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Jacobitism (; gd, Seumasachas, ; ga, Seacaibíteachas, ) was a largely 17th- and 18th-century movement that supported the restoration of the
House of Stuart The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a royal house of Scotland, England, Ireland and later Great Britain. The family name comes from the office of High Steward of Scotland, which had been held by the family scion Walter fitz Alan (c. 11 ...
to the
British throne The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies (the Bailiwick of Guernsey, the Bailiwick of Jersey and the Isle of Man) and its overseas t ...
. The name is derived from '' Jacobus'', the Latin version of ''James''. When
James II and VII James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S.16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sick ...
went into exile after the 1688
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), is also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch. It refers to the deposition of James ...
, the
Parliament of England The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 14th century until 1707, when it united with the Parliament of Scotland to become the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of Eng ...
argued he abandoned the
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and offered it to his Protestant daughter
Mary II Mary II (30 April 166228 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband, King William III & II, from 1689 until her death from smallpox at age 32. Popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as ...
and her husband
William III
William III
. In April, the Scottish Convention held he "forfeited" the throne of Scotland by his actions, listed in the Articles of Grievances. The Revolution created the principle of a contract between monarch and people; if that was violated, he or she could be removed. Jacobites argued monarchs were appointed by God, or divine right, and could not be removed, making the post-1688 regime illegitimate. While this was the most consistent difference, Jacobitism was a complex mix of ideas, many opposed by the Stuarts themselves; in
Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, ...
, it meant tolerance for
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, which James supported, but also Irish autonomy and reversing the 17th-century land settlements, which he opposed. In 1745, clashes between
Prince Charles Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has been heir apparent as well as Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay si ...
and Scottish Jacobites over the 1707 Union and divine right were central to the internal conflicts that ended it as a viable movement. Outside Ireland, Jacobitism was strongest in the western
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,
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and
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, and areas of
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Northern England
with a high proportion of Catholics such as western
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,
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Northumberland
and
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. Sympathisers were also found in parts of Wales, the West Midlands and
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, to some degree overlapping with areas that were strongly Royalist during the
Wars of the Three Kingdoms The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place between 1639 and 1653 in the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland – separate kingdoms which had the same k ...
. The movement had an international dimension; several European powers sponsored the Jacobites as an extension of larger conflicts, while many Jacobite exiles served in foreign armies. In addition to the 1689–1691
Williamite War in Ireland The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691) ( ga, Cogadh an Dá Rí, "war of the two kings"), was a conflict between Jacobite supporters of deposed monarch James II and Williamite supporters of his successor, William III. It is also called the Ja ...
and the
Jacobite rising of 1689 The Jacobite rising of 1689 was a revolt seeking to restore James II & VII, following his deposition in November 1688. Adherents of the exiled House of Stuart were known as 'Jacobites', from ''Jacobus'', Latin for James, and the associated politi ...
in Scotland, there were serious revolts in
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,
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and
1745 Events January–March * January 7 – War of the Austrian Succession: The Austrian Army, under the command of Field Marshal Károly József Batthyány, makes a surprise attack at Amberg and the winter quarters of the Bavarian Army ...
; abortive French-backed invasion attempts in
1708 In the Swedish calendar it was a leap year starting on Wednesday, one day ahead of the Julian and ten days behind the Gregorian calendar. Events January–June * January 1 – Charles XII of Sweden invades Russia, by crossing the f ...
and
1744 Events January–March * January 6 – The Royal Navy ship ''Bacchus'' engages the Spanish Navy privateer ''Begona'', and sinks it; 90 of the 120 Spanish sailors die, but 30 of the crew are rescued. * January 24 – The Dagoho ...
; and several unsuccessful plots. While the 1745 rising briefly threatened the Hanoverian monarchy and forced the recall of British troops from
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, its collapse and withdrawal of French support in 1748 ended Jacobitism as a serious political movement.


Political background

Jacobite ideology originated with
James VI and I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his ...

James VI and I
, first monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1603. Its basis was divine right, which claimed his position and authority came from God, and the duty of subjects was to obey. Personal rule by the monarch eliminated the need for Parliaments, and required political and religious union, concepts widely unpopular in all three kingdoms. "Divine right" also clashed with Catholic allegiance to the
Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state or sovereign of the V ...

Pope
and Protestant nonconformists, since both argued there was an authority above the king. The 17th century belief 'true religion' and 'good government' were one and the same meant disputes in one area fed into the other;
Millenarianism Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming fundamental transformation of society, after which "all things will be chan ...
and belief in the imminence of the
Second Coming of Second Coming, c. 1700 The Second Coming (sometimes called the Second Advent or the Parousia) is a Christian and Islamic belief regarding the return of Jesus after his ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago. The idea is based on mes ...
meant many
Protestants Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and ...
viewed such issues as urgent and real. As the first step towards union, James began creating standard practices between the churches of
England England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continent ...
,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154 km) border with England to the southeast and is otherwis ...
and
Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, ...
. This continued after 1625 under
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288– ...

Charles I
, but enforcing
Laudian Laudianism was an early seventeenth-century reform movement within the Church of England, promulgated by Archbishop William Laud and his supporters. It rejected the predestination upheld by the previously dominant Calvinism in favour of free will, ...
practices on the Church of England, and ruling without
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. The ...
led to a political crisis. Similar measures in Scotland caused the 1639–1640
Bishops' Wars The 1639 and 1640 Bishops' Wars were the first of the conflicts known collectively as the 1638 to 1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which took place in Scotland, England and Ireland. Others include the Irish Confederate Wars, the First, Second a ...
, and installation of a
Covenanter Covenanters ( gd, Cùmhnantaich) were members of a 17th-century Scottish religious and political movement, who supported a Presbyterian Church of Scotland, and the primacy of its leaders in religious affairs. The name derived from ''Covenant'', a ...
government. Organised by a small group of Catholic nobility, the October 1641 Irish Rebellion was the cumulative effect of land confiscation, loss of political control, anti-Catholic measures and economic decline. Intended as a bloodless coup, its leaders quickly lost control, leading to atrocities on both sides. In May, a Covenanter army landed in
Ulster Ulster (; ga, Ulaidh or ''Cúige Uladh'' ; sco, label=Ulster Scots, Ulstèr or ''Ulster'') is one of the four traditional Irish provinces, in the north of Ireland. It is made up of nine counties: six of these constitute Northern Ireland (a par ...

Ulster
to support Scots settlers; the English Parliament refused to fund an army, fearing Charles would use it against them, and the
First English Civil War The First English Civil War was fought in England and Wales, from August 1642 to June 1646. It forms one of the conflicts known collectively as the 1638 to 1651 Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which also took place in Scotland and Ireland. These ...
began in August. In 1642, the Catholic Confederacy representing the Irish insurgents proclaimed allegiance to Charles, but the Stuarts were an unreliable ally, since concessions in Ireland cost them Protestant support in all three kingdoms. In addition, the
Adventurers' Act The Adventurers' Act is an Act of the Parliament of England which specified its aim as "the speedy and effectual reducing of the rebels in His Majesty's Kingdom of Ireland". The Irish Rebellion of 1641 had broken out five months earlier, and t ...
, approved by Charles in March 1642, funded suppression of the revolt by confiscating land from Irish Catholics, much of it owned by members of the Confederacy. The result was a three-way contest between the Confederacy, Royalist forces under the Protestant
Duke of Ormond :''For the titles in the Peerage of Scotland see: Earl of Ormond (Scotland)'' 200px, James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde. Henry_Badeley,_1st_Baron_Badeley">Henry_Badeley_showing_the_coat_of_arms_of_the_Butlers,_Earls_of_Ormonde:_Quartering_(heral ...
, and a Covenanter-led army in Ulster. The latter were increasingly at odds with the English government; after Charles' execution in January 1649, Ormond combined these factions to resist the 1649 to 1652
Cromwellian conquest of Ireland The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland (1649–1653) was the conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Cromwell invaded Ireland with h ...
. Charles II repudiated his alliance with the Confederacy, in return for Scottish support in the
Third English Civil War The Third English Civil War (1650–1651) was the last of the English Civil Wars (1642–1651). It consisted primarily of an invasion of Scotland by an English army controlled by the Rump Parliament and commanded by Oliver Cromwell and a subs ...
, and Ormond went into exile in 1650. Defeat in 1652 led to the mass confiscation of Catholic and Royalist land, and its re-distribution among English Parliamentary soldiers and Protestant settlers. The three kingdoms were combined into the Commonwealth of England, regaining their separate status when the monarchy was restored in 1660. Charles's reign was dominated by the expansionist policies of Louis XIV of France, seen as a threat to Protestant Europe. When his brother and heir James II of England, James announced his conversion to Catholicism in 1677, an attempt was made to Exclusion Crisis, bar him from the English throne. Nevertheless, he became king in February 1685 with widespread support in England and Scotland; a Catholic monarch was preferable to excluding the 'natural heir', and rebellions by Protestant dissidents quickly suppressed. It was also viewed as temporary; James was 52, his second marriage was childless after 11 years, and his Protestant daughter Mary II of England, Mary was heir. His religion made James popular among Irish Catholics, whose position had not improved under his brother. By 1685, Catholic land ownership had fallen to 22%, versus 90% in 1600, and after 1673, a series of proclamations deprived them of the Right to keep and bear arms, right to bear arms or hold public office. The Catholic Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1687, and began building a Catholic establishment that could survive James. Fearing a short reign, Tyrconnell moved at a speed that destabilised all three kingdoms. James dismissed the English and Scottish Parliaments when they refused to approve his measures of Toleration, religious tolerance, which he enforced using the Royal Prerogative. Doing so threatened to re-open disputes over religion, reward those who rebelled in 1685 and undermine his own supporters. It also ignored the impact of the 1685 Edict of Fontainebleau, which revoked tolerance for Huguenots, French Protestants and created an estimated 400,000 refugees, 40,000 of whom settled in London. Two events turned discontent into rebellion, the first being the birth of James Francis Edward Stuart, James's son on 10 June 1688, which created the prospect of a Catholic dynasty. The second was James' prosecution of the Seven Bishops, which seemed to go beyond tolerance for Catholicism and actively attack the Church of England; their acquittal on 30 June caused widespread rejoicing throughout England and Scotland, and destroyed James's political authority. In 1685, many feared civil war if James were bypassed; by 1688, even the Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland, Earl of Sunderland, his chief minister, felt only his removal could prevent it. Sunderland secretly co-ordinated an Invitation to William, assuring Mary and her husband William III of England, William of Orange of English support for armed intervention. William landed in Brixham on 5 November with 14,000 men; as he advanced, James's army deserted and he went into exile on 23 December. In February 1689, the Parliament of England, English Parliament appointed William and Mary joint monarchs of England, while the Parliament of Scotland, Scots followed suit in March. Most of Ireland was still controlled by Tyrconnell, where James landed on 12 March 1689 with 6,000 French troops. The 1689 to 1691
Williamite War in Ireland The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691) ( ga, Cogadh an Dá Rí, "war of the two kings"), was a conflict between Jacobite supporters of deposed monarch James II and Williamite supporters of his successor, William III. It is also called the Ja ...
highlighted two recurring trends; for James and his successors, the main prize was England, with Ireland and Scotland secondary to that, while the primary French objective was to absorb British resources, not necessarily restore the Stuarts. Elections in May 1689 produced the first Patriot Parliament, Irish Parliament with a Catholic majority since 1613. It repealed the Cromwellian land seizures, confiscated land from Williamites, and proclaimed Ireland a 'distinct kingdom from England', measures annulled after defeat in 1691. A minor Jacobite rising of 1689, Jacobite rising in Scotland was suppressed. Several days after the Irish Jacobites were defeated at The Battle of the Boyne in July 1690, victory at Battle of Beachy Head (1690), Beachy Head gave the French temporary control of the English Channel. James returned to France to urge an immediate invasion of England, but the Anglo-Dutch fleet soon regained maritime supremacy, and the opportunity was lost. The 1691 Treaty of Limerick ended the war in Ireland; future risings on behalf of the exiled Stuarts were confined to England and Scotland. The Act of Settlement 1701, 1701 Act of Settlement barred Catholics from the English throne, and when Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Anne became the last Stuart monarch in 1702, her heir was her Protestant cousin Sophia of Hanover, not her Catholic half-brother James. Ireland retained a separate Parliament until 1800, but the 1707 Union combined England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain. Anne viewed this as the unified Protestant kingdom which her predecessors had failed to achieve. The exiled Stuarts continued to agitate for a return to power, based on the support they retained within the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland. Doing so required external help, most consistently supplied by France, while Spain backed the Jacobite rising of 1719, 1719 Rising. While talks were also held at different times with Swedish Empire, Sweden, Kingdom of Prussia, Prussia, and Russian Empire, Russia, these never produced concrete results; while the Stuarts were useful as a lever, their foreign backers had little interest in their restoration.


Jacobite supporters in the three kingdoms

Jacobite support in the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland was rooted partly in specific religious communities and among those whose political beliefs encompassed the core Stuart doctrines of divine right of kings, divine right, sacred kingship and indefeasible hereditary right. However, the motivation of individual Jacobites varied widely across the Stuarts' former realms: establishing motivation is complicated by the fact that "by and large, those who wrote most did not act, and those who acted wrote little, if anything". Historians have characterised the movement in a variety of ways, including as a revolutionary extension of anti-Court, 'Country' ideology; an aristocratic reaction against a growth in executive power; a simple conflict between feudalism and capitalism; or as a product of nationalist feeling in Scotland and Ireland.


Ireland

The role of Jacobitism in Irish political history is debated; some argue it was a broad based popular movement, and the main driver of Irish Catholic nationalism between 1688 and 1795. Others see it as part of "a pan-British movement, rooted in confessional and dynastic loyalties", very different from 19th century Irish nationalism. Historian Vincent Morely describes Irish Jacobitism as a distinctive ideology within the broader movement, that "emphasised the Milesians (Irish), Milesian ancestry of the Stuarts, their loyalty to Catholicism, and Ireland's status as a kingdom with a Crown of its own.' In the first half of the 18th century, Jacobitism was "the primary allegiance of politically conscious Catholics". , Deputy Governor of Ireland; his appointment of Catholics to military and political positions built widespread support for the Jacobite regime Irish Catholic support for James was based primarily on his religion and willingness to deliver their demands. In 1685, Gaelic poet Dáibhí Ó Bruadair celebrated his accession as ensuring the supremacy of Catholicism and the Irish language. Tyrconnell's expansion of the army by the creation of Catholic regiments was welcomed by Diarmuid Mac Carthaigh, as enabling the native Irish 'Tadhg' to be armed and to assert their dominance over 'John' the English Protestant. Conversely, most Irish Protestants viewed his policies as designed to "utterly ruin the Protestant interest and the English interest in Ireland". This restricted Protestant Jacobitism to "doctrinaire clergymen, disgruntled Tory landowners and Catholic converts", who opposed Catholicism but still viewed James' removal as unlawful. A few Church of Ireland ministers refused to swear allegiance to the new regime and became Nonjuring schism, Non-Jurors, the most famous being propagandist Charles Leslie (nonjuror), Charles Leslie. After James was exiled, Ireland seemed the best place to begin the attempt to regain his kingdoms, since the administration was controlled by Tyrconnell. In May 1689, James called the first Parliament of Ireland since 1666, primarily seeking taxes to fund the war effort. Tyrconnell ensured a predominantly Catholic electorate and candidates by issuing new Borough#Ireland, borough charters, admitting Catholics into city corporations, and removing "disloyal members". Since elections were not held in many northern areas, the Irish House of Commons, Commons was 70 members short, and 224 out of 230 Member of parliament, MPs were Catholic. Later known as the 'Patriot Parliament, it opened by proclaiming James the rightful king and condemning his "treasonous subjects" who had ousted him. However, it was divided on the issue of returning Catholic lands confiscated in 1652 after the
Cromwellian conquest of Ireland The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland or Cromwellian war in Ireland (1649–1653) was the conquest of Ireland by the forces of the English Parliament, led by Oliver Cromwell, during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Cromwell invaded Ireland with h ...
. Only a small minority of the Catholic elite benefited from the Act of Settlement 1662, 1662 Act of Settlement which sought to mitigate the confiscations enacted in Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652, 1652; major beneficiaries included James himself, along with Tyrconnell and members of the Irish House of Lords, Lords. The majority of the Irish House of Commons wanted the Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652, 1652 Act repealed in its entirety, with ownership returned to that prevailing in 1641, and refused Tyrconnell's initial offer to return half their estates, with compensation for the remainder. With the Commons overwhelmingly in favour of complete restoration of Catholic owned lands, Tyrconnell persuaded the Lords to approve the bill. However, these divisions resurfaced later in the war in the contest between Jacobite 'Peace' and 'War' factions. More serious were the differences between the Irish parliament and James; his priority was the throne of England, while a French diplomat observed he had 'a heart too English to do anything that might vex the English.' He therefore resisted measures that might "dissatisfy his Protestant subjects" in England and Scotland, complaining "he was fallen into the hands of a people who would ram many hard things down his throat". When Parliament made it clear it would only vote through taxes to pay for war if he complied with their minimum demands, he reluctantly approved the restoration of pre-1650s Catholic landowners to their estates and passed an Act of Attainder, confiscating estates from 2,000 mostly Protestant "rebels". He also assented to the assertion Ireland was a "distinct kingdom", and laws passed in England did not apply there, but refused to abolish Poynings' Law (on certification of acts), Poynings' Law, which required Irish legislation to be approved by the English Parliament. Despite his own Catholicism, James viewed the Protestant Church of Ireland as an important part of his support base; he insisted retained its legal pre-eminence, although it was agreed that landowners would only have to pay tithes to clergy of their own religion. Image:Uniform and colonel’s flag of the Hibernia Regiment.jpg, left, upright=0.9, The Spanish Regiment of Hibernia, ca 1740; foreign military service remained common for Irish Catholics until banned after 1745 James left Ireland after defeat at Battle of the Boyne, the Boyne in 1690, telling his supporters to "shift for themselves". This led some to depict him as "Seamus an chaca", or "James the shit", who had deserted his loyal followers. However, Gaelic scholar Breandán Ó Buachalla claims his reputation subsequently recovered as "the rightful king...destined to return' and upper-class Irish Jacobite writers like Charles O'Kelly and Nicholas Plunkett blamed "corrupt English and Scottish advisors" for his apparent desertion. After 1691, measures passed by the 1689 Parliament were annulled, penal laws barred Catholics from public life, while the Act of Attainder was used to justify further land confiscations. 12,000 Jacobite soldiers went into exile in the diaspora known as the Flight of the Wild Geese, the majority of whom were later absorbed into the Irish Brigade (French), French Irish Brigade. About 1,000 men were recruited for the French and Spanish armies annually, many with a "tangible commitment to the Stuart cause". Elements of the French Irish Brigade participated in the Scottish Jacobite rising of 1745. Irish language poets, especially in Munster, continued to champion the cause after James' death; in 1715, Eoin O Callanain described his son James Francis Edward Stuart as "''taoiseach na nGaoidheal''" or "chieftain of the Gaels". As in England, throughout the 1720s, James' birthday on 10 June was marked by celebrations in Dublin, and towns like Kilkenny and Galway. These were often accompanied by rioting, suggested as proof of popular pro-Jacobite sympathies. Others argue riots were common in 18th century urban areas and see them as a "series of ritualised clashes". Combined with Jacobite rhetoric and symbolism among rapparees or bandits, some historians claim this provides evidence of continuing popular support for a Stuart restoration. Other however argue that it is hard to descern "how far rhetorical Jacobitism reflected support for the Stuarts, as opposed to discontent with the status quo". Nevertheless, fears of resurgent Catholic Jacobitism among the ruling Protestant minority meant anti-Catholic Penal Laws remained in place for most of the eighteenth century. There was no Irish rising in either 1715 or 1745 to accompany those in England and Scotland; one suggestion is after 1691, for various reasons Irish Jacobites looked to European allies, rather than relying on a domestic revolt. From the 1720s on, many Catholics were willing to swear loyalty to the Hanoverian regime, but not the English post-Reformation oaths#The Irish Oath of 1774 to Catholic Emancipation, 1829, Oath of Abjuration, which required renouncing the authority of the Pope, as well as the Stuarts. After the effective demise of the Jacobite cause in the 1750s, many Catholic gentry withdrew support from the Stuarts. Instead, they created organisations like the Catholic Convention, which worked within the existing state for redress of Catholic grievances. When Charles Edward Stuart, Charles died in 1788, Irish nationalists looked for alternative liberators, among them the French First Republic, Napoleon Bonaparte and Daniel O'Connell.


England and Wales

In England and Wales, Jacobitism was often associated with the Tories (British political party), Tories, many of whom supported James's right to the throne during the Exclusion Crisis. Tory ideology implied that neither "time nor statute law [...] could ameliorate the sin of usurpation", while shared Tory and Jacobite themes of divine right and sacred kingship may have provided an alternative to Whigs (British political party), Whig concepts of "liberty and property". A minority of academics, including Eveline Cruickshanks, have argued that until the late 1750s, the Tories were a crypto-Jacobite party, others that Jacobitism was a "limb of Toryism". However, the supremacy of the Church of England was also central to Tory ideology: when this had seemed threatened by James's policies, they became closely involved in his removal. The Act of Settlement 1701, 1701 Act of Settlement excluding Catholics from the English throne was passed by a Tory administration; for the vast majority, Stuart Catholicism was an insuperable barrier to active support, while the Tory doctrine of non-resistance also discouraged them from supporting the exiles against a reigning monarch. For most of the period from 1690 to 1714, Parliament was either controlled by the Tories, or evenly split with the Whigs; when George I of Great Britain, George I succeeded Anne, most hoped to reconcile with the new regime. The John Erskine, Earl of Mar (1675–1732), Earl of Mar, who led the 1715 rising, observed "Jacobitisme, which they used to brand the Tories with, is now I presum out of doors". However, George blamed the 1710 to 1714 Tory government for the Peace of Utrecht, which he viewed as damaging to his home state of Electorate of Hanover, Hanover. His isolation of former Tory ministers like Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, Lord Bolingbroke and the Earl of Mar drove them first into opposition, then exile. Exclusion from power between 1714 and 1742 meant many Tories sought opportunities to change the existing government, including contact with the Jacobite court. In 1715, there were co-ordinated celebrations on 29 May, Oak Apple Day, Restoration Day, and 10 June, James Stuart's birthday, especially in Tory-dominated towns like Bristol, Oxford, Manchester and Norwich, although they remained quiet in the 1715 Rising. In the 1730s, many 'Jacobite' demonstrations in Wales and elsewhere were driven by local tensions, especially hostility to Methodism, and featured attacks on Nonconformist chapels. Most English participants in 1715 came from traditionally Catholic areas in the Northwest, like
Lancashire Lancashire ( ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a ceremonial county and geographical area in North West England. The ceremonial county's administrative centre is Preston, while Lancaster is still the county town. The borders of the ceremonial county wer ...
. By 1720, there were fewer than 115,000 in England and Wales, and most remained loyal in 1745, including the Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk, Duke of Norfolk, head of the English Catholic community, sentenced to death for his role in 1715 but pardoned. Even so, sympathies were complex; Norfolk's agent Andrew Blood joined the Manchester Regiment (Jacobite), Manchester Regiment, and he later employed another ex-officer, John Sanderson, as his master of horse. English Catholics continued to provide the exiles with financial support well into the 1770s. In 1689, around 2% of clergy in the Church of England refused to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary; one list identifies a total of 584 clergy, schoolmasters and university dons as Nonjuring schism, Non Jurors. This almost certainly understates their numbers, since many sympathisers remained within the Church of England, but Non Jurors were disproportionately represented in Jacobite risings and riots, and provided many "martyrs". By the late 1720s, arguments over doctrine and the death of its originators reduced the church to a handful, but several of those executed in 1745 came from Manchester, the last significant congregation in England. The William Penn, Quaker leader, William Penn was a prominent non-conformist supporter of James, although this was based on their personal relationship and did not survive his deposition. Another element in English Jacobitism was a handful of disaffected radicals, for whom the exiled Stuarts provided a potential alternative to the Whig establishment. An example was John Matthews, a Jacobite printer executed in 1719; his pamphlet ''Vox Populi vox Dei'' emphasised the John Locke, Lockean theory of the social contract, a doctrine very few Tories of the period would have supported.


Scotland

Scottish Jacobitism had wider and more extensive roots than in England. 20,000 Scots fought for the Jacobites in 1715, compared to 11,000 who joined the government army, and were the majority of the 9,000 to 14,000 who served in 1745. One reason was the persistence of feudalism in parts of rural Scotland, where tenants could be compelled to provide their landlords with military service. Many of the Highland Scottish clans, clansmen who were a feature of Jacobite armies were raised this way: in all three major risings, the bulk of the rank and file were supplied by a small number of north-western clans whose leaders joined the rebellion. Despite this, many Jacobites were Protestant Lowlanders, rather than the Catholic, Gaelic-speaking Highlanders of legend. By 1745, fewer than 1% of Scots were Catholic, restricted to the far north-west and a few noble families. The majority of the rank and file, as well as many Jacobite leaders, belonged to Protestant Episcopalian congregations. Throughout the 17th century, the close connection between Scottish politics and religion meant changes of regime were accompanied by the losers being expelled from the kirk. In Glorious Revolution in Scotland#Religious settlement, 1690, over 200 clergy lost their positions, mostly in
Aberdeenshire upright=1.3, Topographic map of Aberdeenshire and Moray Aberdeenshire ( sco, Aiberdeenshire; gd, Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It takes its name from the County of Aberdeen which has substantially differen ...
and Banffshire, a strongly Episcopalian area since the 1620s. In 1745, around 25% of Jacobite recruits came from this part of the country. Episcopalianism was popular among social conservatives, as it emphasised indefeasible hereditary right, absolute obedience, and implied deposition of the senior Stuart line was a breach of natural order. The church continued to offer prayers for the Stuarts until 1788, while many refused to swear allegiance to the Hanoverians in 1714. However, even in 1690, a substantial minority accommodated to the new regime, a number that increased significantly after the establishment of the Scottish Episcopal Church in 1712. Episcopalian ministers, such as Professor James Garden of Aberdeen, presented the 1707 Union as one in a series of disasters to befall Scotland, provoked by "the sins [...] of rebellion, injustice, oppression, schism and perjury". Opposition was boosted by measures imposed by the post-1707 Parliament of Great Britain, including the Treason Act 1708, the 1711 ruling that barred Scots peers from the House of Lords, and tax increases. Despite their own preferences, the Stuarts tried to appeal to this group; in 1745, Charles issued declarations dissolving the "pretended Union", despite concerns this would alienate his English supporters. However, opposition to post-Union legislation was not restricted to Jacobites. Many Presbyterians opposed the establishment of the Episcopal Church in 1712 and other measures of indulgence, while the worst Malt tax riots, tax riots took place in Glasgow, a town noted for its antipathy to the Stuarts. As in England, some objected less to the Union than the Hanoverian connection; Lord George Murray (general), Lord George Murray, a senior Jacobite commander in 1745, was a Unionist who repeatedly disagreed with Charles, but opposed "wars [...] on account of the Electors of Hanover".


Ideology

Historian Frank McLynn identifies seven primary drivers in Jacobitism, noting that while the movement contained "sincere men [..] who aimed solely to restore the Stuarts", it was "rarely [...] a positive doctrine" and "provided a source of legitimacy for political dissent of all kinds". Its four main ideological tenets drew on a theology shared by Nonjurors, High church Anglicans and Scots Episcopalians. They were, firstly, the divine right of kings, their accountability to God, not man or Parliament; secondly that monarchy was a divine institution; thirdly, the crown's descent by indefeasible hereditary right, which could not be overturned or annulled; and lastly the scriptural injunction of passive obedience and non-resistance, even towards monarchs of which the subject might disapprove. Jacobites attempted to distinguish between 'absolute' and 'arbitrary' power, while views on the 'correct' balance of rights and duties between monarch and subject varied. The Nonjuror Charles Leslie was perhaps the most extreme divine right theorist, although even he argued the monarch was bound by "his oath to God, as well as his promise to his people" and "the laws of justice and honour". Jacobites argued divinely sanctioned authority was the main moral safeguard of society, while its absence led to party strife. It claimed the 1688 Revolution had allowed self-interested minorities, such as Whigs, religious dissenters, and foreigners, to take control of the state and oppress the weak. However, such sentiments were not always consistently held within the Jacobite community, or restricted to Jacobites alone: many Whigs and Church of England clergy also argued the post 1688 succession was "divinely ordained". Over time, Jacobitism grew closer to mainstream Toryism; after 1710, their propagandists began blaming a "malevolent" Whig faction for exiling the Stuarts, rather than the nation collectively. After the Act of Settlement, Jacobite propagandists deemphasised the purely legitimist elements in their writing and by 1745, active promotion of hereditary and indefeasible right was restricted largely to a few Scots Jacobites, notably the Episcopalian Lords Alexander Forbes, 4th Lord Forbes of Pitsligo, Pitsligo and Arthur Elphinstone, 6th Lord Balmerino, Balmerino. Instead they began to focus on populist themes such as opposition to a standing army, electoral corruption and social injustice. By the 1750s, Charles himself promised triannual parliaments, disbanding the army and legal guarantees on press freedom. Such tactics broadened their appeal but also carried risks, since they could always be undercut by a government prepared to offer similar concessions. The ongoing Stuart focus on England and regaining a united British throne led to tensions with their broader-based supporters in 1745, when the primary goal for many Scots was ending the 1707 Union. This meant that following victory at Prestonpans in September, they preferred to negotiate, rather than invade England as Charles wanted. More generally, Jacobite theorists reflected broader currents in Enlightenment thought, appealing to those attracted to a monarchist solution to perceived modern decadence. Populist songs and tracts presented the Stuarts as capable of correcting a wide range of ills and restoring social harmony, as well as contrasting Dutch and Hanoverian "foreigners" with a man who even in exile continued to consume English beef and beer. While particularly calculated to appeal to Tories, the wide range of themes adopted by Jacobite pamphleteers and agents periodically drew in disaffected Whigs and former radicals. Such "Whig-Jacobites" were highly valued by the exiled court, although many viewed James II as a potentially weak king from whom it would be easy to extract concessions in the event of a restoration.


Community

While Jacobite agents continued in their attempts to recruit the disaffected, the most committed Jacobites were often linked by relatively small family networks, particularly in Scotland; Jacobite activities in areas like
Perthshire Perthshire (; gd, Siorrachd Pheairt), officially the County of Perth, is a historic county and registration county in central Scotland. Geographically it extends from Strathmore in the east, to the Pass of Drumochter in the north, Rannoch Moor ...
and
Aberdeenshire upright=1.3, Topographic map of Aberdeenshire and Moray Aberdeenshire ( sco, Aiberdeenshire; gd, Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It takes its name from the County of Aberdeen which has substantially differen ...
centred on a limited number of influential families heavily involved in 1715 and 1745. Some of the most powerful landowning families preserved their establishment loyalties, but maintained traditions of Stuart allegiance by permitting younger sons to become involved in active Jacobitism; in 1745, Lewis Gordon (Jacobite), Lewis Gordon was widely believed to be a proxy for his brother, the Cosmo George Gordon, 3rd Duke of Gordon, Duke of Gordon. Many Jacobite leaders were closely linked to each other and the exile community by marriage or blood. This has led some historians, notably Bruce Lenman, to characterise the Jacobite risings as French-backed coup attempts by a small network drawn from the elite, though this view is not universally accepted. Family traditions of Jacobite sympathy were reinforced through objects such as inscribed glassware or rings with hidden symbols, although many of those that survive are in fact 19th century neo-Jacobite creations. Other family heirlooms contained reference to executed Jacobite martyrs, for which the movement preserved an unusual level of veneration. Tartan cloth, widely adopted by the Jacobite Army (1745), Jacobite army in 1745, was used in portraiture as a symbol of Stuart sympathies, even before the Rising. Outside elite social circles, the Jacobite community circulated propaganda and symbolic objects through a network of clubs, print-sellers and pedlars, aimed at the provincial gentry and middling sort. In 1745, Prince Charles ordered commemorative medals and miniature pictures for clandestine distribution. Among the more visible elements of the Jacobite community were drinking clubs established in the early 18th century, such as the Scottish Bucks Club or the "Cycle of the White Rose", led by Welsh Tory Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn, 3rd Baronet, Sir Watkin Williams-Wynn. Others included the "Sea Serjeants", largely composed of South Wales gentry or the "Independent Electors of Westminster" led by the Glamorganshire lawyer David Morgan (Jacobite), David Morgan, executed for his role in 1745. Other than Morgan, the vast majority of their members took no part in the 1745 Rising; Charles later suggested he "will do for the Welsh Jacobites what they did for me. I will drink their health". Oak Apple Day on 29 May commemorated Charles II and was an occasion for displays of Stuart sympathy, as was "White Rose Day", James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender's birthday on 10 June. Symbols were commonly employed by Jacobites, since they could not be prosecuted for their use, the most common being the White rose of York, adopted after 1688 for reasons now unclear. Various origins have been suggested, including its use as an ancient Scottish royal device, its association with James II as Duke of York, or Charles I being styled as the "White King". Jacobite military units often used plain white standards or cockades, while green ribbons were another recognised Stuart symbol despite their association with the Whig Green Ribbon Club.


Post 1745 decline

Despite being greeted as a hero on his return to Paris, Charles' reception behind the scenes was more muted. Alexandre Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis d’Éguilles, D’Éguilles, unofficial French envoy to the Jacobites, had a low opinion of him and other senior Jacobites, describing Lochgarry as "a bandit", and suggesting George Murray was a British spy. For their part, the Scots were disillusioned by lack of meaningful English or French support, despite constant assurances of both. Events also highlighted the reality that a low level, ongoing insurgency was far more cost-effective for the French than a restoration, a form of warfare potentially devastating to the local populace. By exposing the divergence between Scottish, French and Stuart objectives, as well as the lack of support in England, the 1745 Rising ended Jacobitism as a viable political alternative in England and Scotland. The British authorities enacted a series of measures designed to prevent the Scottish Highlands being used for another rising. New forts were built, the Old military roads of Scotland, military road network finally completed and William Roy made the first comprehensive survey of the Highlands. Much of the power held by the Highland chiefs derived from their ability to require military service from their clansmen, which ended with the Heritable Jurisdictions (Scotland) Act 1746. This was far more significant than the better known Act of Proscription which outlawed Highland dress unless worn in military service; its impact is debated and the law repealed in 1782. As early as 1745, the French were struggling with the costs of the War of the Austrian Succession, and in June 1746, they began peace negotiations with Britain at Congress of Breda, Breda. Victories in Flanders in 1747 and 1748 actually worsened their position by drawing in the previously neutral Dutch Republic, whose shipping they relied on to avoid the British naval blockade. By 1748, food shortages among the French population made peace a matter of urgency, but the British refused to sign the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle while Charles remained in France. After he ignored requests to leave, the French lost patience; in December 1748, he was briefly jailed before being deported. The British authorities enacted a series of measures designed to prevent the Scottish Highlands being used for another rising. New forts were built, the Old military roads of Scotland, military road network finally completed and William Roy made the first comprehensive survey of the Highlands. Even before 1745, the clan system had been under severe stress due to changing economic conditions; the Heritable Jurisdictions (Scotland) Act 1746, Heritable Jurisdictions Act removed feudal controls by Highland chiefs, while the Act of Proscription outlawed Highland dress unless worn in military service. In June 1747, his brother Henry Benedict Stuart, Henry became a Catholic priest; since Charles had no legitimate heir, this was seen as tacit acceptance by their father the Jacobite cause was finished. Charles continue to explore options for a rising in England, including his conversion to Anglicanism, a proposal that had outraged his father James when previously suggested. He "secretly" visited London in 1750 to meet supporters, and was inducted into the Nonjuring schism, Non Juror church. However, the decline of Jacobitism is demonstrated by the fact the government and George II were well aware of his presence and did nothing to intervene. The English Jacobites made it clear they would do nothing without foreign backing, which despite Charles's overtures to Frederick II of Prussia seemed unlikely. A plot to capture or assassinate George II, headed by Alexander Murray of Elibank, was betrayed to the government by Alastair Ruadh MacDonnell, or "Pickle the Spy", but not before Charles had sent two exiles as agents. One was Archibald Cameron of Lochiel, Archibald Cameron, responsible for recruiting the Cameron regiment in 1745, who was allegedly betrayed by his own clansmen and executed on 7 June 1753. In a 1754 dispute with the English conspirators, a drunken and increasingly desperate Charles threatened to publish their names for having "betrayed" him; most remaining English sympathisers now left the cause. During the Seven Years' War in 1759, Charles met Étienne François, duc de Choiseul, Choiseul, then Chief minister of France to discuss Planned French invasion of Britain (1759), another invasion, but Choiseul dismissed him as "incapacitated by drink". The Jacobite cause was abandoned by the French, while British supporters stopped providing funds; Charles, who had returned to Catholicism, now relied on the Papacy to fund his lifestyle. Despite Henry's urgings, Pope Clement XIII refused to recognise him as Charles III after their father died in 1766; he died of a stroke in Rome in January 1788, a disappointed and embittered man.


Henry IX

When Charles died in 1788, Scottish Catholics swore allegiance to the House of Hanover, and resolved two years later to pray for King George by name. The Stuart claim passed to Henry, now a Cardinal, who styled himself King Henry IX of England. After falling into financial difficulty during the French Revolution, he was granted a stipend by George III of the United Kingdom, George III. However, he never actually surrendered his claims to the throne. Following the death of Henry in 1807, the Jacobite claims passed to those excluded by the Act of Settlement 1701, Act of Settlement: initially to the House of Savoy (1807–1840), then to the Modenese branch of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine (1840–1919), and finally to the House of Wittelsbach (1919–present). Franz, Duke of Bavaria is the current Jacobite heir. Neither he nor any of his predecessors since 1807 have pursued their claim. Henry, Charles and James are memorialised in the Monument to the Royal Stuarts in the Vatican.


Analysis

Traditional Whig historiography viewed Jacobitism as marginal to the progression towards present-day Parliamentary democracy, taking the view that as it was defeated, it could never have won. Representing "pre-industrial paternalism" and "mystical loyalism" against forward-thinking individualism, this conception of Jacobitism was reinforced by Thomas Babington Macaulay, Macaulay's stereotype of the typical "Tory-Jacobite squire" as a "bigoted, ignorant, drunken philistine". More recent analyses, such as that of J. C. D. Clark, suggest that Jacobitism can instead be regarded as part of a "deep vein of social and political conservatism running throughout British history", arguing that the Whig settlement was not as stable as has been depicted. Further interest in Jacobite studies has been prompted by a reassessment of the nationalist aspirations of Scots Jacobites in particular, emphasising its place as part of an ongoing political idea.


Romantic revival

As the political danger represented by Jacobitism receded, a nostalgic and sentimental view of the movement appeared, particularly with respect to the final 1745 rebellion. Relics and mementoes of 1745 were preserved and Charles himself became celebrated in "increasingly emotional and sentimental language". The publication in the 1830s of parts of ''The Lyon in Mourning'' by Episcopalian bishop Robert Forbes (bishop), Robert Forbes (1708–1775), a collection of source material and interviews with Jacobite participants in the 1745 rising, reinforced this memorialising tendency. 19th century historiography often presented the Scots Jacobites as driven by a romantic attachment to the House of Stuart, rather than as having a wide range of individual motivations. This suited a Victorian depiction of Highlanders as a "martial race", distinguished by a tradition of a "misplaced loyalism" since transferred to the British crown. The participation of Lowland and north-eastern gentry in the movement was less emphasised, while the Irish Jacobites were presented as a largely negative influence on Charles in 1745. Walter Scott, author of ''Waverley (novel), Waverley'', a story of the 1745 rebellion, combined romantic, nostalgic Jacobitism with an appreciation of the practical benefits of Union. In 1822 he arranged a pageantry of reinvented Scottish traditions for the visit of King George IV to Scotland when George IV of the United Kingdom, George IV visited Edinburgh as a successor to his distant relative Charles Stuart. The tartan pageantry was immensely popular, and Highland clothing, previously associated with rebellion and disorder became Scottish national identity, Scotland's National Dress. 1824 saw the restoration of some Jacobite titles and 1829 Catholic emancipation; with political Jacobitism now safely confined to an "earlier era", the hitherto largely ignored site of the final Jacobite defeat at Culloden began to be celebrated. Many Jacobite folk songs emerged in Scotland in this period; a number of examples were collected by Scott's colleague James Hogg in his ''Jacobite Reliques'', including several he likely composed himself. Nineteenth century Scots poets such as Alicia Ann Spottiswoode, Alicia Spottiswoode and Carolina Nairne, Lady Nairne (whose "Bonnie Charlie" remains popular) added further examples. Relatively few of the surviving songs, however, actually date from the time of the risings; one of the best known is the Irish song Mo Ghile Mear, which although a more recent composition is based on the contemporary lyric '' Buan ar Buairt Gach Ló'' by Seán Clárach Mac Domhnaill.


Neo-Jacobite revival

There was a brief revival of political Jacobitism in the late 1880s and into the 1890s. A number of Jacobite clubs and societies were formed, starting with the Order of the White Rose (1886–1915), Order of the White Rose founded by Bertram Ashburnham, 5th Earl of Ashburnham, Bertram Ashburnham in 1886. In 1890, Herbert Vivian and Ruaraidh Erskine co-founded a weekly newspaper, ''The Whirlwind'', that espoused a Jacobite political view. Vivian, Erskine and Melville Henry Massue formed the Legitimist Jacobite League of Great Britain and Ireland in 1891, which lasted for several years. Vivian went on to stand for Parliament four times on a Jacobite platform – though he failed to be elected each time. The revival largely came to an end with the World War I, First World War and the various societies of the time are now represented by the Royal Stuart Society.


In literature and popular culture

Jacobitism has been a popular subject for historical novels, and for speculative and humorous fiction. *The historical novels ''Waverley (novel), Waverley'' (1814) and ''Rob Roy (novel), Rob Roy'' (1817) by Sir Walter Scott focus on the first and second Jacobite rebellions. *''Kidnapped (novel), Kidnapped'' (1886) is a historical novel, historical fiction adventure novel by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson that features the intrigues of Jacobite troubles in Scotland. *In the 1920s, D. K. Broster wrote the ''Jacobite Trilogy'' of novels featuring the dashing hero Ewen Cameron. *Joan Aiken's ''Wolves Chronicles'' have as background an alternative history of England, in which King James III, a Stuart, is on the throne, and the Hanoverians plot to overthrow him. *A fictional account is given of the Jacobite/Hanoverian conflict in ''The Long Shadow'', ''The Chevalier'' and ''The Maiden'', Volumes 6–8 of ''The Morland Dynasty'', a series of historical novels by author Cynthia Harrod-Eagles. Insight is given through the eyes of the Morland family into the religious, political and emotional issues at the heart of the struggle. *''Corrag'' (also known as ''Witch Light'') (2009) by Susan Fletcher (British author), Susan Fletcher centres on the Massacre of Glencoe. It offers the eyewitness account of Corrag, a reputed witch. *The historical book series ''Outlander (book series), Outlander'' and its Outlander (TV series), television adaptation. *In 2017, a partnership of Visiting Scotland, National Museum of Scotland and Historic Scotland launche
The Jacobite Trail
to promote the Jacobite story and the locations that feature therein.


Claimants to the thrones of England, Scotland, Ireland and France

*James II of England, James II and VII (6 February 168516 September 1701). *James Francis Edward Stuart, James III and VIII (16 September 17011 January 1766), James Francis Edward Stuart, also known as the ''Chevalier de St. George'', the ''King over the Water'', or the ''Old Pretender''. (Son of James II) *Charles Edward Stuart, Charles III (31 December 172031 January 1788), Charles Edward Stuart, also known as ''Bonnie Prince Charlie'', the ''Young Chevalier'', or the ''Young Pretender''. (Son of James III) *Henry Benedict Stuart, Henry IX and I (6 March 172513 July 1807), Henry Benedict Stuart, also known as the ''Cardinal King''. (Son of James III) Since Henry's death, none of the Jacobite heirs have claimed the English or Scottish thrones. Franz, Duke of Bavaria (born 1933), a direct descendant of
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288– ...

Charles I
, is the current legitimate heir of the house of Stuart. It has been suggested that a repeal of the Act of Settlement 1701 could allow him to claim the throne, although he has expressed no interest in doing so.


Footnotes


References


Sources

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External links


BBC-Interactive Timeline of British History


* The University of Guelph Library, Archival and Special Collections, has more than 500 Jacobite pamphlets, histories, and literature in its rare books section introduced at https://web.archive.org/web/20100106050248/http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/resources/archival_%26_special_collections/the_collections/digital_collections/scottish/Jacobite_site_0.htm

{{Authority control Jacobitism, 1688 establishments in England 1688 establishments in Ireland 1688 establishments in Scotland Jacobite pretenders, Invasions of England Political theories Rival successions James II of England Social movements in the United Kingdom Social movements in Ireland