HOME

TheInfoList




Jardine Matheson Holdings Limited (also known as Jardines) is a
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
-based
Bermuda ) , anthem = "God Save the Queen "God Save the Queen", alternatively "God Save the King" (dependent on the gender of the reigning monarch), is the or in most s, their territories, and the British . The author of the tune is unknown, ...

Bermuda
-domiciled British multinational
conglomerate Conglomerate or conglomeration may refer to: * Conglomerate (company) * Conglomerate (geology) * Conglomerate (mathematics) In popular culture: * The Conglomerate (American group), a production crew and musical group founded by Busta Rhymes ** Con ...
. It has a primary listing on the
London Stock Exchange London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an exchange Exchange may refer to: Places United States * Exchange, Indiana Exchange is an Unincorporated area, unincorporated community ...
and secondary listings on the
Singapore Exchange Singapore Exchange Limited (SGX, ) is an investment holding company located in Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one ...
and
Bermuda Stock Exchange The Bermuda Stock Exchange (BSX), established in 1971, is located in Hamilton, Bermuda. The stock exchange's 2010 'Year End Review' report stated that its aggregate market capitalisation (excluding mutual funds) stood at US$319 billion. The exch ...
. The majority of its business interests are in Asia, and its subsidiaries include Jardine Pacific, Jardine Motors,
Hongkong Land Hongkong Land (HKL) is a property investment, management and development groups with premium commercial and residential property interests across Asia. It owns and manages some 850,000 sq. m. of prime office and luxury retail property in Asia, ...
,
Jardine Strategic HoldingsJardine Strategic Holdings Limited (, , ) is a large company that holds stock. It is a part of Jardine Matheson Holdings Limited, or Jardine's. Jardine Strategic was a constituent of the Straits Times Index. The holding company holds substantial a ...
,
Dairy Farm Dairy Farm International Holdings Limited is a Hong Kong retail company with its legal base in Bermuda. A member of the Jardine Matheson, Jardine Matheson Group, it is a major pan-Asian retailer involved in the processing and wholesaling of food ...
,
Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group International Limited (MOHG) is a Hong Kong hotel investment and management group focusing on luxury hotels, resorts, and residences, with a total of 33 properties worldwide, 20 of which are fully or partially ow ...
,
Jardine Cycle & Carriage Jardine Cycle & Carriage Limited () is the investment holding company of the Jardine Matheson Group in Southeast Asia. It is currently 75%-held by the conglomerate. The company was listed on the Singapore Exchange in 1969 as Cycle & Carriage Lim ...
and
Astra International Astra International is an Indonesian conglomerate controlled by Jardine Matheson Jardine Matheson Holdings Limited (also known as Jardines) is a Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the ...
. It set up the
Jardine Scholarship The Jardine Scholarship is a full scholarship, primarily for undergraduates, offered by Jardine Matheson, Jardines for study at the Oxbridge, Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. It was established in 1982 to commemorate the company's 150th anniv ...
in 1982 and Mindset, a mental health-focused charity, in 2002. Jardines was one of the original Hong Kong trading houses or
Hongs A ''hong'' () originally designates both a type of building and a type of Chinese merchant intermediary in Guangzhou (formerly known as Canton), Guangdong, China, in the 18–19th century, specifically during the Canton System period. Guangzho ...
that date back to
Imperial China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty The Shang dynasty (), also historically known as the Yin dynasty (), was a Chinese dynasty Dynasties in Chinese h ...
. 58 per cent of the company's profits were earned in China in 2019. The company is controlled by the
Keswick family The Keswick family (pronounced with a silent "w", "Kezzick") are a business dynasty of Scottish people, Scottish origin associated with the Far East region since 1855 and in particular the conglomerate Jardine Matheson. As tai-pans of Jardine Mat ...
, who are descendants of co-founder William Jardine's older sister, Jean Johnstone. Jardine Matheson is a
Fortune Global 500 The ''Fortune'' Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single en ...
company. In 2013, both Jardine Matheson and
Jardine Strategic ''Jardine Strategic Holdings Limited (, , ) is an investment holding company. It is a subsidiary of Jardine Matheson Holdings Limited. The company holds substantial interests in Dairy Farm, a pan-Asian retail group, Hongkong Land, a property group, ...
were among the top 200 publicly traded companies in the world, as valued by
market capitalisation Market capitalization, commonly called market cap, is the market value of a publicly traded company A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company A public limited compan ...
.


History


19th century to WWII: The early days

The firm of Jardine, Matheson & Company emerged in 1832 from an evolving process of partnership changes in the trading business Cox & Reid, a partnership established in 1782 between John Cox and John Reid, the latter having been agent of the
Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associated with the country Austria, for example: ** Austria-Hungary ** Austr ...

Austrian
trading company, Trieste Company..
University of Edinburgh Medical School The University of Edinburgh Medical School (also known as Edinburgh Medical School) is the medical school A medical school is a tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary educat ...
graduate William Jardine (1784-1843) joined the firm, by then having morphed through Cox & Beale, Beale & Company and Beale & Magniac into Magniac & Company, and the original partners long gone, in 1825 at the invitation of principal
Hollingworth Magniac Hollingworth Magniac (1786–1867)Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003), volume 3, p. 4138. was a merchant and conno ...
.
University of Edinburgh The University of Edinburgh ( sco, University o Edinburgh, gd, Oilthigh Dhùn Èideann; abbreviated as ''Edin.'' in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply ...
graduate
James Matheson Sir James Nicolas Sutherland Matheson, 1st Baronet, FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest i ...

James Matheson
joined three years later as Magniac prepared to retire. With the cession of Hong Kong under the 1842
Treaty of Nanking The Treaty of Nanking was a peace treaty A peace treaty is an agreementAgreement may refer to: Agreements between people and organizations * Gentlemen's agreement A gentlemen's agreement, or gentleman's agreement, is an informal and lega ...
, the firm, by then named Jardine, Matheson & Company, set up its headquarters on the island and grew rapidly. Continuing its longstanding trade in smuggled opium, tea, and cotton, the firm diversified into other areas including insurance, shipping, and railways. By the mid-19th century, the company had become the largest of the ''
hongs A ''hong'' () originally designates both a type of building and a type of Chinese merchant intermediary in Guangzhou (formerly known as Canton), Guangdong, China, in the 18–19th century, specifically during the Canton System period. Guangzho ...
'' or foreign trading conglomerates with offices in all the important Chinese cities as well as
Yokohama is the second-largest city in Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an in . It is situated in the northwest , and is bordered on the west by the , while extending from the in the north toward the and in the south. Ja ...

Yokohama
,
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
. One of its branch agencies, , established in
Nagasaki is the capital and the largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routl ...

Nagasaki
, was known in Japan as an arms dealer who contracted with then-rebel forces from
Chōshū Domain The , also known as the , was a domain Domain may refer to: Mathematics *Domain of a function, the set of input values for which the (total) function is defined **Domain of definition of a partial function **Natural domain of a partial functio ...
who led the
Meiji Restoration#REDIRECT Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although t ...
in 1868. In the early decades of the 20th century, Jardines built cotton mills, a press packing plant, and a brewery in Shanghai while expanding into Africa, America, and Australia. When war came to China in 1937, the firm suffered heavily both in Hong Kong and in mainland China. After the 1949 foundation of the People's Republic of China, trading conditions for foreign companies under the new Communist regime became increasingly difficult.''CHINA: Road to Disillusion''
, ''
Time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various me ...
'', 8 February 1954


Post-WWII restructuring and expansion

The firm
listed Listed may refer to: * Listed, Bornholm, a fishing village on the Danish island of Bornholm * Listed (MMM program), a television show on MuchMoreMusic * Endangered species in biology * Listed building, in architecture, designation of a historicall ...
in Hong Kong in 1961. The landmark
Mandarin Hotel Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group International Limited (MOHG) is a Hong Kong hotel investment and management group focusing on luxury hotels, resorts, and residences, with a total of 33 properties worldwide, 20 of which are fully or partially ow ...
opened in Hong Kong in 1963 as the city's first five star hotel. In 1970, Jardine Fleming, the first merchant bank in Asia, opened for business while a real estate company and
sugar plantations in Hawaii Sugarcane Sugarcane or sugar cane is a species of (often hybrid) tall, perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. H ...
and the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
were acquired. A Hong Kong building boom in the mid 1970s saw Jardine's buy
Gammon Construction Gammon Construction Limited is a Hong Kong construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford Universi ...
, the largest construction and civil engineering group on the island. A presence was re-established on the mainland in 1979 following China's
reform and opening up The Chinese economic reform or reform and opening-up, known in the Western world, West as the opening of China, is the program of microeconomic reform, economic reforms termed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" and "socialist market econom ...
and a year later the firm established the Beijing Air Catering Company Ltd., the first foreign joint venture in the country. During the 1970s Jardines also expanded their insurance interests with acquisitions in the United Kingdom and the United States laying the groundwork for the foundation of Jardine Insurance Brokers. By 1980, the firm had operations in southern Africa, Australia, China, Great Britain, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, as well as the United States, and employed 37,000 people. After re-domiciling to Bermuda in 1984 ahead of the 1997
handover of Hong Kong The Hong Kong handover, domestically known as the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, was the formal passing of authority over the territory of the then colony of Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Admini ...
, in 1990 Jardine Matheson Holdings and four other listed group companies arranged primary share listings on the
London Stock Exchange London Stock Exchange (LSE) is a stock exchange A stock exchange, securities exchange, or bourse is an exchange Exchange may refer to: Places United States * Exchange, Indiana Exchange is an Unincorporated area, unincorporated community ...
in addition to their Hong Kong listings. Other significant developments during this decade included the merging of Jardine Insurance Brokers with Lloyd Thompson to form
Jardine Lloyd Thompson Jardine Lloyd Thompson Group, also known as JLT Group or simply JLT, was a British multinational corporation that had its headquarters in London, England. It provides insurance, reinsurance, employment benefits advice and Brokerage firm, brokerag ...
, the acquisition of a 16% interest in Singapore blue-chip
Cycle & Carriage Cycle and Carriage was a company, founded in 1899, and based in Singapore and Malaysia. Cycle and Carriage was one of the premier automotive groups in Singapore and was engaged in the retail, distribution and provision of after-sales service of Me ...
and
Dairy Farm Dairy Farm International Holdings Limited is a Hong Kong retail company with its legal base in Bermuda. A member of the Jardine Matheson, Jardine Matheson Group, it is a major pan-Asian retailer involved in the processing and wholesaling of food ...
’s purchase of a significant stake in Indonesia's leading supermarket group
Hero A hero (heroine in its feminine form) is a real person or a main fictional character who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, courage Courage (also called bravery or valour) is the choice and willing ...

Hero
. Hotel brand
Mandarin Oriental Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group International Limited (MOHG) is a Hong Kong hotel investment and management group focusing on luxury hotels, resorts, and residences, with a total of 33 properties worldwide, 20 of which are fully or partially ow ...
also embarked on a strategy to double its available rooms and improve returns. The first decade of the new millennium saw Jardine Cycle & Carriage acquire an initial 31% stake in
Astra International Astra International is an Indonesian conglomerate controlled by Jardine Matheson Jardine Matheson Holdings Limited (also known as Jardines) is a Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the ...
, which has since been increased to just over 50%.
Hongkong Land Hongkong Land (HKL) is a property investment, management and development groups with premium commercial and residential property interests across Asia. It owns and manages some 850,000 sq. m. of prime office and luxury retail property in Asia, ...
became a Group subsidiary for the first time following a multi-year programme of steady open market purchases while Jardine Pacific raised its interest in Hong Kong Air Cargo Terminals Limited from 25% to 42%. In 2018, Jardines sold its 41% interest in
Jardine Lloyd Thompson Jardine Lloyd Thompson Group, also known as JLT Group or simply JLT, was a British multinational corporation that had its headquarters in London, England. It provides insurance, reinsurance, employment benefits advice and Brokerage firm, brokerag ...
to Marsh and McLennan Companies.


21st-century operations

Jardines today comprises a group of companies with extensive operations across Asia and, through some of its businesses, the world. The firm's business interests include Jardine Pacific, Jardine Motors, Hongkong Land, Dairy Farm, Mandarin Oriental, Jardine Cycle & Carriage, through which its interest in Astra is held. The Group also has strategic interests in other entities.


Jardine Pacific

Jardine Pacific is a holding company which represents a significant number of the Group's non-listed interests in Asia, principally in engineering and construction, transport services, restaurants and IT services. These include a number of Jardines’ long-standing businesses such as Jardine Engineering Corporation (JEC),
Jardine Aviation Services Jardine Airport Services Limited (JASL) trading as Jardine Aviation Services and JASG, formed in 1988 as a joint venture of Jardine Matheson (via Jardine Pacific) and China National Aviation Holding, Air China Group (via CNAC(G)). However, Jardine ...
, Hong Kong Air Cargo Terminals, Jardine Schindler (joint-venture with the
Schindler Group , logo = Logo-schindler.png , logo_size = 200px , image = SchindlerTestTowerHeadOfficeEbikon.jpg , image_size = 250px , image_caption = Schindler Test Tower at the Head Office in Ebikon, Canton of Lucerne, Switzerland , type = Public I ...
which evolved from JEC's earlier appointment as Schindler's sole Hong Kong representative),
Gammon Construction Gammon Construction Limited is a Hong Kong construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford Universi ...
and Jardine Travel Group as well as more contemporary interests that reflect the demands of Asian consumers; among them
Pizza Hut Pizza Hut is an American multinational restaurant chain A chain store or retail chain is a retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in par ...

Pizza Hut
restaurants in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Vietnam and Myanmar, KFC franchises in Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, and Jardine OneSolution IT services.


Jardine Motors

Jardine Motors is active in the sales and service of motor vehicles in Hong Kong, Macau, mainland China and the United Kingdom. Subsidiary Zung Fu, which has held the
Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz (), commonly referred to as just Mercedes, is a German luxury automotive marque A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sell ...

Mercedes-Benz
luxury vehicle franchise in Hong Kong for over 50 years, has achieved one of the highest market penetrations in the world for the luxury brand and ranks among its top international performers. The group also represents Smart and Hyundai passenger cars in Hong Kong. Zung Fu is expanding its presence across the growing market of Southern China where it is actively developing a network of Mercedes-Benz dealerships. In the United Kingdom, Jardine Motors is one of the country's largest retail dealership groups with a portfolio of specialist franchises that includes Aston Martin, Audi and Volkswagen, Jaguar and Land Rover, Mercedes Benz and Porsche.


Hongkong Land

Hongkong Land is an Asian property investment, management and development group. Established in Hong Kong in 1889 by Sir Paul Chater and William Keswick, the group today has property interests across the region. In Hong Kong, the group owns and manages approximately 9,140,000 square feet (850,000 m2) of prime commercial space in
Central Central is an adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign languag ...

Central
. In Singapore, it is helping to create the city-state's
Central Business District A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and offices. In larger cities, it is often synonymous with the city's "financial district". Geographically, it often coincides with ...

Central Business District
with an expanding joint venture portfolio of new developments. In addition to commercial properties, Hongkong Land also develops residential properties in key cities around the region including Hong Kong, mainland China, Macau and Singapore where its subsidiary MCL Land is a significant property developer. Jardine Strategic has a 50% shareholding in Hongkong Land.


Dairy Farm

Dairy Farm traces its origins in Hong Kong back to the 19th century when it was involved in the production of dairy products and ice. Today the company is a leading pan-Asian retailer. The Dairy Farm group's retail operations range from grocery retail and health and beauty stores to convenience and home furnishings, operating under a number of well-known local brands. It has a significant presence in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia, and a growing presence in mainland China, India and Vietnam. Dairy Farm operates supermarkets under the banners of Wellcome, Jasons, Shop N Save, Cold Storage, Hero, Yonghui, and MarketPlace; hypermarkets under the Giant brand; health and beauty stores under Mannings and Guardian; IKEA furniture stores in Hong Kong, Indonesia and Taiwan; as well as 7-Eleven convenience stores. The group also has a 50% interest in Maxim's, Hong Kong's leading restaurant chain. Jardine Strategic has a 78% shareholding in Dairy Farm. , Dairly Farm owned 70% of the shares of Lucky Group, the largest grocery mall operator in Cambodia.


Mandarin Oriental

Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group is an international hotel investment and management company operating deluxe and first class hotels and residences in city and resort destinations around the world. The group's flagship hotel, Mandarin Oriental, Hong Kong, has been recognised as one of the world's leading hotels since shortly after its opening in 1963 along with the equally world-renowned Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok, previously known as The Oriental. Jardine Strategic has a 79% shareholding in Mandarin Oriental.


Jardine Cycle and Carriage

Jardine Cycle & Carriage (JC&C) is an established Singapore-listed company where, as Cycle & Carriage, it has had a presence since 1926. JC&C has an interest of just over 50% in Astra, a listed Indonesian conglomerate and the largest independent automotive group in Southeast Asia, as well as other motor interests in the region. Together with its subsidiaries and associates, Jardine Cycle & Carriage employs across Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Myanmar, and Thailand. Jardine Cycle & Carriage operates in Singapore, Malaysia, and Myanmar under the Cycle & Carriage banner. The group represents some of the world's best-known motoring marques including Mercedes-Benz, Toyota, Honda and Kia. Jardine Strategic has a 72% shareholding in Jardine Cycle & Carriage.


Astra International

Astra is Southeast Asia's largest independent automotive diversified business group with seven primary businesses in Indonesia. Operating predominantly in Indonesia, it is a provider of a full range of automobile and motorcycle products in partnerships with companies which include Toyota, Daihatsu, Isuzu, UD Trucks, Peugeot and BMW for automobiles, and Honda for motorcycles. Astra also has a strong presence in the automotive component sector through its subsidiary PT Astra Otoparts Tbk. In addition, Astra has interests in financial services; heavy equipment and mining; agribusiness; infrastructure and logistics; and information technology. In financial services, Astra's businesses provide financial products and services to support its automotive, heavy equipment sales, and general and life insurance.


Corporate structure

Henry Keswick, the company's
Tai-pan A tai-pan (,Andrew J. Moody, "Transmission Languages and Source Languages of Chinese Borrowings in English", ''American Speech'', Vol. 71, No. 4 (Winter, 1996), pp. 414-415. literally 'top class'汉英词典 — ''A Chinese-English Dictionary'' 198 ...
from 1970 (aged 31) to 1975 and the 6th Keswick to be Tai-pan of the company, is chairman emeritus. His brother, Simon, was the company's Tai-pan from 1983 to 1988 and was the 7th Keswick to be Tai-pan. Both brothers are the 4th generation of Keswicks in the company. The 5th generation of Keswicks are also active within the organisation. Ben Keswick, son of Simon, is executive chairman of Jardine Matheson Group and from 2012 to 2021 was Tai-pan. Adam Keswick, son of Sir
Chips Keswick Sir John Chippendale "Chips" Lindley Keswick (born 2 February 1940) is a British merchant banker and member of the Keswick family who control Jardine Matheson, founded by William Jardine (surgeon), William Jardine. He was chairman of Arsenal F.C. ...
was Deputy managing director. The organizational structure of Jardines has changed fundamentally since its foundation, but the members of the family of Dr William Jardine still have significant influence in the firm.


Directors

As of 2021, the directors of Jardine Matheson Holdings were: * Ben Keswick, executive chairman * John Witt, managing director * Y.K. Pang * Graham Baker *
Stuart Gulliver Stuart Thomson Gulliver (born 9 March 1959) is a British banker, and the former group chief executive of HSBC. He was succeeded on 21 February 2018 by John Flint (businessman), John Flint. He officially lives in Hong Kong; and has a primary re ...
* David Hsu * Julian Hui * Adam Keswick * Alex Newbigging * Anthony Nightingale * Jeremy Parr *
Percy Weatherall Edward Percy Keswick Weatherall (born 1957) is a British businessman, formerly active in Hong Kong. He was managing director of the Jardine Matheson Group from 2000 to 31 March 2006 having joined the board in 1999. Weatherall joined the Jardine G ...
* Michael Wei Kuo Wu Lord Sassoon, a former UBS Warburg banker who had been a junior minister in the British Treasury since May 2010, joined Jardine Matheson as an executive board member in January 2013. This appointment brought together members of two great Asian trading dynasties, since Jardine Matheson and the
Sassoon family The Sassoon family, known as "Rothschild family, Rothschilds of the East" due to the immense wealth they accumulated in finance and trade, is a family of Baghdadi Jews, Baghdadi Jewish descent. Originally based in Baghdad, Iraq, they later moved ...
were rivals in the 19th century when they competed to open up and grow trade in Hong Kong and China. He retired on 9 April 2020.


Scottish leadership

Until 1936, principles of staff recruitment, told by Keswick, remained Scottish first, Oxbridge second. "With all due deference to the 'east coast of England' reference to CambridgeI do feel that men from north of the border are the most suitable for our routine business... I am very keen on keeping the Scottish entity of the Firm. But I hope I have not conveyed that I have swung against the University man... I merely consider that he must be aided and abettered by the solid, plodding type from Scotland." Jardines is controlled by the
Keswick family The Keswick family (pronounced with a silent "w", "Kezzick") are a business dynasty of Scottish people, Scottish origin associated with the Far East region since 1855 and in particular the conglomerate Jardine Matheson. As tai-pans of Jardine Mat ...
, who are direct descendants of William Jardine's sister Jean through the marriage of her daughter to Thomas Keswick, father of
William Keswick William Keswick (15 April 1834 – 9 March 1912) was a British Conservative Conservatism is an aesthetic Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of beauty and taste (sociology), taste, as ...

William Keswick
, an early
Tai-pan A tai-pan (,Andrew J. Moody, "Transmission Languages and Source Languages of Chinese Borrowings in English", ''American Speech'', Vol. 71, No. 4 (Winter, 1996), pp. 414-415. literally 'top class'汉英词典 — ''A Chinese-English Dictionary'' 198 ...
of the firm. While the leadership of Jardines is Scottish, the firm is international in its dealings. The staff of Jardines is predominantly Asian, with senior management levels composed of a mixture of British, Chinese, Indonesians, Europeans, Australians and Americans. The Keswicks have maintained a relationship with another prominent Scottish family, the
Flemings The Flemish or Flemings ( nl, Vlamingen ) are a Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages ...
, of which the author
Ian Fleming Ian Lancaster Fleming (28 May 1908 – 12 August 1964) was a British writer, journalist and naval intelligence officer who is best known for his ''James Bond The ''James Bond'' series focuses on a fictional Secret Intelligence S ...
was also a member. From 1970 until 1998, Jardine Matheson operated a pan-Asian investment banking joint venture,
Jardine Fleming Jardine Fleming was a Hong Kong–based investment bank Investment is the dedication of an asset to attain an increase in value over a period of time. Investment requires a sacrifice of some present asset, such as time, money, or effort. In fi ...
, with Robert Fleming & Co., a London merchant bank controlled by the Fleming family. In 2000, Jardine Fleming and Robert Fleming & Co. were sold to
JP Morgan Chase JPMorgan Chase & Co. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational ...
.


Influence

* Jardines' history was the inspiration for a series of novels written by
James Clavell James Clavell (born Charles Edmund Dumaresq Clavell; 10 October 1921 – 7 September 1994), was an Australian (and later naturalised American) novelist, screenwriter, director, and World War II veteran and prisoner of war A prisoner of wa ...
, including ''
Tai-Pan A tai-pan (,Andrew J. Moody, "Transmission Languages and Source Languages of Chinese Borrowings in English", ''American Speech'', Vol. 71, No. 4 (Winter, 1996), pp. 414-415. literally 'top class'汉英词典 — ''A Chinese-English Dictionary'' 198 ...
'', ''
Whirlwind A whirlwind is a weather phenomenon in which a vortex , revealed by colored smoke In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved ...
'', '' Gai-Jin'', and '' Noble House''. The ''Noble House'' TV miniseries actually used Jardine as the headquarters of Struan's & Co., the fictional company depicted in Clavell's novels. In ''Taipan'', Dirk Struan is loosely based on William Jardine while Robb Struan is loosely based on James Matheson."Book (1966): ''Tai-Pan'', James Clavell", ''
South China Morning Post The ''South China Morning Post'' (''SCMP''), with its Sunday edition, the ''Sunday Morning Post'', is a Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a ...
'' (29 March 2009), p. 7.
Robyn Meredith, "Sailing From Old to New Asia; Jardine Matheson is ever more a play on its traditional region", ''
Forbes Asia ''Forbes'' () is an American business magazine owned by Integrated Whale Media Investments and the Forbes family The Forbes family is one of the Boston Brahmins—a wealthy extended American family long prominent in Boston, Massachusett ...
'', Volume 4, Issue 15 (15 September 2008), p. 88.
* Jardines installed the first elevator in China in the northern city of
Tianjin Tianjin (; ; Mandarin: ), Postal Map Romanization, alternately romanized as Tientsin, is a Direct-administered municipalities of China, municipality and a coastal metropolis in North China, Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea. It is ...

Tianjin
. * Many streets in present-day Hong Kong are named after the firm, its founders and past
Tai-pan A tai-pan (,Andrew J. Moody, "Transmission Languages and Source Languages of Chinese Borrowings in English", ''American Speech'', Vol. 71, No. 4 (Winter, 1996), pp. 414-415. literally 'top class'汉英词典 — ''A Chinese-English Dictionary'' 198 ...
s, mostly concentrated in Hong Kong's
East Point East Point is the name of several places: In Australia * East Point, Northern Territory ** East Point Military museum located in East Point, Northern Territory In Canada *East Point, Prince Edward Island In Hong Kong: *East Point, Hong Kong In t ...
and
Causeway Bay Causeway Bay is a district of Hong Kong Island Hong Kong Island is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands s ...

Causeway Bay
Districts, where Jardines' offices were located in the early days. The name of
Yee Wo Street Yee Wo Street () is a street in East Point, Hong Kong, East Point and Causeway Bay, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. Its junction with Hennessy Road is one of the busiest junctions in Hong Kong. Name Ewo (hong), Yeewo was the Cantonese language, Ca ...
in comes from Jardine's Chinese name "Ewo" whilst other streets associated with the company include
Jardine's Bazaar Jardine's Bazaar () is a road located in Causeway Bay, Hong Kong. The road was named after William Jardine (merchant), William Jardine, when Jardine Matheson acquired the land in the area. The road ends at the junction of Hennessy Road, Yee Wo Stre ...
, Jardine's Crescent, Jardine's Bridge,
Jardine's Lookout Jardine's Lookout () is a mountain and a residential area on the Hong Kong Island in Hong Kong. It is located on the south of Happy Valley, Hong Kong, Happy Valley, east of Causeway Bay, and west of Mid-Levels East, at an altitude of approximately ...
, Matheson Street,
Leighton Road Leighton Road () is a main road in Causeway Bay, Hong Kong. It begins east of Causeway Road and ends at the west of the junction with Morrison Hill Road and Canal Road, Hong Kong, Canal Road. History Part of the road skirts Leighton Hill to its ...
,
Percival Street Percival Street is a street in the East Point, Hong Kong, East Point and Happy Valley, Hong Kong, Happy Valley, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. The street spans from Gloucester Road, Hong Kong, Gloucester Road in the north to Leighton Road in the ...

Percival Street
and
Paterson Street Paterson Street () is a street in Causeway Bay, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. It starts north at Victoria Park Road, crosses Kingston Street and Great George Street, Hong Kong, Great George Street and ends at Yee Wo Street to the south. The street ...
. * Jardines is responsible for maintaining the tradition of firing the
Noonday Gun The ''Noonday'' ''Gun'' () is a former naval artillery Naval artillery is artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry firearms. Earl ...
, a duty said to have been imposed on them by a new Senior Naval Officer on hearing them fire a salute for the Taipan when his schooner arrived in Hong Kong as they had no official authority to fire salutes. The practice was immortalised in
Noël Coward Sir Noël Peirce Coward (16 December 189926 March 1973) was an English playwright, composer, director, actor and singer, known for his wit, flamboyance, and what ''Time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), ...
's song " Mad Dogs and Englishmen".


See also

*
List of trading companies A trading company is a business that works with different kinds of product (business), products sold for consumer, business purposes. In contemporary times, trading companies buy a specialized range of products, broker, shopkeeper them, and coordin ...


Notes


References

* * *
Online version at Google books
* * * * * *
Online version at Google Books
* *
Online version at Google books
*
Online version at Google Books
* *
Online version at Google books
*
Online version at Google Books
*
Online version at Google Books
*
Online version at Google Books
*
Online version at Google Books
* *


Further reading

* Alain Le Pichon, ''China Trade and Empire: Jardine, Matheson & Co. and the Origins of British Rule in Hong Kong, 1827–1843'' (Oxford; New York: Published for The British Academy by Oxford University Press, 2006).


External links


Official website

Official Jardine Motors Group website

Official Jardine Shipping Services website


{{Authority control History of Hong Kong British Hong Kong Companies established in 1832 Trading companies of Hong Kong Offshore companies in Bermuda Conglomerate companies of Hong Kong Retail companies of Hong Kong Companies formerly listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange Former companies in the Hang Seng Index Companies listed on the London Stock Exchange Companies listed on the Singapore Exchange 1832 establishments in the British Empire Companies of Bermuda History of Guangzhou