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Jeremiah,
Modern Modern may refer to: History *Modern history Human history, also known as world history, is the description of humanity's past. It is informed by archaeology Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recov ...
:   , Tiberian: ; el, Ἰερεμίας, Ieremíās; meaning " Yah Exalts" (c. 650 – c. 570 BC), also called the "weeping prophet", was one of the
major prophet The major prophets is a grouping of books in the Christian Old Testament The Old Testament (often abbreviated OT) is the first division of the Christian biblical canon, which is based primarily upon the 24 books of the Hebrew Bible The He ...
s of the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the of scriptures, including the , the , and the . These texts are almost exclusively in , with a few passages in (in the books of and , the verse 10:11, and some single words). The authoritativ ...

Hebrew Bible
. According to Jewish tradition, Jeremiah authored the Book of Jeremiah, the
Books of Kings A book is a medium for recording information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its characteristics. The conc ...
and the
Book of Lamentations The Book of Lamentations ( he, אֵיכָה, ''‘Êykhôh'', from its incipit The incipit () of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label. In a musical composition, an incipit is an initial sequence of Music ...
, with the assistance and under the editorship of
Baruch ben Neriah Baruch ben Neriah (Hebrew: ברוך בן נריה ''Bārūḵ ben Nêrîyāh'', "'Blessed' (Bārūḵ), son (ben) of 'My Candle is Jah' (Nêrîyāh)"; c. 6th century BC) was the scribe, disciple, secretary, and devoted friend of the Hebrew Bible, ...
, his
scribe A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist A copyist is a person who makes copies. The term is sometimes used for artists who make copies of other artists' paintings. However, the modern use of the term is almost entirely confi ...

scribe
and disciple. In addition to proclaiming many prophecies of
Yahweh Yahweh was the national god of ancient Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Israel and Kingdom of Judah, Judah. His origins reach at least to the early Iron Age, and likely to the Late Bronze Age. In the oldest biblical literature, he is a Weather ...
, the
God of IsraelGod of Israel may refer to: * God in Judaism, God as understood in Jewish theological discussion. * Yahweh, the national god of the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah. * Tetragrammaton, the four Hebrew letters YHWH as the name of God, and various ...
, the Book of Jeremiah goes into detail regarding the prophet's private life, his experiences, and his imprisonment.
Judaism Judaism is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of de ...
considers the Book of Jeremiah part of its
canon Canon or Canons may refer to: Places * Canon, Georgia Canon is a city in Franklin County, Georgia, Franklin and Hart County, Georgia, Hart counties in the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. The population was 804 at the 2010 census. His ...
, and regards Jeremiah as the second of the major
prophets In religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involun ...
.
Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a majority of the population in , and believe that is the , whose coming as the was in the (called the in Christ ...

Christianity
and
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling o ...
) is an religion teaching that is a of .Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: . . (See alsoquick reference) " e Muslims' und ...
also regard Jeremiah as a
prophet In religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involu ...
. His words are quoted in the
New Testament The New Testament grc, Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Transliteration, transl. ; la, Novum Testamentum. (NT) is the second division of the Christian biblical canon. It discusses the teachings and person of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus, as w ...

New Testament
and his narrative is recounted in Islamic tradition.


Biblical narrative


Chronology

Jeremiah was active as a prophet from the thirteenth year of
Josiah Josiah ( or ) or Yoshiyahu; la, Iosias was the 16th king of Judah The Kings of Judah were the monarchs who ruled over the ancient Kingdom of Judah The Kingdom of Judah ( he, יְהוּדָה, ''Yəhūdā(h)''; akk, 𒅀𒌑𒁕𒀀𒀀 '' ...

Josiah
,
king of Judah The Kings of Judah were the monarchs who ruled over the ancient Kingdom of Judah The Kingdom of Judah ( he, יְהוּדָה, ''Yəhūdā(h)''; akk, 𒅀𒌑𒁕𒀀𒀀 ''Ya'uda''; arc, 𐤁‬𐤉‬𐤕‬𐤃𐤅‬𐤃 ''Bēyt Dāwīḏ' ...
(626 BC), until after the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of
Solomon's Temple According to the Biblical narrative, Solomon's Temple, also known as the First Temple, was a temple in Jerusalem (: ''Bēṯ hamMīqdāš'') built under King Solomon's reign and completed in 957 BCE. The Temple was looted and then Siege of Jer ...

Solomon's Temple
in 587 BC. This period spanned the reigns of five kings of Judah: Josiah, Jehoahaz,
Jehoiakim Jehoiakim, also sometimes spelled Jehoikim; la, Joakim was the eighteenth and antepenultimate king of Judah from 609 to 598 BC. He was the second son of king Josiah () and Zebidah, the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah. His birth name was Eliakim.; ...
,
Jehoiachin Jeconiah ( he, יְכָנְיָה ''Yekonya'' , meaning " Yah has established"; el, Ιεχονιας; la, Iechonias, Jechonias), also known as Coniah and as Jehoiachin ( he, יְהֹויָכִין ; la, Ioachin, Joachin), was the nineteenth an ...
, and
Zedekiah Zedekiah () also known as Tzidkiyahu originally called Mattanyahu or Mattaniah, was the twentieth and last king of Judah before the destruction of the kingdom by King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon. Zedekiah had been installed as king of Judah by N ...

Zedekiah
. The prophetess
Huldah Huldah ( he, חֻלְדָּה ''Ḥuldā'') was a prophet In religion, a prophet is an individual who is regarded as being in contact with a divinity, divine being and is said to speak on behalf of that being, serving as an intermediary with hu ...
was a relative and contemporary of Jeremiah while the prophet
Zephaniah Zephaniah (, ) is the name of several people in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These texts are almost exc ...

Zephaniah
was his mentor.


Lineage and early life

Jeremiah was the son of
Hilkiah Hilkiah ( ''Ḥilqîyāhū'', "my portion is Yahweh, Yah") was a Kohen, Hebrew priest ("Kohen") at the time of King Josiah (reigned c. 641-609 BCE). His name is mentioned in Books of Kings, II Kings. He was the High Priest of Israel, High Priest an ...
, a ''
kohen Kohen ( he, כֹּהֵן' Cohen, "priest", pl. Cohanim, ' "priests") is the Hebrew word for "priest A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the Sacred rite, sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent be ...
'' (Jewish priest) from the
Benjamite According to the Torah, the Tribe of Benjamin () was one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. The tribe was descended from Benjamin, the youngest son of the patriarch Jacob and his wife Rachel. In the Samaritan Pentateuch the name appears as ''Binyamī ...

Benjamite
village of
Anathoth Anathoth is the name of one of the Levitical city, Levitical cities given to "the children of Aaron" in the tribe of Benjamin (; ). Residents were called Antothites or Anetothites. Name The name of this town may be derived from a Canaanite godde ...
. The difficulties he encountered, as described in the books of Jeremiah and
Lamentations The Book of Lamentations ( he, אֵיכָה, ''‘Êykhôh'', from its incipit meaning "how") is a collection of poetic laments for the Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC), destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BCE. In the Hebrew Bible it appears in the K ...
, have prompted scholars to refer to him as "the weeping prophet". Jeremiah was called to prophecy c. 626 BC by God to proclaim Jerusalem's coming destruction by invaders from the north. This was because Israel had forsaken God by worshiping the idols of
Baal Baal (), properly Baal,; phn, , baʿl; hbo, , baʿal, ). was a title and honorific An honorific is a title that conveys esteem, courtesy, or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person. Sometimes, the term "h ...

Baal
and burning their children as offerings to Baal. The nation had deviated so far from God's laws that they had broken the covenant, causing God to withdraw his blessings. Jeremiah was guided by God to proclaim that the nation of Judah would suffer famine, foreign conquest, plunder, and captivity in a land of strangers.


Calling

According to , the
LORD Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief, or a ruler. The appellation can also denote certain persons who hold a title of the Peera ...

LORD
called Jeremiah to prophecy in about 626 BC, about five years before Josiah king of Judah turned the nation toward repentance from idolatrous practices. According to the Books of Kings and Jeremiah, Josiah's reforms were insufficient to save Judah and Jerusalem from destruction, because of the sins of
Manasseh Manasses or Manasseh (;churchofjesuschrist ...
, Josiah's grandfather, and Judah's lustful return to the idolatry of foreign gods after Josiah's death. Jeremiah was said to have been appointed to reveal the sins of the people and the punishment to come. Jeremiah resisted the call by complaining that he was only a child and did not know how to speak, but the Lord placed the word in Jeremiah's mouth, commanding "Get yourself ready!" The qualities of a prophet listed in
Jeremiah 1 Jeremiah 1 is the first chapter Chapter or Chapters may refer to: Books * Chapter (books), a main division of a piece of writing or document * Chapter book, a story book intended for intermediate readers, generally age 7–10 * Chapters (booksto ...
include not being afraid, standing up to speak, speaking as told, and going where sent. Since Jeremiah is described as emerging well trained and fully literate from his earliest preaching, his relationship with the
ShaphanShaphan ( he, שפן, which means "hyrax"), son of Azaliah, is the name of a scribe or court secretary mentioned several times in the Hebrew Bible (2 Kings and ; and parallels in 2 Chronicles ; see also Book of Jeremiah, Jeremiah Jeremiah 26:24, 26: ...
family has been used to suggest that he may have trained at the scribal school in Jerusalem over which Shaphan presided.{{sfn, Freedman, 1992, p=687 In his early years of being a prophet, Jeremiah was primarily a preaching prophet, preaching throughout Israel.{{sfn, Freedman, 1992, p=687 He condemned idolatry, the greed of priests, and false prophets. Many years later, God instructed Jeremiah to write down these early oracles and his other messages.


Persecution

Jeremiah's prophecies prompted plots against him.{{bibleref2c, Jeremiah, 11:21–23, KJV Unhappy with Jeremiah's message, possibly from concern that it would shut down the Anathoth sanctuary, his priestly kin and the men of Anathoth conspired to kill him. However, the Lord revealed the conspiracy to Jeremiah, protected his life, and declared disaster for the men of Anathoth.{{sfn, Freedman, 1992, p=687{{bibleref2c, Jeremiah, 11:18–2:6, KJV When Jeremiah complains to the Lord about this persecution, he is told that the attacks on him will become worse.{{sfn, Sweeney, 2004, p=950 A priest,
Pashur Pashur or Pashhur (Hebrew: פשחור pash-''h''ur) was the name of at least two priests contemporary with the prophet In religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. T ...
the son of ben Immer, a temple official in Jerusalem, had Jeremiah beaten and put in the stocks at the Upper Gate of Benjamin for a day. After this, Jeremiah laments the travails and mockery that speaking God's word have caused him.{{bibleref2c, Jeremiah, 20:7, KJV He recounts how, if he tries to shut God's word inside, it burns in his heart and he is unable to hold it in.{{bibleref2c, Jeremiah, 20:9, KJV


Conflict with false prophets

While Jeremiah was prophesying the coming destruction, he denounced a number of other prophets who were prophesying peace.{{bibleref2c, Jeremiah, 6:13–15, KJV{{bibleref2c-nb, Jeremiah, 14:14–16, KJV{{bibleref2c-nb, Jeremiah, 23:9–40, KJV{{bibleref2c-nb, Jeremiah, 27:1–28:17{{bibleref2c-nb, Lamentations, 2:14, KJV According to the book of Jeremiah, during the reign of King Zedekiah, the Lord instructed Jeremiah to make a yoke with the message that the nation would be subject to the king of Babylon. The prophet Hananiah took the yoke off Jeremiah's neck and broke it, prophesying that within two years the Lord would break the yoke of the king of Babylon, but Jeremiah prophesied in return: "You have broken the yoke of wood, but you have made instead a yoke of iron."{{bibleref2c, Jeremiah, 28:13, KJV


Relationship with the Northern Kingdom (Samaria)

Jeremiah was sympathetic to, as well as descended from, the
northern Kingdom of Israel According to the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including the Torah. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, wit ...
. Many of his first reported oracles are about, and addressed to, the Israelites at Samaria. He resembles the northern prophet Hosea in his use of language and examples of God's relationship to Israel. Hosea seems to have been the first prophet to describe the desired relationship as an example of ancient Israelite marriage, where a man might be polygamous, while a woman was only permitted one husband. Jeremiah often repeats Hosea's marital imagery.{{sfn, Anon., 1971, p=126


Babylon

The biblical narrative portrays Jeremiah as being subject to additional persecutions. After Jeremiah prophesied that Jerusalem would be handed over to the Babylonian army, the king's officials, including Pashur the priest, tried to convince King Zedekiah that Jeremiah should be put to death for disheartening the soldiers and the people. Zedekiah allowed them, and they cast Jeremiah into a
cistern A cistern (Middle English ', from Latin ', from ', "box", from Greek language, Greek ', "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water. Cisterns are often built to catch and Rainwater tank, store rainwater. Cisterns are ...

cistern
, where he sank down into the mud. The intent seemed to be to kill Jeremiah by starvation, while allowing the officials to claim to be innocent of his blood.{{sfn, Barker, Youngblood, Stek, 1995, p=1544 A Cushite rescued Jeremiah by pulling him out of the cistern, but Jeremiah remained imprisoned until Jerusalem fell to the Babylonian army in 587 BC.{{bibleref2c, Jeremiah, 38 The Babylonians released Jeremiah, and showed him great kindness, allowing him to choose the place of his residence, according to a Babylonian edict. Jeremiah accordingly went to
Mizpah in Benjamin Mizpah ("watch-tower; the look-out") was a city of the tribe of Benjamin referred to in the Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; Hebrew: , or ), is the Biblical canon, canonical collection of Hebrew language, Hebrew scriptures, including ...
with
Gedaliah Gedaliah, Gedalia, Gedallah Hirsch, E. G. and Greenstone, J. H. (1906)Gedallah Jewish Encyclopedia or Gedalya(h) ( or ; he, גְּדַלְיָּה ''Gəḏalyyā'' or ''Gəḏalyyāhū'', meaning "Jah Jah or Yah ( he, יה, ''Yah'') is a short ...
, who had been made governor of
Judea Judea or Judaea ( or ; from he, יהודה, Standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology ...

Judea
.{{bibleref2c, Jeremiah, 40:5–6, KJV


Egypt

Johanan Yohanan, Yochanan and Johanan are various transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elem ...
succeeded
Gedaliah Gedaliah, Gedalia, Gedallah Hirsch, E. G. and Greenstone, J. H. (1906)Gedallah Jewish Encyclopedia or Gedalya(h) ( or ; he, גְּדַלְיָּה ''Gəḏalyyā'' or ''Gəḏalyyāhū'', meaning "Jah Jah or Yah ( he, יה, ''Yah'') is a short ...
, who had been assassinated by an Israelite prince in the pay of
Ammon Ammon (Ammonite *Belemnoidea—an extinct group of . {{fossil cephalopods, state=collapsed Prehistoric cephalopods by classification Coleoidea ...: 𐤏𐤌𐤍 ''ʻAmān''; he, עַמּוֹן ''ʻAmmōn''; ar, عمّون, ʻAmmūn) ...

Ammon
"for working with the Babylonians." Refusing to listen to Jeremiah's counsel, Johanan fled to Egypt, taking with him Jeremiah and Baruch, Jeremiah's faithful
scribe A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist A copyist is a person who makes copies. The term is sometimes used for artists who make copies of other artists' paintings. However, the modern use of the term is almost entirely confi ...

scribe
and servant, and the king's daughters.{{bibleref2c, Jeremiah, 43:1–13, KJV There, the prophet probably spent the remainder of his life, still seeking in vain to turn the people back to God.{{bibleref2c, Jeremiah, 43:1–13, KJV There is no authentic record of his death.


Historicity

The consensus is that there was a historical prophet named Jeremiah and that portions of the book probably were written by Jeremiah and/or his scribe Baruch. Views range from the belief that the narratives and poetic sections in Jeremiah are contemporary with his life (W. L. Holladay), to the view that the work of the original prophet is beyond identification or recovery (R. P. Carroll).{{sfn, Anon., 1971, p=125{{sfn, Marsh, 2018, p= See the extensive analysis in {{harvnb, Albertz, 2003, pp=302–344. First there were early collections of oracles, including material in ch. 2–6, 8–10, 13, 21–23, etc. Then there was an early
Deuteronomist The Deuteronomist, abbreviated as either Dtr or simply D, may refer either to the source document underlying the core chapters (12–26) of the Book of Deuteronomy The Book of Deuteronomy (literally "second law" from Greek ''deuteros'' + ''nomos' ...
ic redaction which Albertz dates to around 550 BC, with the original ending to the book at 25:13. There was a second redaction around 545-540 BC which added much more material, up to about ch. 45. Then there was a third redaction around 525–520 BC, expanding the book up to the ending at 51:64. Then there were further post-exilic redactions adding ch. 52 and editing content throughout the book. Although Jeremiah was often thought of traditionally as the author of the
Book of Lamentations The Book of Lamentations ( he, אֵיכָה, ''‘Êykhôh'', from its incipit The incipit () of a text is the first few words of the text, employed as an identifying label. In a musical composition, an incipit is an initial sequence of Music ...
, this is probably a collection of individual and communal laments composed at various times throughout the
Babylonian captivity The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylon, the capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. After the Battle of Carchemish in ...
. Albertz considers ch. 2 as the oldest, dating shortly after the Siege of Jerusalem (587 BC) and ch. 5 after the assassination of
Gedaliah Gedaliah, Gedalia, Gedallah Hirsch, E. G. and Greenstone, J. H. (1906)Gedallah Jewish Encyclopedia or Gedalya(h) ( or ; he, גְּדַלְיָּה ''Gəḏalyyā'' or ''Gəḏalyyāhū'', meaning "Jah Jah or Yah ( he, יה, ''Yah'') is a short ...
, with the other chapters added later (p. 160).


Religious views


Judaism

In Jewish
rabbinic literature Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, is the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Judaism, Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabb ...
, especially the
aggadah Aggadah ( he, אַגָּדָה or ; Jewish Babylonian Aramaic אַגָּדְתָא; "tales, fairytale, lore") is the non-legalistic pardes (Jewish exegesis), exegesis which appears in the classical rabbinic literature of Judaism, particularly the ...
, Jeremiah and
Moses Moses he, מֹשֶׁה, ''Mōše''; also known as Moshe Rabbenu ( he, מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ "Moshe our Teacher"); syr, ܡܘܫܐ, ''Mūše''; ar, موسى '; el, Mωϋσῆς, ' () is considered the most important prophet in Judais ...

Moses
are often mentioned together, their life and works being presented in parallel lines. The following ancient
midrash ''Midrash'' (;"midrash"
''Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary''.
he, מִדְרָשׁ; p ...

midrash
is especially interesting, in connection with {{bibleverse, Deuteronomy, 18:18, HE, in which "a prophet like Moses" is promised: "As Moses was a prophet for forty years, so was Jeremiah; as Moses prophesied concerning Judah and Benjamin, so did Jeremiah; as Moses' own tribe he Levites under Korahrose up against him, so did Jeremiah's tribe revolt against him; Moses was cast into the water, Jeremiah into a pit; as Moses was saved by a slave (the slave of
Pharaoh Pharaoh ( , ; cop, , Pǝrro) is the common title now used for the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. ...

Pharaoh
's daughter); so, Jeremiah was rescued by a slave ( Ebed-melech); Moses reprimanded the people in discourses; so did Jeremiah." The prophet
Ezekiel Ezekiel (; he, יְחֶזְקֵאל ''Yĕḥezqēʾl'' ; in the Septuagint The Greek Old Testament, or Septuagint (, ; from the la, septuaginta, lit=seventy; often abbreviated ''70''; in Roman numerals, LXX), is the earliest extant Koine ...

Ezekiel
was a son of Jeremiah according to rabbinic literature. I
2 Maccabees 2:4ff
the subject is credited with hiding the Ark, incense altar, and tabernacle on the mountain of Moses.{{sfn, Collins, 1972, pp=101–


Christianity

Christian worship gatherings regularly included readings from the Book of Jeremiah. The author of the
Gospel of Matthew The Gospel according to Matthew ( el, Κατὰ Ματθαῖον Εὐαγγέλιον, translit=Katà Matthaîon Euangélion), also called the Gospel of Matthew, or simply Matthew, is the first book of the and one of the three . It tells how ...
is especially mindful of how the events in the life, death and resurrection of Jesus fulfill Jeremianic prophecies. There are about forty direct quotations of the book in the New Testament, most appearing in Revelation 18 in connection with the destruction of Babylon.{{sfn, Dillard, Longman, 1994, p=339 The
Epistle to the Hebrews The Epistle to the Hebrews, or Letter to the Hebrews, or in the Greek manuscripts, simply To the Hebrews (Πρὸς Ἑβραίους, ''Pros Hebraious'') is one of the books of the New Testament. The text does not mention the name of its author ...

Epistle to the Hebrews
also picks up the fulfilment of the prophetic expectation of the new covenant.{{bibleref2c, Hebrews, 8:8-12, KJV{{bibleref2c-nb, Hebrews, 10:16–17, KJV)


Islam

As with many other prophets of the
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancestors. It is the o ...
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
, Jeremiah is also regarded as a
prophet In religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involu ...
in
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling o ...
) is an religion teaching that is a of .Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , edited by J. L. Esposito. Oxford: . . (See alsoquick reference) " e Muslims' und ...
. Although Jeremiah is not mentioned in the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compilation or di ...

Quran
, Muslim exegesis and
literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expan ...

literature
narrates many instances from the life of Jeremiah and fleshes out his narrative, which closely corresponds with the account given in the
Hebrew Bible The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh (; : , or ), is the of scriptures, including the , the , and the . These texts are almost exclusively in , with a few passages in (in the books of and , the verse 10:11, and some single words). The authoritativ ...

Hebrew Bible
. In Arabic, Jeremiah's name is usually vocalised ''Irmiyā'', ''Armiyā'' or ''Ūrmiyā''. Classical historians such as
Wahb ibn Munabbih Wahb ibn Munabbih ( ar, وهب بن منبه) was a Yemen ) , image_map = File:Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a (''Houthi takeover in Yemen, De jure'')Aden (Temporary capital Yemeni ...
gave accounts of Jeremiah which turned "upon the main points of the Old Testament story of Jeremiah: his call to be a prophet, his mission to the king of Judah, his mission to the people and his reluctance, the announcement of a foreign tyrant who is to rule over Judah."{{sfn, Wensinck, 1913–1936 Moreover, some
hadith Ḥadīth ( or ; ar, حديث , pl. aḥādīth, , , , literally means "talk" or "discourse") or Athar ( ar, أثر, , literally means "tradition") in Islam refers to what the majority of believe to be a record of the words, actions, and ...

hadith
s and
tafsir Tafsir ( ar, تفسير, tafsīr ) refers to exegesis Exegesis (; from the Greek from , "to lead out") is a critical explanation or interpretation of a text. Traditionally, the term was used primarily for work with religious text Reli ...

tafsir
s narrate that the
Parable of the Hamlet in Ruins The Qur'an The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from literary texts by being a compi ...
is about Jeremiah. Also, in
Sura A ''surah'' (; ar, سورة, sūrah) is the equivalent of "chapter" in the Quran, Qur'an. There are 114 ''surahs'' in the Quran, each divided into ''ayah, ayats'' (verses). The chapters or ''surahs'' are of unequal length; the shortest surah (' ...

Sura
17(
Al-Isra Al-Isra’ ( ar, الإسراء, ; The Night Journey) is the 17th chapter ( sūrah) of the Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن, translit=al-Qurʼān, lit=the recitation, ), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious te ...

Al-Isra
), 4–7, that is about the two corruptions of
children of Israel The Israelites (; he, בני ישראל ''Bnei Yisra'el'') were a confederation of Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was p ...

children of Israel
on the earth, some hadith and tafsir cite that one of these corruptions is the imprisonment and persecution of Jeremiah.
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", " ...

Muslim
literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expan ...

literature
narrates a detailed account of the
destruction of Jerusalem The siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), sometimes called the Great Jewish Revolt ( he, המרד הגדול '), or The Jewish War, was the ...
, which parallels the account given in the Book of Jeremiah.''Tabari'', i, 646ff.


Archaeology


Nebo-Sarsekim tablet

In July 2007, Assyrologist Michael Jursa translated a
cuneiform Cuneiform is a Logogram, logo-Syllabary, syllabic writing system, script that was used to write several languages of the Ancient Near East. The script was in active use from the early Bronze Age until the beginning of the Common Era. It is name ...

cuneiform
tablet dated to 595 BC, as describing a Nabusharrussu-ukin as "the chief
eunuch A eunuch ( ) is a man who has been castration, castrated. Throughout history, castration often served a specific social function. The earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian city of Lagash in the 2 ...

eunuch
" of
Nebuchadnezzar II Nebuchadnezzar II (Babylonian cuneiform: ''Nabû-kudurri-uṣur'', meaning "Nabu, watch over my heir"; Biblical Hebrew: ''Nəḇūḵaḏneʾṣṣar''), also spelled Nebuchadrezzar II, was the second king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, ruling f ...
of
Babylon ''Bābili(m)'' * sux, 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 * arc, 𐡁𐡁𐡋 ''Bāḇel'' * syc, ܒܒܠ ''Bāḇel'' * grc-gre, Βαβυλών ''Babylṓn'' * he, בָּבֶל ''Bavel'' * peo, 𐎲𐎠𐎲𐎡𐎽𐎢 ''Bābiru'' * elx, 𒀸𒁀𒉿𒇷 ''Babili' ...

Babylon
. Jursa hypothesized that this reference might be to the same individual as the Nebo-Sarsekim mentioned in {{bibleref2, Jeremiah, 39:3.{{sfn, Reynolds, 2007{{sfn, Hobbins, 2007


Seals

A 7th-century BCE seal of Jehucal, son of Shelemiah and another of Gedaliah, son of Pashhur (mentioned together in Jeremiah 38:1; Jehucal also mentioned in Jeremiah 37:3) were found during excavation by
Eilat Mazar Eilat Mazar ( he, אילת מזר; 10 September 195625 May 2021) was an Israeli archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a ...
in the
city of David The City of David ( he, עיר דוד, ''Ir David''), called in ar, وادي حلوه, Wadi Hilweh, a neighborhood of Silwan, is a Palestinian Arab village intertwined with an Israeli settlement, and the archaeological site which is speculat ...
,
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
, in 2005 and 2008, respectively.{{sfn, Kantrowitz, 2012


Tel Arad ostraca

Pottery shards at
Tel Arad Tel Arad ( ar, تل عراد, he, תל ערד) is an archaeological tel, or mound, located west of the Dead Sea, about west of the modern Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as ...

Tel Arad
were unearthed in the 1970s that mention
PashhurPashur or Pashhur (Hebrew: פשחור pash-''h''ur) was the name of at least two priests contemporary with the Biblical prophet, prophet Jeremiah and who are mentioned in the Book of Jeremiah. The name is of Egyptian origin, Pš-Ḥr. Pashur ben Imm ...
, and this reference may be the same individual mentioned in {{bibleref2, Jeremiah , 20:1.


Cultural influence

Jeremiah inspired the noun ''jérémiade'', and subsequently the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
''jeremiad'', meaning "a lamentation; mournful complaint,"{{sfn, Anon., 1989, p=766 or further, "a cautionary or angry harangue." Jeremiah has periodically been a popular first name in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
, beginning with the early
Puritan The Puritans were English Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Je ...

Puritan
settlers, who often took the names of biblical prophets and apostles. Jeremiah was substituted for the Irish ''Diarmuid/Diarmaid'' (also anglicised as Dermot), with which it has no etymological connection, when Gaelic names were frowned upon in official records. The name Jeremy also derives from Jeremiah.


References


Notes

{{notelist, 30em


Citations

{{Reflist, 30em, refs= {{cite web , title=Jeremiah , url=https://www.britannica.com/biography/Jeremiah-Hebrew-prophet , website=Encyclopedia Britannica {{Cite web, url=https://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/israelexperience/history/pages/arad%20-%20canaanite%20city%20and%20israelite%20citadel%20in%20the.aspx, title=Arad-Canaanite city and Israelite citadel in the Negev – Site No. 6, date=20 Nov 2000, publisher=Israeli Foreign Ministry, access-date=2019-07-08 {{cite web , url=http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/jeremiad , title=jeremiad , access-date=2008-09-23 , work=Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary , publisher=Merriam-Webster, Inc. , year=2008


Works cited

{{refbegin, 30em, indent=yes *{{cite book, last=Albertz, first=Rainer , title=Israel in Exile: The History and Literature of the Sixth Century B.C.E., url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Xx9YzJq2B9wC, year=2003, publisher=Society of Biblical Lit, isbn=978-1-58983-055-4 *{{cite encyclopedia, encyclopedia=Encyclopedia Judaica, edition=2nd, volume=Volume 11, article=Levirate Marriage and Halizah, url=https://archive.org/details/encyclopaediajud0011unse/page/n75/mode/2up, publisher=MacMillan, author=Anon., date=1971 *{{cite book , title=Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language , year=1989 , publisher=Portland House , location=New York , isbn=978-0-517-68781-9 , url=https://archive.org/details/webstersunabridg00newy/page/766 , author=Anon. *{{cite book, chapter=Commentary of Jeremiah, title= The NIV Study Bible, url=https://archive.org/details/nivstudybibleper00kenn, url-access=registration, publisher= Zondervan, date=1995, editor1-first=Kenneth L. , editor1-last=Barker, editor2-first= Ronald F. , editor2-last=Youngblood, editor3-first= John H. , editor3-last=Stek *{{cite journal, last=Collins, first= Marilyn F. , title=The Hidden Vessels in Samaritan Traditions, journal=Journal for the Study of Judaism in the Persian, Hellenistic, and Roman Period, volume=3, issue= 2, date= 1972, pages= 97–116 , doi= 10.1163/157006372X00018 , jstor=24656260 *{{cite book, last=Coogan, first=Michael David , title=A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible in Its Context, url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Vk48ygAACAAJ, year=2012, publisher=Oxford University Press, isbn=978-0-19-983011-4 *{{cite book, last1=Dillard, first1=Raymond B. , last2=Longman, first2=Tremper , title=An Introduction to the Old Testament, url=https://books.google.com/books?id=qRSzg2oh5eMC, edition=2nd, year=1994, publisher=Zondervan, isbn=978-0-310-43250-0 *{{cite book, last=Douglas, first=James D., title=The New Bible Dictionary, url=https://books.google.com/books?id=l1AwvwEACAAJ, edition=2nd, year=1987, publisher=Tyndale Press, isbn=978-0-85110-820-9 *{{cite journal, last1=Henderson, first1=Joseph, title=Who Weeps In Jeremiah VIII 23 (IX 1)? Identifying Dramatic Speakers In The Poetry Of Jeremiah, journal=Vetus Testamentum, volume=52, issue=2, year=2002, pages=191–206, issn=0042-4935, doi=10.1163/156853302760013857 *{{cite book, last=Hillers, first=Delbert R. , title=The Anchor Bible , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=AqMExgEACAAJ, volume=Lamentations, year=1972 *{{cite book, last=Hillers, first=Delbert R., editor1=Bruce M. Metzger, editor2=Michael David Coogan, title=The Oxford Companion to the Bible, url=https://archive.org/details/isbn_9780195046458/page/419, year=1993, publisher=Oxford University Press, isbn=978-0-19-974391-9, chapter=The Lamentations of Jeremiah *{{cite web, first=John , last=Hobbins, year=2007, url=http://ancienthebrewpoetry.typepad.com/ancient_hebrew_poetry/2007/07/jeremiah-393-an.html, title=Jeremiah 39:3 and History: A New Find Clarifies a Mess of a Text – Ancient Hebrew Poetry, publisher=ancienthebrewpoetry.typepad.com *{{cite web, url=http://archaeologynewsreport.blogspot.com/2012/01/seals-of-jeremiahs-captors-discovered.html, title=Archaeology News Report: Seals of Jeremiah's Captors Discovered!, first=Jonathan, last=Kantrowitz, date=3 January 2012, access-date=8 December 2016 *{{cite book, title=Jeremiah, Lamentations, first=Tremper , last=Longman, author-link=Tremper Longman , publisher=Hendrickson , date=2008, isbn=9781853647352 , url=https://books.google.com/books?id=G-oQAQAAIAAJ *{{cite thesis, type=Ph.D, date=April 2018, last1=Marsh , first1=Allen Bythel , url=https://www.sats.edu.za/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Thesis_PhD_2018_MarshA.pdf , access-date=7 April 2020, title=HOW ובּש ׁAND םַחָנ CONTRIBUTE TO UNDERSTANDING THE MEANING OF JEREMIAH 4:28, 15:6-7, 18:7-10 AND 26:3, 13 AND 19 *{{cite journal, journal=Turkish Treasures Culture /Art / Tourism Magazine, year=1978, url=http://kilyos.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/Ext/Zubdat.html, first=G’nsel , last=Renda, title=The Miniatures of the Zubdat Al- Tawarikh *{{Cite web , title=Ancient Document Confirms Existence Of Biblical Figure , last=Reynolds , first=Nigel , work=The New York Sun , date=11 July 2007 , access-date=26 March 2020 , url= https://www.nysun.com/foreign/ancient-document-confirms-existence-of-biblical/58185/ *{{cite book, last=Ryken, first=Philip Graham , title=Jeremiah and Lamentations: From Sorrow to Hope, url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5ggPhhDke8MC, year=2001, publisher=Crossway Books, isbn=978-1-58134-167-6 *{{cite book, chapter=Jeremiah, title=Jewish Encyclopaedia: A Descriptive Record of the History, Religion, Literature, and Customs of the Jewish People from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, volume=VII, location=New York, publisher=Funk & Wagnall, chapter-url=https://archive.org/details/jewishencycloped07sing/page/100/mode/2up, editor-first=Isadore, editor-last=Singer, date=1926, oclc=426865 *{{cite book, last=Sweeney, first=Marvin A., editor=Adele Berlin, editor2=Marc Zvi Brettler, title=The Jewish Study Bible, url=https://archive.org/details/isbn_9780195297515, url-access=registration, pag
917
year=2004, publisher=Oxford University Press, isbn=978-0-19-529751-5, chapter= Introduction to Jeremiah, via=Jewish Publication Society Tanakh Translation *{{cite book, last=Sweeney, first=Marvin A., editor=Carolyn Sharp, title=The Oxford Handbook of the Prophets, url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Uu_mDAAAQBAJ, date= 2016, publisher=Oxford University Press, isbn=978-0-19-985956-6, chapter=Contemporary Jewish Readings of the Prophets *{{cite book, last=Wells, first=John C. , title=Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, url=https://books.google.com/books?id=gXFAngEACAAJ, year=1990, publisher=Pearson Longman, isbn=978-1-4058-8117-3 *{{cite encyclopedia , last=Wensinck , first=A. J. , title=Jeremiah , encyclopedia=Encyclopaedia of Islam , edition=First , date=1913–1936 , editor1=M. Th. Houtsma , editor2=T. W. Arnold , editor2-link=Thomas W. Arnold , editor3=R. Basset , editor4=R. Hartmann {{refend


Further reading

{{refbegin, 30em, indent=yes * {{eastons, title=Jeremiah * {{cite book, last=Ackroyd, first=Peter R., title=Exile and Restoration: A Study of Hebrew Thought in the Sixth Century BC, url=https://archive.org/details/exilerestoration0000ackr, url-access=registration, year=1968, publisher=Westminster Press, location=Philadelphia * {{cite book, last=Bfirst=John, title=The Anchor Bible: Jeremiah, year=1965, publisher=Doubleday, location=New York, edition=2nd * Richard Elliott Friedman, Friedman, Richard E. (1987). ''Who Wrote the Bible?'' New York: Harper and Row. * Abraham Joshua Heschel, Heschel, Abraham Joshua (1975). ''The Prophets''. HarperCollins Paperback. {{ISBN, 978-0-06-131421-6 * {{cite book, last=Howard, first=Reggie, title=Indomitable Spokesperson for Deity – Prophet Jeremiah, year=2019, location=Wewak, Papua New Guinea, isbn=978-1-5439-5739-6 * {{cite book, last=Meyer, first=F.B., title=Jeremiah, Priest and Prophet, year=1980, publisher=Christian Literature Crusade, location=Fort Washington, PA, isbn=0-87508-355-2, edition=Revised * {{cite book, editor1-last=Perdue, editor1-first=Leo G., editor2-last=Kovacs, editor2-first=Brian W., title=A Prophet to the Nations: Essays in Jeremiah Studies, year=1984, publisher=Eisenbrauns, location=Winona Lake, IN, isbn=0-931464-20-X * {{cite book, last=Rosenberg, first=Joel, editor1-last=Alter, editor1-first=Robert, editor2-last=Kermode, editor2-first=Frank, title=The Literary Guide to the Bible, year=1987, publisher=Harvard University Press, location=Cambridge, MA, isbn=0-674-87530-3, chapter=Jeremiah and Ezekiel, url=https://archive.org/details/literaryguidetot00alte {{refend


External links

{{Commons category, Jeremiah (Biblical figure) * {{Cite EB1911 , wstitle=Jeremiah , volume=15 , pages=323–325 , first=Thomas Kelly , last=Cheyne , short=1 * {{Cite Catholic Encyclopedia, wstitle=Jeremias (the Prophet) , volume=8 , first=Michael , last=Faulhaber , short=1 * Hirsch, Emil G.; ''et al''.,
Jeremiah
''Jewish Encyclopedia'' (1906). {{Prophets of the Tanakh {{Muslim saints {{Gospel of Matthew {{Catholic saints {{Authority control Jeremiah, 570s BC deaths 6th-century BC writers 6th-century BCE Jews 7th-century BC births 7th-century BC writers 7th-century BCE Jews English masculine given names Jewish priests People whose existence is disputed Tribe of Levi