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James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S.16 September 1701) was
King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Alfred styled himself King of the from about 886, and while he was not the first king to claim to rule all of the , his ...
and
King of Ireland Monarchical systems of government have existed in Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North C ...
as James II, and
King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of government by which a hereditary monarchy, hereditary sovereign reigns as the head of state of the United ...
as James VII from the death of his elder brother,
Charles II
Charles II
, on 6 February 1685. He was deposed in the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
of 1688. He was the last
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
monarch of
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...
, and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
. His reign is now remembered primarily for struggles over religious tolerance, however, it also involved struggles over the principles of absolutism and the
divine right of kings In European Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Nazareth. It is the Majo ...
. His deposition ended a century of political and civil strife by confirming the primacy of Parliament over the Crown. James inherited the thrones of England, Ireland, and Scotland from his brother with widespread support in all three countries, largely because the principles of eligibility based on divine right and birth were widely accepted. Tolerance for his personal Catholicism did not extend to tolerance towards Catholicism in general, and the
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...
and
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd, Pàrlamaid na h-Alba ; Scots language, Scots: ''Scots Pairlament'') is the Devolution in the United Kingdom, devolved, Unicameralism, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood, Edinburgh, Holyro ...
s refused to pass his measures. When James attempted to impose them by decree, this was met with opposition; thus it was a political principle, rather than a religious one, that ultimately led to his removal. In June 1688, two events turned dissent into a crisis; the first, on 10 June, was the birth of James's son and heir
James Francis Edward James Francis Edward Stuart (10 June 16881 January 1766), nicknamed The Old Pretender by Whigs, was the son of King James II and VII James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S.16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that J ...
, which raised the prospect of initiating a Roman Catholic dynasty and excluding his Anglican daughter
Mary Mary may refer to: People * Mary (name) Mary is a feminine Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women and girls. Although femininity is socially constru ...

Mary
and her Protestant husband
William III of Orange William is a popular given name of an old Germanic origin.Hanks, Hardcastle and Hodges, ''Oxford Dictionary of First Names'', Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of University of Oxford. It is the la ...
. The second was the prosecution of the
Seven Bishops The Seven Bishops were members of the Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church which is the established church of England. The archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior clergy, cleric, although the Monarchy ...

Seven Bishops
for
seditious libel Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech Speech is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses Phonetics, phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all English words sound ...
; this was viewed as an assault on the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
and their acquittal on 30 June destroyed his political authority in England. The anti-Catholic riots in England and Scotland that ensued led to a general feeling that only his removal from the throne could prevent a civil war. Leading members of the English political class invited William of Orange to assume the English throne; after he landed in
Brixham Brixham is a fishing town and civil parish In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government. It is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counti ...

Brixham
on 5 November 1688, James's army deserted, and he went into exile in France on 23 December. In February 1689, a special Convention Parliament held that the king had "vacated" the English throne and installed William and Mary as joint monarchs, thereby establishing the principle that
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate a ...
derived from Parliament, not birth. James landed in Ireland on 14 March 1689 in an attempt to recover his kingdoms but, despite a simultaneous rising in Scotland, in April a Scottish Convention followed that of England, both finding that James had "forfeited" the throne and offered it to William and Mary. After his defeat at the
Battle of the Boyne
Battle of the Boyne
in July 1690, James returned to France, where he spent the rest of his life in exile at
Saint-Germain
Saint-Germain
, protected by
Louis XIV , house = House of Bourbon, Bourbon , father = Louis XIII, Louis XIII of France , mother = Anne of Austria , birth_date = , birth_place = Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Kingdom of France, F ...

Louis XIV
. His opponents often portrayed him as an absolutist tyrant. By contrast, beginning in the 20th century, some historians praised him for advocating religious tolerance. More recent scholarship has tended to take a middle ground between these views.


Early life


Birth

James, the second surviving son of King
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...

Charles I
and his wife,
Henrietta Maria of France Henrietta Maria (french: link=no, Henriette Marie; 25 November 1609 – 10 September 1669) was List of English consorts, Queen of England, List of Scottish consorts, Scotland, and List of Irish consorts, Ireland as the wife of Charles I of Eng ...
, was born at
St James's Palace St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom. It gives its name to the Court of St James's, which is the monarch's royal court and is located in the City of Westminster in London. Although no longer the principal resi ...
in London on 14 October 1633. Later that same year, he was baptised by
William Laud William Laud (; 7 October 1573 – 10 January 1645) was a clergyman in the Church of England, appointed Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic ...

William Laud
, the
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; t ...
Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Cat ...
. He was educated by private tutors, along with his older brother, the future
King Charles II
King Charles II
, and the two sons of the
Duke of Buckingham Duke of Buckingham held with Duke of Chandos, referring to Buckingham, is a title that has been created several times in the peerages of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It ...

Duke of Buckingham
,
George George may refer to: People * George (given name) * George (surname) Places South Africa * George, Western Cape ** George Airport United States * George, Iowa * George, Missouri * George, Washington * George County, Mississippi * George Air For ...
and Francis Villiers. At the age of three, James was appointed Lord High Admiral; the position was initially honorary, but became a substantive office after the
Restoration Restoration is the act of restoring something to its original state and may refer to: * Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage * Restoration style Film and television * ''The Restoration'' (1909 film), a film by D.W. Griffith starr ...
, when James was an adult. He was designated
Duke of York Duke of York is a title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates ...

Duke of York
at birth, invested with the
Order of the Garter (Shame on him who thinks evil of it) , eligibility = , criteria = At Her Majesty's pleasure , status = Currently constituted , founder = Edward III Edward III (13 November 131221 June 1377), also known as Edward ...
in 1642, and formally created Duke of York in January 1644.


Wars of the Three Kingdoms

In August 1642, long-running political disputes between Charles I and his opponents in
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
led to the
First English Civil War The First English Civil War was fought in and , from August 1642 to June 1646. It forms one of the conflicts known collectively as the 1638 to 1651 , which also took place in and . These include the 1638 to 1640 , the , the , the , and th ...
; James and his brother Charles were present at the
Battle of Edgehill The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was a pitched battle of the First English Civil War. It was fought near Edge Hill, Warwickshire, Edge Hill and Kineton in southern Warwickshire on Sunday, 23 October 1642. All attempts at constitutiona ...
in October and narrowly escaped capture by Parliamentarian cavalry. He spent most of the next four years in the
Royalist A royalist supports a particular monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and therefore the head of state of a monarchy. ...

Royalist
war-time capital of
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
, where he was made a
Master of Arts A Master of Arts ( la, Magister Artium or ''Artium Magister''; abbreviated MA or AM) is the holder of a master's degree A master's degree (from Latin ) is an academic degree awarded by University, universities or colleges upon completion of a ...
by the University on 1 November 1642 and served as colonel of a volunteer regiment of foot. Following its
surrender Surrender may refer to: * Surrender (law)In common law, surrender is the term describing a situation where a leasehold estate, tenant gives up possession of property held under a tenancy as a result of which the tenancy ends. A surrender differs f ...
in June 1646, James was taken to London and held with his younger siblings
Henry Henry may refer to: People *Henry (given name) Henry is a masculine given name derived from Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century ...
,
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...
and Henrietta in
St James's Palace St James's Palace is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom. It gives its name to the Court of St James's, which is the monarch's royal court and is located in the City of Westminster in London. Although no longer the principal resi ...
. Frustrated by their inability to agree terms with Charles I and with his brother Charles out of reach in
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...

France
, Parliament considered making James king. As a result, he was ordered by his father to escape; with the help of Joseph Bampfield, in April 1648 he successfully evaded his guards and crossed the North Sea to
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ed ...

The Hague
. Following their victory in the 1648
Second English Civil War The 1648 Second English Civil War is one in a series of connected conflicts in the kingdoms of Kingdom_of_England, England, incorporating Wales, Kingdom_of_Scotland, Scotland, and Kingdom_of_Ireland, Ireland. Known collectively as the 1638 to 1 ...
, Parliament ordered the
Execution of Charles I The execution of Charles I by beheading occurred on Tuesday 30 January 1649 outside the Banqueting House in Whitehall Whitehall is a road and area in the City of Westminster, Central London. The road forms the first part of the A roads in Zo ...
in January 1649. The
Covenanter Covenanters ( gd, Cùmhnantaich) were members of a 17th-century Kingdom of Scotland, Scottish religious and political movement, who supported a Presbyterian polity, Presbyterian Church of Scotland, and the primacy of its leaders in religious af ...
regime proclaimed Charles II king of Scotland, and after lengthy negotiations agreed to provide troops to restore him to the English throne; the
invasion An invasion is a military offensive An offensive is a military operation A military operation is the coordinated military action War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or par ...
ended in defeat at
Worcester Worcester may refer to: Places United Kingdom * Worcester, England, a city in Worcestershire ** Worcester (UK Parliament constituency) * Worcester Park, London, England * Worcestershire, a county in England United States * Worcester, Massachus ...

Worcester
in September 1651. Although Charles managed to escape capture and return to the exiled court in
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
, the Royalist cause appeared hopeless.


Exile in France

Like his brother, James sought refuge in France, serving in the French army under
Turenne Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne (11 September 161127 July 1675), commonly known as Turenne, was a French general and one of only six Marshals to have been promoted Marshal General of FranceMarshal General of France, originally ...
against the
Fronde The Fronde () was a series of civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of ...

Fronde
, and later against their Spanish allies. In the French army James had his first true experience of battle where, according to one observer, he "ventures himself and chargeth gallantly where anything is to be done". Turenne's favour led to James being given command of a captured Irish regiment in December 1652, and being appointed Lieutenant-General in 1654. In the meantime, Charles was attempting to reclaim his throne, but France, although hosting the exiles, had allied itself with
Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English general and statesman who, first as a subordinate and later as Commander-in-Chief, led armies An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" e ...

Oliver Cromwell
. In 1656, Charles turned instead to Spain – an enemy of France – for support, and an alliance was made. In consequence, James was expelled from France and forced to leave Turenne's army. James quarrelled with his brother over the diplomatic choice of Spain over France. Exiled and poor, there was little that either Charles or James could do about the wider political situation, and James ultimately travelled to
Bruges Bruges ( , nl, Brugge ; ; german: Brügge ) is the capital and largest city of the Provinces of Belgium, province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country, and the seventh-largest city of the country b ...

Bruges
and (along with his younger brother,
Henry Henry may refer to: People *Henry (given name) Henry is a masculine given name derived from Old French Old French (, , ; French language, Modern French: ) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century ...
) joined the Spanish army under the Prince of Condé in Flanders, where he was given command as Captain-General of six regiments of British volunteers and fought against his former French comrades at the Battle of the Dunes. During his service in the Spanish army, James became friendly with two Irish Catholic brothers in the Royalist entourage,
Peter Peter may refer to: People * List of people named Peter {{expand list, date=August 2020 Peter is a common name A name is a term used for identification by an external observer. They can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing ...
and , and became somewhat estranged from his brother's Anglican advisers. In 1659, the French and Spanish made peace. James, doubtful of his brother's chances of regaining the throne, considered taking a Spanish offer to be an admiral in their navy. Ultimately, he declined the position; by the next year the situation in England had changed, and Charles II was proclaimed King.


Restoration


First marriage

After the collapse of the
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...
in 1660, Charles II was restored to the
English throne The Throne of England is the throne (back left) and his or her List of Canadian monarchs#Consort, royal consort (back right) in the Senate of Canada; these may also be occupied by the sovereign's representative, the Governor General of Canada, ...
. Although James was the
heir presumptive An heir presumptive is the person entitled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honour, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession ...
, it seemed unlikely that he would inherit the Crown, as Charles was still a young man capable of fathering children. On 31 December 1660, following his brother's restoration, James was created
Duke of Albany Duke of Albany was a peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary title Hereditary titles, in a general sense, are nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, ...

Duke of Albany
in Scotland, to go along with his English title, Duke of York. Upon his return to England, James prompted an immediate controversy by announcing his engagement to
Anne Hyde Anne Hyde (12 March 163731 March 1671) was Duchess of York and Albany as the first wife of James, Duke of York (later King James II). Anne was the daughter of a commoner – Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, Edward Hyde (later created Ear ...

Anne Hyde
, the daughter of Charles's chief minister, Edward Hyde. In 1659, while trying to seduce her, James promised he would marry Anne. Anne became pregnant in 1660, but following the
Restoration Restoration is the act of restoring something to its original state and may refer to: * Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage * Restoration style Film and television * ''The Restoration'' (1909 film), a film by D.W. Griffith starr ...
and James's return to power, no one at the royal court expected a prince to marry a
commoner '' A commoner, also known as the ''common man'', ''commoners'', the ''common people'' or the ''masses'', was in earlier use an ordinary person in a community or nation who did not have any significant social status, especially one who was a memb ...
, no matter what he had pledged beforehand. Although nearly everyone, including Anne's father, urged the two not to marry, the couple married secretly, then went through an official marriage ceremony on 3 September 1660 in London. Their first child, Charles, was born less than two months later, but died in infancy, as did five further sons and daughters. Only two daughters survived:
Mary Mary may refer to: People * Mary (name) Mary is a feminine Femininity (also called womanliness or girlishness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with women and girls. Although femininity is socially constru ...

Mary
(born 30 April 1662) and
Anne Anne, alternatively spelled Ann, is a form of the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...

Anne
(born 6 February 1665).
Samuel Pepys Samuel Pepys ( ; 23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English diarist and naval administrator. He served as administrator of the Navy of England and Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people ...

Samuel Pepys
wrote that James was fond of his children and his role as a father, and played with them "like an ordinary private father of a child", a contrast to the distant parenting common with royalty at the time. James's wife was devoted to him and influenced many of his decisions. Even so, he kept mistresses, including Arabella Churchill and
Catherine Sedley Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester, Countess of Portmore (21 December 1657 – 26 October 1717), daughter of Sir Charles Sedley, 5th Baronet, was the mistress of King James II and VII James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S.16 September ...

Catherine Sedley
, and was reputed to be "the most unguarded ogler of his time".
Samuel Pepys Samuel Pepys ( ; 23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English diarist and naval administrator. He served as administrator of the Navy of England and Member of Parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people ...

Samuel Pepys
recorded in his diary that James "did eye my wife mightily". James's taste in women was often maligned, with
Gilbert Burnet Gilbert Burnet (18 September 1643 – 17 March 1715) was a Scottish Scottish usually refers to something of, from, or related to Scotland, including: *Scottish Gaelic, a Celtic Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family native to Sc ...

Gilbert Burnet
famously remarking that James's mistresses must have been "given him by his priests as a penance." Anne Hyde died in 1671.


Military and political offices

After the Restoration, James was confirmed as Lord High Admiral, an office that carried with it the subsidiary appointments of Governor of
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a port and island city status in the United Kingdom, city with Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority status in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, southern England. It is the most densely populated city in the Unit ...

Portsmouth
and
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports The Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports is a ceremonial official in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph ...
. Charles II also made his brother the Governor of the Royal Adventurers into Africa (later shortened to the
Royal African Company The Royal African Company (RAC) was an English mercantile ( trading) company set up in 1660 by the royal Stuart family and City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, cerem ...
) in October 1660; James retained the office until after the Glorious Revolution when he was forced to resign. When James commanded the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
during the
Second Anglo-Dutch War The Second Anglo-Dutch War or the Second Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667; nl, Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict between Kingdom of England, England and the Dutch Republic partly for control over the seas an ...
(1665–1667) he immediately directed the fleet towards the capture of forts off the African coast that would facilitate British involvement in the
slave trade Slavery and enslavement are both the state and the condition of being a slave, who is someone forbidden to quit their service for an enslaver, and who is treated by the enslaver as their property Property is a system of rights that give ...
(indeed British attacks on such forts occupied by the Dutch precipitated the war itself). James remained Admiral of the Fleet during the
Third Anglo-Dutch War The Third Anglo-Dutch War, or Third Dutch War ( nl, Derde Engelse Zeeoorlog), was a naval conflict between England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of En ...
s (1672–1674) during which significant fighting also occurred off the African coast. Following the
raid on the Medway The Raid on the Medway, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War The Second Anglo-Dutch War or the Second Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667; nl, Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict between Kingdom of England, Engl ...
in 1667, James oversaw the survey and re-fortification of the southern coast. The office of Lord High Admiral, combined with his revenue from post office and wine tariffs (granted him by Charles upon his restoration) gave James enough money to keep a sizeable court household. In 1664, Charles granted American territory between the
Delaware Delaware ( ) is a state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes i ...

Delaware
and
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 United States census, 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of List of U.S. states and territories by H ...

Connecticut
rivers to James. Following its capture by the British the former Dutch territory of
New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonl ...
and its principal port,
New Amsterdam New Amsterdam ( nl, Nieuw Amsterdam, or ) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the most dense ...

New Amsterdam
, were named the
Province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
and
City of New York New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

City of New York
in James's honour. After the founding, the Duke gave part of the colony to proprietors
George Carteret Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret, 1st Baronet (161018 January 1680 N.S.) was a royalist statesman in Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label= Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriai ...
and John Berkeley.
Fort Orange Fort Orange ( nl, Fort Oranje) was the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland New Netherland ( nl, Nieuw Nederland; la, Nova Belgica or ) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Neth ...

Fort Orange
, north on the
Hudson River The Hudson River is a river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York (state), New York in the United States. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley ...

Hudson River
, was renamed Albany after James's Scottish title. In 1683, he became the Governor of the
Hudson's Bay Company The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; french: Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian, now American-owned, retail Retail is the sale of goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with va ...
, but did not take an active role in its governance. In September 1666, his brother Charles put him in charge of firefighting operations in the
Great Fire of London Great may refer to: Descriptions or measurements * Great, a relative measurement in physical space, see Size * Greatness, being divine, majestic, superior, majestic, or transcendent People with the name * "The Great", a historical suffix to people ...

Great Fire of London
, in the absence of action by Lord Mayor . This was not a political office, but his actions and leadership were noteworthy. "The Duke of York hath won the hearts of the people with his continual and indefatigable pains day and night in helping to quench the Fire", wrote a witness in a letter on 8 September.


Conversion to Roman Catholicism and second marriage

James's time in France had exposed him to the beliefs and ceremonies of the Roman Catholic Church; he and his wife, Anne, became drawn to that faith. James took Catholic
Eucharist The Eucharist (; grc-gre, εὐχαριστία, eucharistía, thanksgiving) also known as Holy Communion and the Lord's Supper, among other names, is a Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monothe ...

Eucharist
in 1668 or 1669, although his conversion was kept secret for almost a decade as he continued to attend Anglican services until 1676. In spite of his conversion, James continued to associate primarily with Anglicans, including
John Churchill General A general officer is an officer of high rank in the armies, and in some nations' air forces, space forces, or marines Marines or naval infantry, are typically a military force trained to operate on Littoral Zone, littoral z ...

John Churchill
and George Legge, as well as
French Protestants French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consistin ...
, such as Louis de Duras, the Earl of Feversham. Growing fears of Roman Catholic influence at court led the English Parliament to introduce a new
Test Act The Test Acts were a series of English penal laws In English history, the penal laws were a series of laws that sought to uphold the establishment of the Church of England against Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that orig ...
in 1673. Under this Act, all civil and military officials were required to take an oath (in which they were required to disavow the doctrine of
transubstantiation Transubstantiation (Latin language, Latin: ''transsubstantiatio''; Greek language, Greek: μετουσίωσις ''metousiosis'') is, according to the teaching of the Catholic Church, "the change of the whole substance of bread into the substance ...
and denounce certain practices of the Roman Church as superstitious and idolatrous) and to receive the Eucharist under the auspices of the
Church of England The Church of England (C of E) is a Christian church Christian Church is a Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be Critic ...
. James refused to perform either action, instead choosing to relinquish the post of Lord High Admiral. His conversion to Roman Catholicism was thereby made public. King Charles II opposed James's conversion, ordering that James's daughters, Mary and Anne, be raised in the Church of England. Nevertheless, he allowed James to marry
Mary of Modena Mary of Modena (, or ; ) was Queen of England, Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mai ...
, a fifteen-year-old Italian princess. James and Mary were
married by proxy A proxy wedding or proxy marriage is a wedding in which one or both of the individuals being united are not physically present, usually being represented instead by other persons. If both partners are absent a double proxy wedding occurs. Marriage ...
in a Roman Catholic ceremony on 20 September 1673. On 21 November, Mary arrived in England and
Nathaniel Crew Nathaniel Crew, 3rd Baron Crew (31 January 163318 September 1721) was Bishop of Oxford from 1671 to 1674, then Bishop of Durham from 1674 to 1721. As such he was one of the longest serving bishops of the Church of England. Crew was the son of John ...
, Bishop of Oxford, performed a brief Anglican service that did little more than recognise the marriage by proxy. Many British people, distrustful of Catholicism, regarded the new Duchess of York as an agent of the Papacy. James was noted for his devotion. He once said, "If occasion were, I hope God would give me his grace to suffer death for the true Catholic religion as well as banishment."


Exclusion Crisis

In 1677, King Charles II arranged for James's daughter Mary to marry the Protestant Prince
William III of Orange William is a popular given name of an old Germanic origin.Hanks, Hardcastle and Hodges, ''Oxford Dictionary of First Names'', Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of University of Oxford. It is the la ...
, son of Charles and James's sister Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange, Mary. James reluctantly acquiesced after his brother and nephew had agreed to the marriage. Despite the Protestant marriage, fears of a potential Catholic monarch persisted, intensified by the failure of Charles II and his wife, Catherine of Braganza, to produce any children. A defrocked Anglican clergyman, Titus Oates, spoke of a "Popish Plot" to kill Charles and to put the Duke of York on the throne. The fabricated plot caused a wave of anti-Catholic hysteria to sweep across the nation. In England, the Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, Earl of Shaftesbury, a former government minister and now a leading opponent of Catholicism, proposed an Exclusion Bill that would have excluded James from the line of succession. Some members of Parliament even proposed to pass the crown to Charles's illegitimate son, James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth. In 1679, with the Exclusion Bill in danger of passing, Charles II dissolved Parliament. Two further List of Parliaments of England, Parliaments were elected in 1680 and 1681, but were dissolved for the same reason. The Exclusion Crisis contributed to the development of the English two-party system: the British Whig Party, Whigs were those who supported the Bill, while the Tories were those who opposed it. Ultimately, the succession was not altered, but James was convinced to withdraw from all policy-making bodies and to accept a lesser role in his brother's government. On the orders of the King, James left England for Brussels. But in 1680, he was appointed Lord High Commissioner of Scotland and took up residence at the Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh to suppress an uprising and oversee royal government. James returned to England for a time when Charles was stricken ill and appeared to be near death. The hysteria of the accusations eventually faded, but James's relations with many in the English Parliament, including the Thomas Osborne, 1st Duke of Leeds, Earl of Danby, a former ally, were forever strained and a solid segment turned against him.


Return to favour

In 1683, a plot was uncovered to assassinate Charles and James and spark a republicanism, republican revolution to re-establish a government of the Commonwealth of England, Cromwellian style. The conspiracy, known as the Rye House Plot, backfired upon its conspirators and provoked a wave of sympathy for the King and James. Several notable British Whig Party, Whigs, including the Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex, Earl of Essex and the King's illegitimate son, the James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, Duke of Monmouth, were implicated. Monmouth initially confessed to complicity in the plot, implicating fellow-plotters, but later recanted. Essex committed suicide and Monmouth, along with several others, was obliged to flee into Continental exile. Charles reacted to the plot by increasing repression of Whigs and English Dissenters, dissenters. Taking advantage of James's rebounding popularity, Charles invited him back onto the Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, Privy Council in 1684. While some in the English Parliament remained wary of the possibility of a Roman Catholic king, the threat of excluding James from the throne had passed.


Reign


Accession to the throne

Charles died in 1685 from apoplexy after converting to Catholicism on his deathbed. Having no legitimate children, Charles was succeeded by his brother James, who reigned in England and Ireland as James II, and in Scotland as James VII. There was little initial opposition to his accession, and there were widespread reports of public rejoicing at the orderly succession. James wanted to proceed quickly to the coronation, and was crowned with his wife at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1685. The new List of Parliaments of England#Parliament of James II, Parliament that assembled in May 1685, which gained the name of "Loyal Parliament", was initially favourable to James, and the new king sent word that even most of the former exclusionists would be forgiven if they acquiesced to his rule. Most of Charles's officers continued in office, the exceptions being the promotion of James's brothers-in-law, the earls of Henry Hyde, 2nd Earl of Clarendon, Clarendon and Laurence Hyde, 1st Earl of Rochester, Rochester, and the demotion of George Savile, 1st Marquess of Halifax, Halifax. Parliament granted James a generous life income, including all of the proceeds of tonnage and poundage and the customs duties. James worked harder as king than his brother had, but was less willing to compromise when his advisers disagreed.


Two rebellions

Soon after becoming king, James faced a Monmouth Rebellion, rebellion in southern England led by his nephew, the James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, Duke of Monmouth, and another Argyll's Rising, rebellion in Scotland led by Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, Archibald Campbell, the Earl of Argyll. Monmouth and Argyll both began their expeditions from Dutch Republic, Holland, where James's nephew and son-in-law, the Prince of Orange, had neglected to detain them or put a stop to their recruitment efforts. Argyll sailed to Scotland and, on arriving there, raised recruits mainly from his own clan, the Clan Campbell, Campbells. The rebellion was quickly crushed, and Argyll was captured at Inchinnan on 18 June 1685. Having arrived with fewer than 300 men and unable to convince many more to flock to his standard, he never posed a credible threat to James. Argyll was taken as a prisoner to Edinburgh. A new trial was not commenced because Argyll had previously been tried and sentenced to death. The King confirmed the earlier death sentence and ordered that it be carried out within three days of receiving the confirmation. Monmouth's rebellion was coordinated with Argyll's, but was more dangerous to James. Monmouth had proclaimed himself King at Lyme Regis on 11 June. He attempted to raise recruits but was unable to gather enough rebels to defeat even James's small standing army. Monmouth's rebellion attacked the King's forces at night, in an attempt at surprise, but was defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor. The King's forces, led by Feversham and Churchill, quickly dispersed the ill-prepared rebels. Monmouth was captured and later executed at the Tower of London on 15 July. The King's judges—most notably, George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys, George Jeffreys—condemned many of the rebels to Penal transportation, transportation and Indentured servant#Caribbean, indentured servitude in the West Indies in a series of trials that came to be known as the Bloody Assizes. Around 250 of the rebels were executed. While both rebellions were defeated easily, they hardened James's resolve against his enemies and increased his suspicion of the Dutch.


Religious liberty and dispensing power

To protect himself from further rebellions, James sought safety by enlarging his standing army. This alarmed his subjects, not only because of the trouble soldiers caused in the towns, but because it was against the English tradition to keep a professional army in peacetime. Even more alarming to Parliament was James's use of his Royal Prerogative, dispensing power to allow Roman Catholics to command several regiments without having to take the oath mandated by the Test Act. When even the previously supportive Parliament objected to these measures, James ordered Parliament Parliamentary session, prorogued in November 1685, never to meet again in his reign. In the beginning of 1686, two papers were found in Charles II's strong box and his closet, in his own hand, stating the arguments for Catholicism over Protestantism. James published these papers with a declaration signed by his Royal sign-manual, sign manual and challenged the Archbishop of Canterbury and the whole Anglican episcopal bench to refute Charles's arguments: "Let me have a solid answer, and in a gentlemanlike style; and it may have the effect which you so much desire of bringing me over to your church." The Archbishop refused on the grounds of respect for the late king. James advocated repeal of the Penal law (British), penal laws in all three of his kingdoms, but in the early years of his reign he refused to allow those dissenters who did not petition for relief to receive it. James sent a letter to the Scottish Parliament at its opening in 1685, declaring his wish for new penal laws against refractory Presbyterians and lamented that he was not there in person to promote such a law. In response, the Parliament passed an Act that stated, "whoever should preach in a conventicle under a roof, or should attend, either as preacher or as a hearer, a conventicle in the open air, should be punished with death and confiscation of property". In March 1686, James sent a letter to the Scottish Privy Council advocating toleration for Roman Catholics but not for rebellious Presbyterian Covenanters.Presbyterians would later call this period "The Killing Time". James allowed Roman Catholics to occupy the highest offices of his kingdoms, and received at his court the papal nuncio, Ferdinando d'Adda, the first representative from Rome to London since the reign of Mary I of England, Mary I. Sir Edward Petre, 3rd Baronet, Edward Petre, James's Jesuit confessor, was a particular object of Anglican ire. When the King's Secretary of State (England), Secretary of State, the Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland, Earl of Sunderland, began replacing office-holders at court with "Papist" favourites, James began to lose the confidence of many of his Anglican supporters. Sunderland's purge of office-holders even extended to the King's brothers-in-law (the Hydes) and their supporters. Roman Catholics made up no more than one-fiftieth of the English population. In May 1686, James sought to obtain a ruling from the English common-law courts that showed he had the power to dispense with Acts of Parliament. He dismissed judges who disagreed with him on this matter, as well as the Solicitor General, Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Aylesford, Heneage Finch. The case of ''Godden v. Hales'' affirmed his dispensing power, with eleven out of the twelve judges ruling in the king's favour. In 1687, James issued the Declaration of Indulgence, also known as the Declaration for Liberty of Conscience, in which he used his dispensing power to negate the effect of laws punishing both Roman Catholics and Protestant English Dissenters, Dissenters. In the summer of 1687 he attempted to increase support for his tolerationist policy by a speaking tour of the western counties of England. As part of this tour, he gave a speech at Chester in which he said, "suppose... there should be a law made that all black men should be imprisoned, it would be unreasonable and we had as little reason to quarrel with other men for being of different [religious] opinions as for being of different complexions." At the same time, James provided partial toleration in Scotland, using his dispensing power to grant relief to Roman Catholics and partial relief to Presbyterians. In 1688, James ordered the Declaration read from the pulpits of every Anglican church, further alienating the Anglican bishops against the Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Supreme Governor of their church. While the Declaration elicited some thanks from its beneficiaries, it left the Established Church, the traditional ally of the monarchy, in the difficult position of being forced to erode its own privileges. James provoked further opposition by attempting to reduce the Anglican monopoly on education. At the University of Oxford, he offended Anglicans by allowing Roman Catholics to hold important positions in Christ Church, Oxford, Christ Church and University College, Oxford, University College, two of Oxford's largest colleges. He also attempted to force the Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford, Magdalen College to elect as their President Anthony Farmer, a man of generally ill repute who was believed to be a Roman Catholic, which was seen as a violation of the Fellows' right to elect someone of their own choosing. In 1687 James prepared to pack Parliament with his supporters, so that it would repeal the Test Act and the Penal Laws. James was convinced by addresses from Dissenters that he had their support and so could dispense with relying on Tories and Anglicans. He instituted a wholesale purge of those in offices under the Crown opposed to his plan, appointing new Lord Lieutenant, lord-lieutenants of counties and remodelling the corporations governing towns and livery companies. In October, James gave orders for the lord-lieutenants to provide three standard questions to all Justice of the Peace, Justices of the Peace: 1. Would they consent to the repeal of the Test Act and the Penal Laws? 2. Would they assist candidates who would do so? 3. Would they accept the Declaration of Indulgence? During the first three months of 1688, hundreds of those who gave negative replies to those questions were dismissed. Corporations were purged by agents, known as the Regulators, who were given wide discretionary powers, in an attempt to create a permanent royal electoral machine. Most of the regulators were Baptists, and the new town officials that they recommended included Quakers, Baptists, Congregationalists, Presbyterians and Roman Catholics, as well as Anglicans. Finally, on 24 August 1688, James ordered the issue of Writ of election, writs for a general election. However, upon realising in September that William of Orange was going to land in England, James withdrew the writs and subsequently wrote to the lord-lieutenants to inquire over allegations of abuses committed during the regulations and election preparations, as part of the concessions he made to win support.


Deposition and the Glorious Revolution

In April 1688, James re-issued the Declaration of Indulgence, subsequently ordering Anglican clergy to read it in their churches. When seven Bishops, including the William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, submitted a petition requesting the reconsideration of the King's religious policies, they were arrested and tried for
seditious libel Sedition is overt conduct, such as speech Speech is human vocal communication using language. Each language uses Phonetics, phonetic combinations of vowel and consonant sounds that form the sound of its words (that is, all English words sound ...
. Public alarm increased when Queen Mary gave birth to a Roman Catholic son and heir,
James Francis Edward James Francis Edward Stuart (10 June 16881 January 1766), nicknamed The Old Pretender by Whigs, was the son of King James II and VII James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S.16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that J ...
, on 10 June that year. When James's only possible successors were his two Protestant daughters, Anglicans could see his pro-Catholic policies as a temporary phenomenon, but when the prince's birth opened the possibility of a permanent Roman Catholic dynasty, such men had to reconsider their position. Threatened by a Roman Catholic dynasty, several influential Protestants claimed the child was supposititious and had been smuggled into the Queen's bedchamber in a warming pan. They had already entered into negotiations with the Prince of Orange when it became known the Queen was pregnant, and the birth of a son reinforced their convictions. On 30 June 1688, a group of seven Protestant nobles Invitation to William, invited William, Prince of Orange, to come to England with an army. By September, it had become clear that William sought to invade. Believing that his own army would be adequate, James refused the assistance of King
Louis XIV , house = House of Bourbon, Bourbon , father = Louis XIII, Louis XIII of France , mother = Anne of Austria , birth_date = , birth_place = Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Kingdom of France, F ...

Louis XIV
of France, fearing that the English would oppose French intervention. When William arrived on 5 November 1688, many Protestant officers, including John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, Churchill, List of deserters from King James II to William of Orange, defected and joined William, as did James's own daughter,
Anne Anne, alternatively spelled Ann, is a form of the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...

Anne
. James lost his nerve and declined to attack the invading army, despite his army's numerical superiority. On 11 December, James tried to flee to France, first throwing the Great Seal of the Realm into the River Thames. He was captured in Kent; later, he was released and placed under Dutch protective guard. Having no desire to make James a martyr, William let him escape on 23 December. James was received by his cousin and ally, Louis XIV, who offered him a palace and a pension. William summoned a Convention Parliament to decide how to handle James's flight. It convened on 22 January 1689. While the Parliament refused to depose him, they declared that James, having fled to France and dropped the Great Seal into the Thames, had effectively abdication, abdicated, and that the throne had thereby become vacant. To fill this vacancy, James's daughter Mary was declared Queen; she was to rule jointly with her husband William, who would be King. On 11 April 1689, the Parliament of Scotland declared James to have forfeited the throne of Scotland as well. The Convention Parliament issued a Declaration of Right, 1689, Declaration of Right on 12 February that denounced James for abusing his power, and proclaimed many limitations on royal authority. The abuses charged to James included the suspension of the Test Acts, the prosecution of the Seven Bishops for merely petitioning the Crown, the establishment of a standing army, and the imposition of cruel punishments. The Declaration was the basis for the Bill of Rights 1689, Bill of Rights enacted later in 1689. The Bill also declared that henceforth, no Roman Catholic was permitted to ascend the English throne, nor could any English monarch marry a Roman Catholic.


Attempt to regain the throne


War in Ireland

With the assistance of French troops, James landed in Ireland in March 1689. The Patriot Parliament, Irish Parliament did not follow the example of the English Parliament; it declared that James remained King and passed a massive Bill of attainder#The Great Act of Attainder, bill of attainder against those who had rebelled against him. At James's urging, the Irish Parliament passed an Act for Liberty of Conscience that granted religious freedom to all Roman Catholics and Protestants in Ireland. James worked to build an army in Ireland, but was ultimately defeated at the on 1 July 1690 O.S. when William arrived, personally leading an army to defeat James and reassert English control. James fled to France once more, departing from Kinsale, never to return to any of his former kingdoms. Because he deserted his Irish supporters, James became known in Ireland as ''Séamus an Chaca'' or "James the shit". Despite this popular perception, later historian Breandán Ó Buachalla argues that "Irish political poetry for most of the eighteenth century is essentially Jacobite poetry", and both Ó Buachalla and fellow-historian Éamonn Ó Ciardha argue that James and his successors played a central role as messianic figures throughout the eighteenth century for all classes in Ireland.


Return to exile, death, and legacy

In France, James was allowed to live in the royal château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. James's wife and some of his supporters fled with him, including the John Drummond, 1st Earl of Melfort, Earl of Melfort; most, but not all, were Roman Catholic. In 1692, James's last child, Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart, Louisa Maria Teresa, was born. Some supporters in England Jacobite assassination plot 1696, attempted to assassinate William III to restore James to the throne in 1696, but the plot failed and the backlash made James's cause less popular. Louis XIV's offer to have James Royal elections in Poland, elected Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, King of Poland in the same year was rejected, for James feared that acceptance of the Polish crown might (in the minds of the English people) render him incapable of being King of England. After Louis concluded peace with William in 1697, he ceased to offer much in the way of assistance to James. During his last years, James lived as an austere penitent. He wrote a memorandum for his son advising him on how to govern England, specifying that Catholics should possess one Secretary of State, one Commissioner of the Treasury, the Secretary at War, with the majority of the officers in the army. He died aged 67 of a brain haemorrhage on 16 September 1701 at Saint-Germain-en-Laye. James's heart was placed in a silver-gilt locket and given to the convent at Chaillot, and his brain was placed in a lead casket and given to the Scots College (Paris), Scots College in Paris. His entrails were placed in two gilt urns and sent to the parish church of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and the English Jesuit college at Saint-Omer, while the flesh from his right arm was given to the English Augustinian nuns of Paris. The rest of James's body was laid to rest in a triple sarcophagus (consisting of two wooden coffins and one of lead) at the St Edmund's Chapel in the Church of the English Benedictines in the Rue St. Jacques in Paris, with a funeral oration by Henri-Emmanuel de Roquette. James was not buried, but put in one of the side chapels. Lights were kept burning round his coffin until the French Revolution. In 1734, the Archbishop of Paris heard evidence to support James's canonisation, but nothing came of it. During the French Revolution, James's tomb was raided.


Later Hanover succession

James's younger daughter
Anne Anne, alternatively spelled Ann, is a form of the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as La ...

Anne
succeeded when William died in 1702. The Act of Settlement 1701, Act of Settlement provided that, if the line of succession established in the Bill of Rights were extinguished, the crown would go to a German cousin, Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and to her Protestant heirs. Sophia was a granddaughter of James VI and I through his eldest daughter, Elizabeth of Bohemia, Elizabeth Stuart, the sister of
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...

Charles I
. Thus, when Anne died in 1714 (less than two months after the death of Sophia), she was succeeded by George I of Great Britain, George I, Sophia's son, the Elector of Hanover and Anne's second cousin.


Subsequent uprisings and pretenders

James's son
James Francis Edward James Francis Edward Stuart (10 June 16881 January 1766), nicknamed The Old Pretender by Whigs, was the son of King James II and VII James II and VII (14 October 1633 O.S.16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that J ...
was recognised as king at his father's death by Louis XIV of France and James's remaining supporters (later known as Jacobitism, Jacobites) as "James III and VIII". He led a Jacobite rising of 1715, rising in Scotland in 1715 shortly after George I's accession, but was defeated. Jacobites Jacobite rising of 1745, rose again in 1745 led by Charles Edward Stuart, James II's grandson, and were again defeated. Since then, no serious attempt to restore the Stuart heir has been made. Charles's claims passed to his younger brother Henry Benedict Stuart, the Dean of the College of Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. Henry was the last of James II's legitimate descendants, and no relative has publicly acknowledged the Jacobite claim since his death in 1807.


Historiography

Historical analysis of James II has been somewhat revised since Whig history, Whig historians, led by Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, Lord Macaulay, cast James as a cruel absolutist and his reign as "tyranny which approached to insanity". Subsequent scholars, such as G. M. Trevelyan (Macaulay's great-nephew) and David Ogg (historian), David Ogg, while more balanced than Macaulay, still characterised James as a tyrant, his attempts at religious tolerance as a fraud, and his reign as an aberration in the course of British history. In 1892, A. W. Ward wrote for the Dictionary of National Biography that James was "obviously a political and religious bigot", although never devoid of "a vein of patriotic sentiment"; "his conversion to the church of Rome made the emancipation of his fellow-catholics in the first instance, and the recovery of England for catholicism in the second, the governing objects of his policy." Hilaire Belloc, a writer and Catholic apologist, broke with this tradition in 1928, casting James as an honourable man and a true advocate for freedom of conscience, and his enemies "men in the small clique of great fortunes ... which destroyed the ancient monarchy of the English". However, he observed that James "concluded the Catholic church to be the sole authoritative voice on earth, and thenceforward ... he not only stood firm against surrender but on no single occasion contemplated the least compromise or by a word would modify the impression made." By the 1960s and 1970s, Maurice Ashley (historian), Maurice Ashley and Stuart Prall began to reconsider James's motives in granting religious toleration, while still taking note of James's autocratic rule. Modern historians have moved away from the school of thought that preached the continuous march of progress and democracy, Ashley contending that "history is, after all, the story of human beings and individuals, as well as of the classes and the masses." He cast James II and William III as "men of ideals as well as human weaknesses". John Miller, writing in 2000, accepted the claims of James's absolutism, but argued that "his main concern was to secure religious liberty and civil equality for Catholics. Any 'absolutist' methods ... were essentially means to that end." In 2004, W. A. Speck wrote in the new Oxford Dictionary of National Biography that "James was genuinely committed to religious toleration, but also sought to increase the power of the crown." He added that, unlike the government of the Netherlands, "James was too autocratic to combine freedom of conscience with popular government. He resisted any check on the monarch's power. That is why his heart was not in the concessions he had to make in 1688. He would rather live in exile with his principles intact than continue to reign as a limited monarch." Timothy J. G. Harris, Tim Harris's conclusions from his 2006 book summarised the ambivalence of modern scholarship towards James II: In 2009, Steven Pincus confronted that scholarly ambivalence in ''1688: The First Modern Revolution.'' Pincus claims that James's reign must be understood within a context of economic change and European politics, and makes two major assertions about James II. The first of these is that James purposefully "followed the French Sun King, Louis XIV, in trying to create a modern Catholic polity. This involved not only trying to Catholicize England ... but also creating a modern, centralizing, and extremely bureaucratic state apparatus." The second is that James was undone in 1688 far less by Protestant reaction against Catholicization than by nationwide hostile reaction against his intrusive bureaucratic state and taxation apparatus, expressed in massive popular support for William of Orange's armed invasion of England. Pincus presents James as neither naïve nor stupid nor egotistical. Instead, readers are shown an intelligent, clear-thinking strategically motivated monarch whose vision for a French authoritarian political model and alliance clashed with, and lost out to, alternative views that favoured an entrepreneurial Dutch economic model, feared French power, and were outraged by James's authoritarianism. Scott Sowerby countered Pincus's thesis in 2013 in ''Making Toleration: The Repealers and the Glorious Revolution.'' He noted that English taxes remained low during James II's reign, at about 4% of the English national income, and thus it was unlikely that James could have built a bureaucratic state on the model of Louis XIV's France, where taxes were at least twice as high as a proportion of GDP. Sowerby also contends that James's policies of religious toleration attracted substantial support from religious nonconformists, including Quakers, Baptists, Congregationalists and Presbyterians, who were attracted by the king's push for a new "Magna Carta for liberty of conscience". The king was overthrown, in Sowerby's view, largely because of fears among the Dutch and English elites that James might be aligning himself with Louis XIV in a supposed "holy league" to destroy Protestantism across northern Europe. Sowerby presents James's reign as a struggle between those who believed that the king was sincerely devoted to liberty of conscience and those who were sceptical of the king's espousals of toleration and believed that he had a hidden agenda to overthrow English Protestantism.


Titles, styles, honours, and arms


Titles and styles

* 14 October 1633 – 6 February 1685: The Duke of York * 10 May 1659 – 6 February 1685: The Earl of UlsterAlison Weir, Weir, Alison (1996). 258. ''Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy''. Revised Edition. Random House, London. . * 31 December 1660 – 6 February 1685: The Duke of Albany * 6 February 1685 – 23 December 1688 (by Jacobitism, Jacobites until 16 September 1701): His Majesty The King The official style of James in England was "James the Second, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." The English claims to the French throne, claim to France was only nominal, and was asserted by every English king from Edward III to George III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled. In Scotland, he was "James the Seventh, by the Grace of God, King of Scotland, England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." James was created "Duke of Normandy" by King Louis XIV of France on 31 December 1660. In 1734 the Charles-Gaspard-Guillaume de Vintimille du Luc, Archbishop of Paris opened the cause for the canonisation of James as a saint, making him a Servant of God among Catholics.


Honours

* KG: Order of the Garter, Knight of the Garter, 20 April 1642


Arms

Prior to his accession, James's coat of arms was the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, royal arms (which he later inherited), differenced by a Label (heraldry), label of three points Ermine (heraldry), Ermine. His arms as king were: Quartering (heraldry), Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure (heraldry), Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (heraldry), Or (for France) and Gules three lions Attitude (heraldry)#Passant, passant guardant in Pale (heraldry), pale Or (Coat of arms of England, for England); II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (Royal coat of arms of Scotland, for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (Coat of arms of Ireland, for Ireland).


Family tree

In four generations of Stuarts, there were seven reigning monarchs (not including Hanover's George I of Great Britain, George I). James II was the fourth Stuart monarch, the second of his generation and the father of two more.


Issue


Legitimate issue


Illegitimate issue


Notes


Sources


References

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


Further reading

* Ashley, Maurice (1978). ''James II''
online free to borrow
* DeKrey, Gary S. (2008). "Between Revolutions: Re-appraising the Restoration in Britain" ''History Compass'' 6 (3): 738–773. * Earle, Peter (1972). ''The Life and Times of James II''. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. * Glassey, Lionel, ed. (1997). ''The Reigns of Charles II and James VII and II''. * Goodlad, Graham (2007). "Before the Glorious Revolution: The Making of Absolute Monarchy? Graham Goodlad Examines the Controversies Surrounding the Development of Royal Power under Charles II and James II" ''History Review'' 58: 10 ff. * Johnson, Richard R. (1978). "Politics Redefined: An Assessment of Recent Writings on the Late Stuart Period of English History, 1660 to 1714." ''William and Mary Quarterly'' 35 (4): 691–732. * * * Mullett, M. (1993). ''James II and English Politics 1678–1688''. . * Ogg, David (1957). ''England in the Reigns of James II and William III'', 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press. * Walcott, Robert (1962). "The Later Stuarts (1660–1714): Significant Work of the Last Twenty Years (1939–1959)" ''American Historical Review'' 67 (2): 352–370


External links


King James II
at the National Portrait Gallery, London {{DEFAULTSORT:James 02 Of England James II of England, 1633 births 1701 deaths 17th-century English monarchs 17th-century Scottish monarchs 17th-century Irish monarchs 18th-century British people 17th-century English nobility 17th-century Scottish peers Dukes of Normandy Jacobite pretenders 18th-century Jacobite pretenders British monarchs buried abroad, James II and VII British Roman Catholics Converts to Roman Catholicism from Anglicanism Dukes of York Peers of England created by Charles I Dukes of Albany Peers of Scotland created by Charles II Earls in the Peerage of Ireland, Ulster Earls of Ulster Peers of Ireland created by Charles II English pretenders to the French throne English people of Scottish descent English people of French descent Fellows of the Royal Society Glorious Revolution Governors of the Hudson's Bay Company History of Catholicism in the United Kingdom House of Stuart Jacobite military personnel of the Williamite War in Ireland Knights of the Garter Lord High Admirals of England Lord High Admirals of Scotland Lords High Commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland Lords Warden of the Cinque Ports Pre-statehood history of New York (state) Princes of England Princes of Scotland Roman Catholic monarchs Children of Charles I of England Deaths by intracerebral hemorrhage