HOME

TheInfoList




The is a Japanese governmental agency in charge of industrial property right affairs, under the
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry The or METI, is a ministry of the Government of Japan The is the central government of Japan. The Government of Japan consists of legislature, executive and judiciary branches and is accountable to the Emperor of Japan. The Prime Ministe ...
. The Japan Patent Office is located in
Kasumigaseki Kasumigaseki (霞が関, 霞ヶ関 or 霞ケ関) is a district in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Chiyoda Special wards of Tokyo, Ward in Tokyo, Japan. It is the location of most of Japan's Cabinet of Japan, cabinet ministry offices. The name is often used a ...

Kasumigaseki
,
Chiyoda, Tokyo is a special ward located in central Tokyo Tokyo (: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is and most populous . Located at the head of , the prefecture forms pa ...
and is one of the world's largest
patent office A patent office is a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legi ...
s. The Japan Patent Office's mission is to promote the growth of the
Japanese economy The economy of Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referr ...
and industry by administering the laws relating to
patent A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. Depe ...

patent
s,
utility model A utility model is a patent-like intellectual property right to protect inventions. This type of right is available in many countries but, notably, not in the United States, United Kingdom or Canada. Although a utility model is similar to a patent ...
s,
design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specification in the form of a prototype A prototype is an early sample, mode ...

design
s, and
trademark A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark) is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also r ...

trademark
s. (
Copyright Copyright is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property Property is a system of rights that gives people legal control of valuable things, and also refers to the valuable things themselves. ...

Copyright
affairs are administered by the
Agency for Cultural Affairs The is a special body of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). It was set up in 1968 to promote Japanese arts and culture. The agency's budget for FY 2018 rose to ¥107.7 billion. The agency's Cul ...
.)


Organization

The Japan Patent Office is headed by a commissioner and consists of seven departments: * General Affairs Department * Trademark, Design, and Administrative Affairs Department, in charge of examining trademark right applications, design right applications and formalities check of all applications including patent applications * First Patent Examination Department, examining patent applications related to
applied physics Applied physics is the application of physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (p ...
,
optics Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of optical instruments, instruments that use or Photodetector, detect it. Optics usually describes t ...

optics
, and
architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Paris – 1734. Architecture (Latin ''archi ...

architecture
* Second Patent Examination Department, examining patent applications related to machinery * Third Patent Examination Department, examining patent applications related to
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. T ...

chemistry
,
pharmacy Pharmacy is the clinical health science The following Outline (list), outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to health sciences: Health sciences – are those sciences which focus on health, or health care, as core p ...

pharmacy
, and
biotechnology Biotechnology is a broad area of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Phy ...

biotechnology
* Fourth Patent Examination Department, examining patent applications related to
electronics The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electron is a subatomic particle In physical sciences, subatomic particles are smaller than ...
,
telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire A wire is a single usually cylindrical A cylinder (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Gr ...
, and information technology * Appeals Department The commissioner of the JPO is appointed from among the higher officials of the
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry The or METI, is a ministry of the Government of Japan The is the central government of Japan. The Government of Japan consists of legislature, executive and judiciary branches and is accountable to the Emperor of Japan. The Prime Ministe ...
and generally serves for at most two years.


History

During the
Edo period The or is the period between 1603 and 1867 in the history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...
, the
Tokugawa shogunate The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 ''Tokugawa bakufu''), also known as the , was the military government {{Systems of government Military dictatorships A military government is generally any government A government is th ...

Tokugawa shogunate
discouraged inventions in order to preserve the stability of the
feudal society Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was a combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society arou ...
. In fact,
Tokugawa Yoshimune was the eighth ''shōgun was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns were usually the ''de facto'' ...

Tokugawa Yoshimune
, the eighth ''
shōgun , officially , was the title of the military dictatorship, military dictators of Japan during most of the period spanning from 1185 to 1868. Nominally appointed by the Emperor of Japan, Emperor, shoguns were usually the ''de facto'' rulers of th ...
'' of the Tokugawa dynasty, decreed in 1721 the "Ban on Novelty" (新規御法度 ''shinki gohatto''), which was intended to prohibit everything novel, especially
clothing Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of fabrics or textile A textile is a flexible material made by creating an interlocking bundle of yarn Yarn is a long ...

clothing
of rich design. In 1868, the Tokugawa shogunate ended and a new reformist government took its place (the
Meiji Restoration#REDIRECT Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although t ...
). The government studied the Great Powers and adopted a national policy of emulating them in various government areas. Industrial property rights were recognized as a means for catching up to Western governments. The first patent law in Japan was thus established in 1871, though it was abandoned in the next year. Today, the founding date of Japanese patent law and of the Japan's patent office is considered to be April 18, 1885, when the "Patent Monopoly Act" (專賣特許條例 ''senbai tokkyo jōrei'') was enacted. In 1899, Japan acceded to the
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, signed in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population o ...

Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
.
Takahashi Korekiyo Viscount A viscount ( , for male) or viscountess (, for female) is a Title#Aristocratic titles, title used in certain European countries for a nobility, noble of varying status. In many countries a viscount, and its historical equivalents, ...

Takahashi Korekiyo
was the first commissioner of the JPO. The first patent was granted to Hotta Zuisho (堀田 瑞松), a lacquerware craftsman, on August 14, 1885. The patent granted to him was for an anticorrosive
paint Paint is any pigmented liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) is the area of physics concerned wi ...

paint
containing
lacquer Lacquer is a type of hard and potentially shiny coating A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate Substrate may refer to: Physical layers *Substrate (biology), the natural e ...

lacquer
, which effectively protected ship bottoms from
corrosion Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide An oxide () is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecu ...

corrosion
. In 1978, Japan acceded to the
Patent Cooperation Treaty The Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) is an international patent law treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organiza ...

Patent Cooperation Treaty
(PCT). In 1980, the JPO adopted the
International Patent ClassificationThe International Patent Classification (IPC) is a hierarchical patent classification system used in over 100 countries to classify the content of patents in a uniform manner. It was created under the Strasbourg Agreement Concerning the International ...
, discarding its own patent classification. In 1989 the JPO moved into its current headquarters in Kasumigaseki.


International cooperation

The JPO cooperates with the
United States Patent and Trademark Office The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patent A patent is a type of intellectual property that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using ...
(USPTO) and the
European Patent Office The European Patent Office (EPO) is one of the two organs of the European Patent Organisation The European Patent Organisation (sometimes abbreviated EPOrg in order to distinguish it from the European Patent Office, one of the two organs of the ...
(EPO) as one of the
Trilateral Patent Offices The Trilateral Patent Offices, or simply the Trilateral Offices, are the European Patent Office The European Patent Office (EPO) is one of the two organs of the European Patent Organisation (EPOrg), the other being the Administrative Council. Th ...
. It is also part of the IP5 along with the USPTO, EPO, the
Korean Intellectual Property OfficeThe Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO) is the patent office and intellectual property office of South Korea. In 2000, the name of the office was changed from "Korean Industrial Property Office" to "Korean Intellectual Property Office". It is ...
(KIPO), and China's
State Intellectual Property Office The China National Intellectual Property Administration (CNIPA; ), also known as the Chinese Patent Office, is the patent office of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It was founded in 1980 as the Patent Office of the People's Republic of Chin ...
(SIPO). The JPO, SIPO and KIPO are referred to as "Asian Trilateral Offices".New York Intellectual Property Association - Progress of regional patent office cooperation
Retrieved September 25, 2015


See also

*
Japanese patent law Japanese patent law is based on the first-to-file principle and is mainly given force by the Patent Act (特許法 ''Tokkyohō'') of Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red c ...
*
Japanese trademark lawJapanese trademark law is mainly enacted by . Under this Act, only registered trademarks establish a "trademark" right (Article 18), and examination procedure is necessary for trademarks to be registered (Article 14). Japan's first modern trade mark ...
*
Intellectual Property High Court The Intellectual Property High Court (, ''Chiteki-zaisan kōtō-saiban-sho''), sometimes abbreviated IPHC, is a special branch of Tokyo High Court is a high court High court usually refers to the superior court In common law systems, a superior ...
* F-term, a patent classification used by JPO * Japan Intellectual Property Association (JIPA)


References


External links


Japan Patent Office
{{Authority control
Patent Office A patent office is a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magaz ...
Intellectual property organizations
Patent Office A patent office is a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magaz ...
Patent offices International Searching and Preliminary Examining Authorities