EtymologyThe name for Japan in Japanese language, Japanese is written using the kanji and is pronounced or . Before was adopted in the early 8th century, the country was known in China as () and in Japan by the endonym . , the original Sino-Japanese reading of the characters, is favored for official uses, including on Japanese yen, banknotes and postage stamps. is typically used in everyday speech and reflects shifts in Japanese phonology during the Edo period. The characters mean "sun origin", which is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun". The name ''Japan'' is based on the Chinese pronunciation of and was introduced to European languages through early trade. In the 13th century, Marco Polo recorded the early Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin or Wu Chinese pronunciation of the characters as . The old Malay language, Malay name for Japan, or , was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect and encountered by Portuguese Empire, Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia, who brought the word to Europe in the early 16th century. The first version of the name in English appears in a book published in 1577, which spelled the name as ''Giapan'' in a translation of a 1565 Portuguese letter.
Prehistoric to classical historyA Japanese Paleolithic, Paleolithic culture from around 30,000 BC constitutes the first known habitation of the Japanese archipelago, islands of Japan. This was followed from around 14,500 BC (the start of the Jōmon period) by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture characterized by Pit-house, pit dwelling and rudimentary agriculture. Jōmon pottery, Clay vessels from the period are among the oldest surviving examples of pottery. From around 1000 BC, Yayoi period#Origin of the Yayoi people, Yayoi people began to enter the archipelago from Kyushu, intermingling with the Jomon people, Jōmon; the Yayoi period saw the introduction of practices including Paddy field, wet-rice farming, a new Yayoi pottery, style of pottery, and metallurgy from China and Korea. According to legend, Emperor Jimmu (grandson of Amaterasu) founded Yamatai, a kingdom in central Japan in 660 BC, beginning a Imperial House of Japan, continuous imperial line. Japan first appears in written history in the Chinese ''Book of Han'', completed in 111 AD. Buddhism was introduced to Japan from Baekje (a Korean kingdom) in 552, but the development of Buddhism in Japan, Japanese Buddhism was primarily influenced by China. Despite early resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the ruling class, including figures like Prince Shōtoku, and gained widespread acceptance beginning in the Asuka period (592–710). The far-reaching Taika Reforms in 645 nationalized all land in Japan, to be Equal-field system, distributed equally among cultivators, and ordered the compilation of a household registry as the basis for a new system of taxation. The Jinshin War of 672, a bloody conflict between Prince Ōama and his nephew Prince Ōtomo, became a major catalyst for further administrative reforms. These reforms culminated with the promulgation of the Taihō Code, which consolidated existing statutes and established the structure of the central and subordinate local governments. These legal reforms created the state, a system of Chinese-style centralized government that remained in place for half a millennium. The Nara period (710–784) marked the emergence of a Japanese state centered on the Imperial Court in Heijō Palace, Heijō-kyō (modern Nara, Nara, Nara). The period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent Japanese literature, literary culture with the completion of the (712) and (720), as well as the development of Buddhist-inspired artwork and Historic Monuments of Ancient Nara, architecture. A 735–737 Japanese smallpox epidemic, smallpox epidemic in 735–737 is believed to have killed as much as one-third of Japan's population. In 784, Emperor Kanmu moved the capital, settling on Heian-kyō (modern-day Kyoto) in 794. This marked the beginning of the Heian period (794–1185), during which a distinctly indigenous Japanese culture emerged. Murasaki Shikibu's ''The Tale of Genji'' and the lyrics of Japan's national anthem were written during this time.
Feudal eraJapan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence and dominance of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. In 1185, following the defeat of the Taira clan in the Genpei War, samurai Minamoto no Yoritomo established a military government at Kamakura, Kanagawa, Kamakura. After Yoritomo's death, the Hōjō clan came to power as regents for the . The Zen school of Buddhism was introduced from China in the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and became popular among the samurai class. The Kamakura shogunate repelled Mongol invasions of Japan, Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281 but was eventually Kenmu Restoration, overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo. Go-Daigo was defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336, beginning the Muromachi period (1336–1573). The succeeding Ashikaga shogunate failed to control the feudal warlords () and a Ōnin War, civil war began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period ("Warring States"). During the 16th century, Portuguese traders and Society of Jesus, Jesuit Missionary, missionaries reached Japan for the first time, initiating direct Nanban trade, commercial and Nanban art, cultural exchange between Japan and the West. Oda Nobunaga used European technology and firearms to conquer many other ; his consolidation of power began what was known as the Azuchi–Momoyama period. After Honnō-ji Incident, the death of Nobunaga in 1582, his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the nation in the early 1590s and launched Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98), two unsuccessful invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597. Tokugawa Ieyasu served as Council of Five Elders, regent for Hideyoshi's son Toyotomi Hideyori and used his position to gain political and military support. When open war broke out, Ieyasu defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. He was appointed by Emperor Go-Yōzei in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate at Edo (modern Tokyo). The shogunate enacted measures including , as a code of conduct to control the autonomous , and in 1639 the isolationist ("closed country") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as the Edo period (1603–1868). Modern Japan's economic growth began in this period, resulting in Kaidō, roads and water transportation routes, as well as financial instruments such as futures contracts, banking and insurance of the Osaka rice brokers. The study of Western sciences () continued through contact with the Dutch enclave in Nagasaki. The Edo period gave rise to ("national studies"), the study of Japan by the Japanese.
Modern eraIn 1854, Matthew C. Perry, Commodore Matthew Perry and the "Black Ships" of the United States Navy forced the opening of Japan to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa. Subsequent similar treaties with other Western countries brought economic and political crises. The resignation of the led to the Boshin War and the establishment of a Abolition of the han system, centralized state nominally unified under the emperor (the Meiji Restoration). Adopting Western political, judicial, and military institutions, the Cabinet of Japan, Cabinet organized the Privy Council (Japan), Privy Council, introduced the Meiji Constitution, and assembled the National Diet, Imperial Diet. During the Meiji period (1868–1912), the Empire of Japan emerged as the most developed nation in Asia and as an industrialized world power that pursued military conflict to expand its sphere of influence. After victories in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan gained control of Taiwan, Korea and the southern half of Sakhalin. The Japanese population doubled from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million by 1935, with a significant shift to urbanization. The early 20th century saw a period of Taishō period, Taishō democracy (1912–1926) overshadowed by increasing expansionism and Japanese militarism, militarization. Japan during World War I, World War I allowed Japan, which joined the side of the victorious Allies of World War I, Allies, to capture German colonial empire, German possessions in the Pacific and in China. The 1920s saw a political shift towards Statism in Shōwa Japan, statism, a period of lawlessness following the 1923 Great Tokyo Earthquake, the passing of Peace Preservation Law#Public Security Preservation Law of 1925, laws against political dissent, and a series of May 15 Incident, attempted coups. This process accelerated during the 1930s, spawning a number of radical nationalist groups that shared a hostility to liberal democracy and a dedication to expansion in Asia. In 1931, Japan Japanese invasion of Manchuria, invaded and occupied Manchuria; following Lytton Report, international condemnation of the occupation, it resigned from the League of Nations two years later. In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany; the 1940 Tripartite Pact made it one of the Axis Powers. The Empire of Japan invaded other parts of China in 1937, precipitating the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). In 1940, the Empire Japanese invasion of French Indochina, invaded French Indochina, after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan. On December 7–8, 1941, Japanese forces carried out surprise Attack on Pearl Harbor, attacks on Pearl Harbor, as well as on United Kingdom, British forces in Battle of Malaya, Malaya, Bombing of Singapore (1941), Singapore, and Battle of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, among others, beginning Pacific War, World War II in the Pacific. Throughout areas occupied by Japan during the war, numerous abuses were committed against local inhabitants, with many forced into Comfort women, sexual slavery. After Allies of World War II, Allied victories during the next four years, which culminated in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, Japan agreed to an Surrender of Japan, unconditional surrender. The war cost Japan Japanese colonial empire, its colonies and millions of lives. The Allies (led by the United States) repatriated millions of Japanese diaspora, Japanese settlers from their former colonies and military camps throughout Asia, largely eliminating the Japanese empire and its influence over the territories it conquered. The Allies convened the International Military Tribunal for the Far East to prosecute Japanese leaders for Japanese war crimes, war crimes. In 1947, Japan adopted a new Constitution of Japan, constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices. The Occupation of Japan, Allied occupation ended with the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952, and Japan was granted membership in the United Nations in 1956. A Japanese economic miracle, period of record growth propelled Japan to become the second-largest economy in the world; this ended in the mid-1990s after the popping of an Japanese asset price bubble, asset price bubble, beginning the Lost Decade (Japan), "Lost Decade". On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered one of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, largest earthquakes in its recorded history, triggering the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. On May 1, 2019, after the historic abdication of Emperor Akihito, his son Naruhito became Emperor, beginning the Reiwa era.
GeographyJapan comprises 6852 islands extending along the Pacific coast of Asia. It stretches over northeast–southwest from the Sea of Okhotsk to the East China Sea. The country's five main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa Island, Okinawa. The Ryukyu Islands, which include Okinawa, are a chain to the south of Kyushu. The Nanpō Islands are south and east of the main islands of Japan. Together they are often known as the Japanese archipelago. , Japan's territory is . Japan has the sixth-longest List of countries by length of coastline, coastline in the world at . Because of its far-flung outlying islands, Japan has the sixth largest Exclusive economic zone of Japan, Exclusive Economic Zone in the world, covering . The Japanese archipelago is 66.4% forests, 12.8% agricultural and 4.8% residential (2002). The primarily rugged and mountainous terrain is restricted for habitation. Thus the habitable zones, mainly in the coastal areas, have very high population densities: Japan is the 40th List of countries by population density, most densely populated country. Honshu has the highest population density at 450 persons/km2 (1,200/sq mi) , while Hokkaido has the lowest density of 64.5 persons/km2 . , approximately 0.5% of Japan's total area is land reclamation, reclaimed land (). Lake Biwa is an ancient lake and the country's largest freshwater lake. Japan is substantially prone to earthquakes, tsunami and Types of volcanic eruptions, volcanic eruptions because of its location along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It has the List of countries by natural disaster risk, 17th highest natural disaster risk as measured in the 2016 World Risk Index. Japan has 111 active volcanoes. Destructive earthquakes, often resulting in tsunami, occur several times each century; the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, 1923 Tokyo earthquake killed over 140,000 people. More recent major quakes are the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake and the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, which triggered a large tsunami.
ClimateThe climate of Japan is predominantly temperate but varies greatly from north to south. The northernmost region, Hokkaido, has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and very warm to cool summers. Precipitation (meteorology), Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snowbanks in the winter. In the Sea of Japan region on Honshu's west coast, northwest winter winds bring heavy snowfall during winter. In the summer, the region sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures because of the foehn wind, foehn. The Central Highland (Japan), Central Highland has a typical inland humid continental climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter. The mountains of the Chūgoku region, Chūgoku and Shikoku regions shelter the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal winds, bringing mild weather year-round. The Pacific coast features a humid subtropical climate that experiences milder winters with occasional snowfall and hot, humid summers because of the southeast seasonal wind. The Ryukyu and Nanpō Islands have a subtropics, subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very heavy, especially during the rainy season. The main East Asian rainy season, rainy season begins in early May in Okinawa, and the rain front gradually moves north. In late summer and early autumn, typhoons often bring heavy rain. According to the Environment Ministry, heavy rainfall and increasing temperatures have caused problems in the agricultural industry and elsewhere. The highest temperature ever measured in Japan, , was recorded on July 23, 2018, and repeated on August 17, 2020.
BiodiversityJapan has nine forest Ecoregions in Japan, ecoregions which reflect the climate and geography of the islands. They range from Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, subtropical moist broadleaf forests in the Ryūkyū and Bonin Islands, to temperate broadleaf and mixed forests in the mild climate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests in the cold, winter portions of the northern islands. Japan has over 90,000 species of Wildlife of Japan, wildlife , including the brown bear, the Japanese macaque, the Japanese raccoon dog, the small Japanese field mouse, and the Japanese giant salamander. A large network of List of national parks of Japan, national parks has been established to protect important areas of flora and fauna as well as 52 Ramsar sites in Japan, Ramsar wetland sites. World Heritage Sites in Japan, Four sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for their outstanding natural value.
EnvironmentIn the period of rapid economic growth after World War II, environmental policies were downplayed by the government and industrial corporations; as a result, Four Big Pollution Diseases of Japan, environmental pollution was widespread in the 1950s and 1960s. Responding to rising concern, the government introduced environmental protection laws in 1970. The 1973 oil crisis, oil crisis in 1973 also encouraged the efficient use of energy because of Japan's lack of natural resources. , more than 22 coal-fired power plants are planned for construction in Japan, following the switching-off of Nuclear power in Japan, Japan's nuclear fleet after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. Japan ranks 20th in the 2018 Environmental Performance Index, which measures a nation's commitment to environmental sustainability. Japan is the world's fifth largest emitter of carbon dioxide. As the host and signatory of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, Japan is under treaty obligation to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and to take other steps to curb climate change. In 2020 the government of Japan announced a target of carbon neutrality, carbon-neutrality by 2050. Environmental issues include urban air pollution (NOx, suspended particulate matter, and toxics), waste management, water eutrophication, nature conservation, Climate change in Japan, climate change, chemical management and international co-operation for conservation.
PoliticsJapan is a unitary state and constitutional monarchy in which the power of the Emperor of Japan, Emperor is limited to a ceremonial role. Executive power is instead wielded by the Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet of Japan, Cabinet, whose sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people. Naruhito is the Emperor of Japan, having succeeded his father Akihito upon his accession to the Chrysanthemum Throne in 2019. Japan's legislative organ is the National Diet, a Bicameralism, bicameral parliament. It consists of a lower House of Representatives (Japan), House of Representatives with 465 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved, and an upper House of Councillors (Japan), House of Councillors with 245 seats, whose popularly-elected members serve six-year terms. There is universal suffrage for adults over 18 years of age, with a secret ballot for all elected offices. The prime minister as the head of government has the power to appoint and dismiss Ministers of State, and is Imperial Investiture, appointed by the emperor after being designated from among the members of the Diet. Fumio Kishida is Japan's prime minister; he took office after winning the 2021 Liberal Democratic Party (Japan) leadership election, 2021 Liberal Democratic Party leadership election. Historically influenced by Chinese law, the Law of Japan, Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as . Since the late 19th century, the judicial system of Japan, judicial system has been largely based on the civil law (legal system), civil law of Europe, notably Germany. In 1896, Japan established a civil code based on the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, which remains in effect with post–World War II modifications. The Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947, is the oldest unamended constitution in the world. Statutory law originates in the legislature, and the constitution requires that the emperor promulgate legislation passed by the Diet without giving him the power to oppose legislation. The main body of Japanese statutory law is called the Six Codes. Japan's court system is divided into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court of Japan, Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts.
Administrative divisionsJapan is divided into Prefectures of Japan, 47 prefectures, each overseen by an elected Governor (Japan), governor and legislature. In the following table, the prefectures are grouped by List of regions of Japan, region:
Foreign relationsA member state of the United Nations since 1956, Japan is one of the G4 nations seeking reform of the United Nations Security Council, Security Council. Japan is a member of the Group of Seven, G7, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, APEC, and "ASEAN Free Trade Area#ASEAN Plus Three, ASEAN Plus Three", and is a participant in the East Asia Summit. It is the world's fifth largest donor of official development assistance, donating US$9.2 billion in 2014. In 2019, Japan had the fourth-largest diplomatic network in the world. Japan has close economic and military relations with the United States, with which it maintains a Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan, security alliance. The United States is a major market for Japanese exports and a major source of Japanese imports, and is committed to defending the country, with military bases in Japan. Japan signed a security pact with Australia in March 2007 and with India in October 2008. Japan's relationship with South Korea had historically been strained because of Japan's treatment of Koreans during Korea under Japanese rule, Japanese colonial rule, particularly over the issue of comfort women. In 2015, Japan agreed to settle the comfort women dispute with South Korea by issuing a formal apology and paying money to the surviving comfort women. Japan is a major importer of Korean music (K-pop), television (Korean drama, K-dramas), and other cultural products. Japan is engaged in several territorial disputes with its neighbors. Japan contests Russia's control of the Kuril Islands dispute, Southern Kuril Islands, which were occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945. South Korea's control of the Liancourt Rocks is acknowledged but not accepted as they are claimed by Japan. Japan has strained relations with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands and the status of Okinotorishima.
MilitaryJapan is the second-highest-ranked Asian country in the Global Peace Index 2020. Japan maintains one of the largest military budgets of any country in the world. The country's military (the Japan Self-Defense Forces) is restricted by Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, which renounces Japan's right to declare war or use military force in international disputes. The military is governed by the Ministry of Defense (Japan), Ministry of Defense, and primarily consists of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force. The Japanese Iraq Reconstruction and Support Group, deployment of troops to Iraq and Afghanistan marked the first overseas use of Japan's military since World War II. The Government of Japan has been making changes to its security policy which include the establishment of the National Security Council (Japan), National Security Council, the adoption of the National Security Strategy, and the development of the National Defense Program Guidelines. In May 2014, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, Shinzō Abe said Japan wanted to shed the passiveness it has maintained since the end of World War II and take more responsibility for regional security. Recent tensions, particularly with North Korea and China, have reignited the debate over the status of the JSDF and its relation to Japanese society.
Domestic law enforcementDomestic security in Japan is provided mainly by the prefectural police departments, under the oversight of the National Police Agency (Japan), National Police Agency. As the central coordinating body for the Prefectural Police Departments, the National Police Agency is administered by the National Public Safety Commission (Japan), National Public Safety Commission. The Special Assault Team comprises national-level counter-terrorism tactical units that cooperate with territorial-level Riot Police Unit#Specialist squads, Anti-Firearms Squads and Counter-NBC Terrorism Squads. The Japan Coast Guard guards territorial waters surrounding Japan and uses surveillance and control countermeasures against smuggling, marine environmental crime, poaching, piracy, spy ships, unauthorized foreign fishing vessels, and illegal immigration. The Firearm and Sword Possession Control Law strictly regulates the civilian ownership of guns, swords and other weaponry. According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, among the member states of the UN that report statistics , the incidence rates of violent crimes such as murder, abduction, sexual violence and robbery are very low in Japan.
EconomyJapan is the third-largest national economy in the world, after the United States and China, in terms of nominal GDP, and the fourth-largest national economy in the world, after the United States, China and India, in terms of purchasing power parity . , Japan's labor force consisted of 67 million workers. Japan has a List of countries by unemployment rate, low unemployment rate of around 2.4 percent. Around 16 percent of the population were below the poverty line in 2017. Japan today has the highest ratio of National debt of Japan, public debt to GDP of any developed nation, with national debt at 236% relative to GDP as of 2017. The Japanese yen is the world's third-largest reserve currency (after the US dollar and the euro). Japan's exports amounted to 18.5% of GDP in 2018. , Japan's main export markets were the United States (19.8 percent) and China (19.1 percent). Its main exports are motor vehicles, iron and steel products, semiconductors and auto parts. Japan's main import markets were China (23.5 percent), the United States (11 percent), and Australia (6.3 percent). Japan's main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, and raw materials for its industries. Japan ranks 29th of 190 countries in the 2019 ease of doing business index. The Japanese variant of capitalism has many distinct features: keiretsu enterprises are influential, and Permanent employment, lifetime employment and seniority-based career advancement are common in the Japanese work environment. Japan has a large cooperative sector, with three of the ten largest cooperatives in the world, including the largest consumer cooperative and the largest agricultural cooperative in the world . Japan ranks highly for Competition (companies), competitiveness and economic freedom. It is ranked sixth in the Global Competitiveness Report for 2015–2016.
Agriculture and fisheryThe Japanese agricultural sector accounts for about 1.2% of the total country's GDP . Only 11.5% of Japan's land is suitable for cultivation. Because of this lack of arable land, a system of Terrace (earthworks), terraces is used to farm in small areas. This results in one of the world's highest levels of crop yields per unit area, with an agricultural self-sufficiency rate of about 50% . Japan's small agricultural sector is highly subsidized and Agricultural Protectionism in Japan, protected. There has been a growing concern about farming as farmers are aging with a difficult time finding successors. Japan ranked seventh in the world in fishing industry by country, tonnage of fish caught and captured 3,167,610 metric tons of fish in 2016, down from an annual average of 4,000,000 tons over the previous decade. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch, prompting critiques that Japan's fishing is leading to depletion in fish stocks such as tuna. Japan has sparked controversy by supporting commercial whaling in Japan, whaling.
IndustryJapan has a large industrial capacity and is home to some of the "largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and food processing, processed foods". Japan's industrial sector makes up approximately 27.5% of its GDP. The country's manufacturing output is the third highest in the world . Japan is the third-largest automobile producer in the world and is home to Toyota, the world's largest automobile company. The Japanese shipbuilding industry faces competition from South Korea and China; a 2020 government initiative identified this sector as a target for increasing exports.
Services and tourismJapan's service sector accounts for about 70% of its total economic output . Banking, retail, transportation in Japan, transportation, and telecommunications are all major industries, with companies such as Toyota, Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group, Mitsubishi UFJ, -Nippon Telegraph and Telephone, NTT, ÆON (company), ÆON, Softbank, Hitachi, and Itochu listed as among the largest in the world. Japan attracted 31.9 million international tourists in 2019. For inbound tourism, Japan was World Tourism rankings, ranked 11th in the world in 2019. The 2017 ''Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report'' ranked Japan 4th out of 141 countries, which was the highest in Asia.
Science and technologyJapan is a leading nation in scientific research, particularly in the natural sciences and engineering. The country ranks twelfth among the most innovative countries in the 2020 Bloomberg Innovation Index and 16th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, down from 15th in 2019. Relative to gross domestic product, Japan's research and development budget is the List of countries by research and development spending, second highest in the world, with 867,000 researchers sharing a 19-trillion-yen research and development budget . The country has produced twenty-two Nobel Prize, Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry or medicine, and three Fields Medal, Fields medalists. Japan leads the world in robotics production and use, supplying 55% of the world's 2017 total. Japan has the second highest number of researchers in science and technology per capita in the world with 14 per 1000 employees. The Japanese consumer electronics industry, once considered the strongest in the world, is in a state of decline as competition arises in countries like South Korea and China. However, video gaming in Japan remains a major industry. In 2014, Japan's consumer video game market grossed $9.6 billion, with $5.8 billion coming from mobile gaming. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is Japan's national space agency; it conducts space, planetary, and aviation research, and leads development of rockets and satellites. It is a participant in the International Space Station: the Japanese Experiment Module (Kibō) was added to the station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2008. The space probe ''Akatsuki (spacecraft), Akatsuki'' was launched in 2010 and achieved orbit around Venus in 2015. Japan's plans in space exploration include building a colonization of the Moon, moon base and landing astronauts by 2030. In 2007, it launched lunar explorer SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) from Tanegashima Space Center. The largest lunar mission since the Apollo program, its purpose was to gather data on the Moon#Formation, moon's origin and evolution. The explorer entered a lunar orbit on October 4, 2007, and was deliberately crashed into the Moon on June 11, 2009.
TransportationJapan has invested heavily in transportation infrastructure. The country has approximately of roads made up of of city, town and village roads, of prefectural roads, of general national highways and of national Expressways of Japan, expressways . Since privatization in 1987, List of railway companies in Japan, dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets; major companies include seven Japan Railways Group, JR enterprises, Kintetsu Railway, Kintetsu, Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation. The high-speed Shinkansen (bullet trains) that connect major cities are known for their safety and punctuality. There are 175 airports in Japan . The largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport in Tokyo, was World's busiest airports by passenger traffic, Asia's second-busiest airport in 2019. The Keihin and Hanshin superport hubs are among the largest in the world, at 7.98 and 5.22 million twenty-foot equivalent unit, TEU respectively .
Energy, 39% of energy in Japan was produced from petroleum, 25% from coal, 23% from natural gas, 3.5% from hydropower and 1.5% from Nuclear power in Japan, nuclear power. Nuclear power was down from 11.2 percent in 2010. By May 2012 all of the country's nuclear power plants had been taken offline because of ongoing public opposition following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in March 2011, though government officials continued to try to sway public opinion in favor of returning at least some to service. The Sendai Nuclear Power Plant restarted in 2015, and since then several other nuclear power plants have been restarted. Japan lacks significant domestic reserves and has a heavy dependence on List of countries by oil imports, imported energy. The country has therefore aimed to diversify its sources and maintain high levels of energy efficiency.
Water supply and sanitationResponsibility for the water and sanitation sector is shared between the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (Japan), Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, in charge of water supply for domestic use; the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (Japan), Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, in charge of water resources development as well as sanitation; the Ministry of the Environment (Japan), Ministry of the Environment, in charge of ambient water quality and environmental preservation; and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, in charge of performance benchmarking of utilities. Access to an improved water source is universal in Japan. About 98% of the population receives piped water supply from public utilities.
DemographicsJapan has a population of 125.7 million, of which 123.2 million are Japanese nationals (2020 estimates). A small population of foreign residents makes up the remainder. In 2019, 92% of the total Japanese population lived in cities. The capital city Tokyo has a population of 14.0 million (2021). It is part of the Greater Tokyo Area, the biggest List of metropolitan areas by population, metropolitan area in the world with 38,140,000 people (2016). Ethnic minority groups in Japan include the indigenous Ainu people, Ainu and Ryukyuan people. Koreans in Japan, Zainichi Koreans, Chinese people in Japan, Chinese, Filipinos in Japan, Filipinos, Brazilians mostly Japanese Brazilian, of Japanese descent, and Peruvians mostly Japanese Peruvian, of Japanese descent are also among Japan's small minority groups. ''Burakumin'' make up a social minority group. Japan has the second-longest overall life expectancy at birth of any country in the world, at 84 years . The Aging of Japan, Japanese population is rapidly aging as a result of a post–World War II baby boom followed by a decrease in birth rates. over 20 percent of the population is over 65, and this is projected to rise to one in three by 2030. The changes in demographic structure have created a number of social issues, particularly a decline in workforce population and increase in the cost of social security benefits. A growing number of younger Japanese are not marrying or remain childless. Japan's population is expected to drop to around 100 million by 2060. Immigration to Japan, Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the nation's aging population. On April 1, 2019, Japan's revised immigration law was enacted, protecting the rights of foreign workers to help reduce labor shortages in certain sectors.
ReligionJapan's constitution guarantees full religious freedom. Upper estimates suggest that 84–96 percent of the Japanese population subscribe to Shinto as its indigenous religion. However, these estimates are based on people Danka system, affiliated with a temple, rather than the number of true believers. Many Japanese people practice both Shinto and Buddhism; they can either identify with both religions or describe themselves as non-religious or spiritual. The level of participation in religious ceremonies as a cultural tradition remains high, especially during Japanese festivals, festivals and occasions such as the Hatsumōde, first shrine visit of the Japanese New Year, New Year. Taoism and Confucianism from China have also influenced Japanese beliefs and customs. Christianity was first introduced into Japan by Jesuit missions starting in 1549. Today, 1% to 1.5% of the population are Christianity in Japan, Christians. Throughout the latest century, Western customs originally related to Christianity (including marriage in Japan, Western style weddings, Valentine's Day and Christmas) have become popular as secular customs among many Japanese. About 90% of those practicing Islam in Japan are foreign-born migrants . there were an estimated 105 mosques and 200,000 Muslims in Japan, 43,000 of which were ethnically Japanese. Other minority religions include Hinduism in Japan, Hinduism, Judaism, and Baháʼí Faith in Japan, Baháʼí Faith, as well as the animist beliefs of the Ainu.
LanguagesJapanese writing system, Japanese writing uses kanji (Chinese characters) and two sets of kana (syllabary, syllabaries based on Cursive script (East Asia), cursive script and Radical (Chinese characters), radical of kanji), as well as the Latin alphabet and Arabic numerals. English instruction was made mandatory in Japanese elementary schools in 2020. Besides Japanese, the Ryukyuan languages (Amami language, Amami, Kunigami language, Kunigami, Okinawan language, Okinawan, Miyakoan language, Miyako, Yaeyama language, Yaeyama, Yonaguni language, Yonaguni), part of the Japonic languages, Japonic language family, are spoken in the Ryukyu Islands chain. Few children learn these languages, but local governments have sought to increase awareness of the traditional languages. The Ainu language, which is a language isolate, is moribund language, moribund, with only a few native speakers remaining .
EducationPrimary schools, secondary schools and universities were Education in the Empire of Japan, introduced in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration. Since the 1947 Fundamental Law of Education, compulsory education in Japan comprises Elementary schools in Japan, elementary and Secondary education in Japan#Junior high school, junior high school, which together last for nine years. Almost all children continue their education at a three-year Secondary education in Japan, senior high school. The two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University. Starting in April 2016, various schools began the academic year with elementary school and junior high school integrated into one nine-year compulsory schooling program; Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, MEXT plans for this approach to be adopted nationwide. The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) coordinated by the OECD ranks the knowledge and skills of Japanese 15-year-olds as the third best in the world. Japan is one of the top-performing OECD countries in reading literacy, math and sciences with the average student scoring 529 and has one of the world's highest-educated labor forces among OECD countries. , Japan's public spending on education amounted to just 3.3 percent of its GDP, below the OECD average of 4.9 percent. In 2017, the country ranked third for the percentage of 25- to 64-year-olds that have attained tertiary education with 51 percent. Approximately 60 percent of Japanese aged 25 to 34 have some form of tertiary education qualification, and bachelor's degrees are held by 30.4 percent of Japanese aged 25 to 64, the second most in the OECD after South Korea.
HealthHealth care is provided by national and local governments. Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. Since 1973, all elderly persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance. Japan Suicide in Japan, has one of the world's highest suicide rates. Another significant public health issue is smoking in Japan, smoking among Japanese men. Japan has the lowest rate of heart disease in the OECD, and the lowest level of dementia in the developed world.
CultureContemporary Japanese culture combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. Traditional Japanese arts include Japanese handicrafts, crafts such as Japanese pottery and porcelain, ceramics, Kimono, textiles, Japanese lacquerware, lacquerware, Japanese sword, swords and Japanese traditional dolls, dolls; performances of bunraku, kabuki, noh, Japanese traditional dance, dance, and rakugo; and other practices, the Japanese tea ceremony, tea ceremony, ikebana, Japanese martial arts, martial arts, Japanese calligraphy, calligraphy, origami, onsen, Geisha and List of Japanese games, games. Japan has a developed system for the protection and promotion of both tangible and intangible Cultural Properties of Japan, Cultural Properties and National Treasures of Japan, National Treasures. Twenty-two sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, eighteen of which are of cultural significance.
Art and architectureThe history of Japanese painting exhibits synthesis and competition between native Japanese esthetics and imported ideas. The interaction between Japanese and European art has been significant: for example ukiyo-e prints, which began to be exported in the 19th century in the movement known as Japonism, had a significant influence on the development of modern art in the West, most notably on post-Impressionism. Japanese manga developed in the 20th century and have become popular Manga outside Japan, worldwide. Japanese architecture is a combination between local and other influences. It has traditionally been typified by wooden or mud plaster structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. The Ise Grand Shrine, Shrines of Ise have been celebrated as the prototype of Japanese architecture. Minka, Traditional housing and many Japanese Buddhist architecture, temple buildings see the use of tatami mats and Shōji, sliding doors that break down the distinction between rooms and indoor and outdoor space. Since the 19th century, Japan has incorporated much of Western modern architecture into construction and design. It was not until after World War II that Japanese architects made an impression on the international scene, firstly with the work of architects like Kenzō Tange and then with movements like Metabolist Movement, Metabolism.
Literature and philosophyThe earliest works of Japanese literature include the ''Kojiki'' and ''Nihon Shoki'' chronicles and the ''Man'yōshū'' List of Japanese poetry anthologies, poetry anthology, all from the 8th century and written in Chinese characters. In the early Heian period, the system of Phonogram (linguistics), phonograms known as ''kana'' (hiragana and katakana) was developed. ''The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter'' is considered the oldest extant Japanese narrative. An account of court life is given in ''The Pillow Book'' by Sei Shōnagon, while ''The Tale of Genji'' by Murasaki Shikibu is often described as the world's first novel. During the Edo period, the chōnin ("townspeople") overtook the samurai aristocracy as producers and consumers of literature. The popularity of the works of Saikaku, for example, reveals this change in readership and authorship, while Matsuo Bashō, Bashō revivified the poetic tradition of the Kokinshū with his haikai (haiku) and wrote the poetic travelogue ''Oku no Hosomichi''. The Meiji era saw the decline of traditional literary forms as Japanese literature integrated Western influences. Natsume Sōseki and Mori Ōgai were significant novelists in the early 20th century, followed by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, Jun'ichirō Tanizaki, Kafū Nagai and, more recently, Haruki Murakami and Kenji Nakagami. Japan has two Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Prize-winning authors – Yasunari Kawabata (1968) and Kenzaburō Ōe (1994). Japanese philosophy has historically been a Information fusion, fusion of both foreign, particularly Chinese philosophy, Chinese and Western philosophy, Western, and uniquely Japanese elements. In its literary forms, Japanese philosophy began about fourteen centuries ago. Confucian ideals remain evident in the Japanese society, Japanese concept of society and the self, and in the organization of the government and the structure of society. Buddhism has profoundly impacted Japanese psychology, metaphysics, and esthetics.
Performing artsJapanese music is eclectic and diverse. Many Traditional Japanese musical instruments, instruments, such as the Koto (instrument), koto, were introduced in the 9th and 10th centuries. The popular Music of Japan#Folk music, folk music, with the guitar-like shamisen, dates from the 16th century. Western classical music, introduced in the late 19th century, forms an integral part of Japanese culture. Taiko#Kumi-daiko, Kumi-daiko (ensemble drumming) was developed in postwar Japan and became very popular in North America. Popular music in post-war Japan has been heavily influenced by American and European trends, which has led to the evolution of J-pop. Karaoke is a significant cultural activity. The four traditional theaters from Japan are ''noh'', ''kyōgen'', ''kabuki'', and ''bunraku''. Noh is one of the oldest continuous theater traditions in the world.
Customs and holidaysis a Japanese idiom which denotes a form of interpersonal communication through unspoken mutual understanding. is a virtue of the capability of accepting death with composure. Cherry blossoms are a symbol of isagiyosa in the sense of embracing the transience of the world. is a central idea in Japanese culture, meaning to acknowledge one's own mistake and to pledge improvement. refers to the Japanese belief that mystical powers dwell in words and names. Officially, Japan has 16 national, government-recognized holidays. Public holidays in Japan are regulated by the of 1948. Beginning in 2000, Japan implemented the Happy Monday System, which moved a number of national holidays to Monday in order to obtain a long weekend. The national holidays in Japan are Japanese New Year, New Year's Day on January 1, Coming of Age Day on the second Monday of January, National Foundation Day on February 11, The Emperor's Birthday on February 23, Vernal Equinox Day on March 20 or 21, Shōwa Day on April 29, Constitution Memorial Day on May 3, Greenery Day on May 4, Children's Day (Japan), Children's Day on May 5, Marine Day on the third Monday of July, Mountain Day on August 11, Respect for the Aged Day on the third Monday of September, September equinox, Autumnal Equinox on September 23 or 24, Health and Sports Day on the second Monday of October, Culture Day on November 3, and Labor Thanksgiving Day on November 23.
CuisineJapanese cuisine offers a vast array of Japanese regional cuisine, regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. Seafood and Japanese rice or Japanese noodles, noodles are traditional staples. Japanese curry, since its introduction to Japan from British Raj, British India, is so widely consumed that it can be termed a national dish, alongside ramen and sushi. Traditional Japanese sweets are known as ''wagashi''. Ingredients such as red bean paste and mochi are used. More modern-day tastes includes green tea ice cream. Popular Japanese beverages include sake, which is a brewed rice beverage that typically contains 14–17% alcohol and is made by multiple fermentation of rice. Beer has been brewed in Japan since the late 17th century. Green tea is produced in Japan and prepared in forms such as matcha, used in the Japanese tea ceremony.
MediaAccording to the 2015 NHK survey on television viewing in Japan, 79 percent of Japanese watch television daily. Japanese television dramas are viewed both within Japan and internationally; other popular shows are in the genres of Japanese variety show, variety shows, comedy, and news programs. Japanese newspapers are among the most circulated in the world . Japan has one of the oldest and largest film industries globally. Ishirō Honda's ''Godzilla (1954 film), Godzilla'' became an international icon of Japan and spawned an entire subgenre of ''kaiju'' films, as well as the longest-running film franchise in history. Japanese animated films and television series, known as anime, were largely influenced by Japanese manga and have become highly popular in the Western world and East Asia. Japan is a world-renowned powerhouse of animation.
SportsTraditionally, sumo is considered Japan's national sport. Japanese martial arts such as judo and kendo are taught as part of the compulsory junior high school curriculum. Baseball in Japan, Baseball is the most popular spectator sport in the country. Japan's top professional league, Nippon Professional Baseball, was established in 1936. Since the establishment of the J. League, Japan Professional Football League in 1992, association football has gained a wide following. The country co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea. Japan has one of the most successful football teams in Asia, winning the AFC Asian Cup, Asian Cup four times, and the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup, FIFA Women's World Cup in 2011. Golf is also popular in Japan. In motorsport, Japanese automotive manufacturers have been successful in multiple different categories, with titles and victories in series such as Formula One, Grand Prix motorcycle racing, MotoGP, IndyCar Series, IndyCar, World Rally Championship, FIA World Endurance Championship, World Endurance Championship, World Touring Car Championship, British Touring Car Championship and the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship, IMSA SportsCar Championship. Three Japanese drivers have achieved podium finishes in Formula One, and drivers from Japan have victories at the Indianapolis 500 and the 24 Hours of Le Mans, in addition to success in domestic championships. Super GT is the most popular national series in Japan, while Super Formula Championship, Super Formula is the top level domestic open-wheel series. The country hosts major races such as the Japanese Grand Prix. Japan hosted the Summer Olympics in 1964 Summer Olympics, Tokyo in 1964 and the Winter Olympics in 1972 Winter Olympics, Sapporo in 1972 and 1998 Winter Olympics, Nagano in 1998. The country hosted the official 2006 Basketball World Championship and will co-host the 2023 Basketball World Championship. Tokyo hosted the 2020 Summer Olympics in 2021, making Tokyo the first Asian city to host the Olympics twice. The country gained the hosting rights for the official Women's Volleyball World Championship on five occasions, more than any other nation. Japan is the most successful Asian Rugby Union country and hosted the 2019 IRB Rugby World Cup.
See also*Index of Japan-related articles *Outline of Japan