown'' (2013) scholarly biography * Newton, Jim. ''Man of Tomorrow: The Relentless Life of Jerry Brown'' (2020) 448p
excerpt
* Pack, Robert. ''Jerry Brown, The Philosopher-Prince'' (New York: Stein and Day, 1978). * Pawel, Miriam.
The Browns of California: The Family Dynasty That Transformed a State and Shaped a Nation
' (New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2018). * Rapoport, Roger. ''California Dreaming: The Political Odyssey of Pat & Jerry Brown'' (Berkeley, CA: Nolo Press, 1982) * * Rarick, Ethan. "The Brown Dynasty." in ''Modern American Political Dynasties: A Study of Power, Family, and Political Influence'' ed by Kathleen Gronnerud and Scott J. Spitzer. (2018): 211-30. *


External links

* *

at On the Issues *
Jerry Brown at the American Geophysical Union (AGU) on December 14, 2016
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