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The Jacobean style is the second phase of
Renaissance architecture Renaissance architecture is the European architecture of the period between the early 14th and early 16th centuries in different regions, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek Ancient G ...
in England, following the
Elizabethan style File:Front of Burghley House 2009.jpg, Burghley House, completed in 1587 Elizabethan architecture refers to buildings of a certain style constructed during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland from 1558–160 ...
. It is named after King
James I of England James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy, constitutional form of gover ...

James I of England
, with whose reign (1603–1625 in England) it is associated. At the start of James' reign there was little stylistic break in architecture, as Elizabethan trends continued their development. However, his death in 1625 came as a decisive change towards more classical architecture, with Italian influence, was in progress, led by
Inigo Jones Inigo Jones (; 15 July 1573 – 21 June 1652) was the first significant Architecture of England, architect in England in the Early modern Europe, early modern period, and the first to employ Vitruvius, Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry ...
; the style this began is sometimes called Stuart architecture, or
English Baroque English Baroque is a term sometimes used to refer to modes of English architecture 's 30 St Mary Axe, 'Gherkin' (2004) rises above the sixteenth century St Andrew Undershaft in the City of London The architecture of England is the architecture ...
(though the latter term may be regarded as starting later). Courtiers continued to build large
prodigy house Prodigy houses are large and showy English country houses built by courtiers and other wealthy families, either "noble palaces of an awesome scale" or "proud, ambitious heaps" according to taste. The prodigy houses stretch over the period ...
s, even though James spent less time on summer progresses round his realm than
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...

Elizabeth
had. The influence of Flemish and German
Northern Mannerism Northern Mannerism is the form of Mannerism Mannerism, also known as Late Renaissance, is a style in European art ''; by Johannes Vermeer Johannes Vermeer ( , , #Pronunciation of name, see below; October 1632 – December 1675) was a Dutch ...
increased, now often executed by immigrant craftsmen and artists, rather than obtained from books as in the previous reign. There continued to be very little building of new churches, though a considerable amount of modifications to old ones, but a great deal of secular building.


Characteristics

The reign of James VI of Scotland (or James I of England (1603–1625)), a disciple of the new scholarship, saw the first decisive adoption of Renaissance motifs in a free form communicated to England through
German German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Ger ...

German
and
Flemish Flemish (''Vlaams'') is a Low Franconian Low Franconian, Low Frankish, NetherlandicSarah Grey Thomason, Terrence Kaufman: ''Language Contact, Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics'', University of California Press, 1991, p. 321. (Calling i ...
carvers rather than directly from
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
. Although the general lines of Elizabethan design remained, there was a more consistent and unified application of formal design, both in plan and elevation. Much use was made of
column A column or pillar in architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (attic storey) of the Hôtel de Brionne in Par ...

column
s and
pilaster In classical architecture Classical architecture usually denotes architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Cotte 2503c – Gallica 2011 (adjusted), Plan of the second floor (at ...

pilaster
s, round-arch
arcades Arcade most often refers to: * Arcade (architecture), a series of adjoining arches * Shopping mall, one or more buildings forming a complex of shops, also sometimes called a shopping arcade * Amusement arcade, a place with arcade games * Arcade gam ...
, and
flat roof A flat roof is a roof which is almost level in contrast to the many types of sloped roofs. The slope of a roof is properly known as its pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency * Pitch (music), the perceived frequency of sound including ...

flat roof
s with
openwork Openwork or open-work is a term in art history, architecture and related fields for any technique that produces decoration by creating holes, piercings, or gaps that go right through a solid material such as metal, wood, stone, pottery, cloth, l ...

openwork
parapet A parapet is a barrier that is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof A roof is the top covering of a , including all materials and constructions necessary to support it on the walls of the building or on uprights, providing protecti ...
s. These and other classical elements appeared in a free and fanciful vernacular rather than with any true classical purity. With them were mixed the prismatic rustications and ornamental detail of scrolls,
straps A strap, sometimes also called strop, is an elongated flap Flap may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media * ''Flap'' (film), a 1970 American film * Flap, a boss character in the arcade game ''Gaiapolis'' * Flap, a minor character in the fi ...
, and
lozenge A lozenge (), often referred to as a diamond is a form of rhombus. The definition of lozenge is not strictly fixed, and it is sometimes used simply as a synonym (from the french: losange) for rhombus. Most often, though, lozenge refers to a t ...

lozenge
s also characteristic of Elizabethan design. The style influenced
furniture design Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, Stool (seat), stools, and sofas), eating (table (furniture), tables), and sleeping (e.g., beds). Furniture is also used to hold objec ...
and other
decorative arts ] The decorative arts are arts or crafts whose object is the design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specificati ...

decorative arts
.


History and examples

Reproductions of the Classical order, Classical orders had already found their way into English architecture during the reign of
Queen Elizabeth I Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to i ...

Queen Elizabeth I
, frequently based upon John Shute's ''The First and Chief Grounds of Architecture'', published in 1563, with two other editions in 1579 and 1584. In 1577, three years before the commencement of
Wollaton Hall Wollaton Hall is an Elizabethan English country house, country house of the 1580s standing on a small but prominent hill in Wollaton Park, Nottingham, England. The house is now Nottingham Natural History Museum, with Nottingham Industrial Muse ...

Wollaton Hall
, a copybook of the orders was brought out in
Antwerp Antwerp (; nl, Antwerpen ; french: Anvers ) is a city in Belgium and the capital of Antwerp (province), Antwerp province in the Flemish Region. With a population of 520,504,
Antwerp
by
Hans Vredeman de Vries Hans Vredeman de Vries (1527 – c. 1607) was a Dutch Renaissance architect, painter, and engineer. Vredeman de Vries is known for his publication in 1583 on garden design and his books with many examples on ornaments (1565) and perspective (1604) ...

Hans Vredeman de Vries
. Although nominally based on the description of the orders by
Vitruvius Vitruvius (; c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled ''De architectura (''On architecture'', published as ''Ten Books on Architecture'') i ...

Vitruvius
, the author indulged freely not only in his rendering of them, but in suggestions of his own, showing how the orders might be employed in various buildings. Those suggestions were of a most decadent type, so that even the author deemed it advisable to publish a letter from a canon of the Church, stating that there was nothing in his architectural designs that was contrary to religion. It is to publications of this kind that Jacobean architecture owes the perversion of its forms and the introduction of strap work and pierced crestings, which appear for the first time at
Wollaton Hall Wollaton Hall is an Elizabethan English country house, country house of the 1580s standing on a small but prominent hill in Wollaton Park, Nottingham, England. The house is now Nottingham Natural History Museum, with Nottingham Industrial Muse ...

Wollaton Hall
(1580); at
Bramshill House Bramshill House, in Bramshill, northeast Hampshire, England, is one of the largest and most important Jacobean architecture, Jacobean prodigy house mansions in England. It was built in the early 17th century by the Edward la Zouche, 11th Baron ...
,
Hampshire Hampshire (, ; abbreviated to Hants) is a Counties of England, county in South East England on the coast of the English Channel. The county town is Winchester, but the county is named after Southampton. Its two largest cities are Southampton a ...

Hampshire
(1607–1612), and in
Holland House Holland House, originally known as Cope Castle, was an early Jacobean country house An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a Townhouse ( ...
,
Kensington Kensington is an affluent district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in the West End of London, West of Central London. The district's commercial heart is Kensington High Street, running on an east–west axis. The north-east is ...

Kensington
(1624), it receives its fullest development.
Hatfield House Hatfield House is a country house An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a Townhouse (Great Britain), town house. This allowed them to ...

Hatfield House
, built in its entirety by
Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, (1 June 156324 May 1612), was an English statesman noted for his direction of the government during the Union of the Crowns The Union of the Crowns ( gd, Aonadh nan Crùintean; sco, Union o the Crou ...

Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
, between 1607 and 1611, is an example of the later extension of the Elizabethan
prodigy house Prodigy houses are large and showy English country houses built by courtiers and other wealthy families, either "noble palaces of an awesome scale" or "proud, ambitious heaps" according to taste. The prodigy houses stretch over the period ...
, with turreted Tudor-style wings at each end with their mullioned windows but the two wings linked by an
Italianate The Italianate style was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture Classical architecture usually denotes architecture upright=1.45, alt=Plan d'exécution du second étage de l'hôtel de Brionne (dessin) De Co ...
Renaissance facade. This central facade, originally an open
loggia A loggia ( , usually , ) is an architectural Architecture (Latin ''architectura ''Architectura: Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Baukunst'' is a biannual peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people ...

loggia
, has been attributed to Inigo Jones himself; however, the central porch carries a heavier quasi-gatehouse emphasis, so the attribution is probably false. Inside the house, the elaborately carved staircase demonstrates the Renaissance influence on English ornament. Other Jacobean buildings of note are
Crewe Hall Crewe Hall is a Jacobean mansion located near Crewe Green Crewe Green is a small village and civil parishes in England, civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire East and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. The village lies ...

Crewe Hall
,
Cheshire Cheshire ( ;), archaically the County Palatine of Chester, is a historic and ceremonial county in northwest England North West England is one of nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office re ...

Cheshire
;
Hatfield House Hatfield House is a country house An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a Townhouse (Great Britain), town house. This allowed them to ...

Hatfield House
,
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the s ...

Hertfordshire
;
Knole House Knole () NT is a country house and former archbishop's palace situated within Knole Park, a park located immediately to the south-east of Sevenoaks Sevenoaks is a town in Kent with a population of 29,506 situated south-east of London, En ...

Knole House
, near
Sevenoaks Sevenoaks is a town in Kent with a population of 29,506 situated south-east of London, England. Also classified as a civil parishes in England, civil parish, Sevenoaks is served by a commuter South Eastern Main Line, main line railway into L ...

Sevenoaks
in
Kent Kent is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and Robert ...

Kent
;
Charlton House Charlton House is a Jacobean building in Charlton, within the Royal Borough of Greenwich in south-east London. Originally it was a residence for a nobleman associated with the Stuart royal family. It later served as a wartime hospital, then ...

Charlton House
in
Charlton, London Charlton is an area Area is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assign ...
;
Holland House Holland House, originally known as Cope Castle, was an early Jacobean country house An English country house is a large house or mansion in the English countryside. Such houses were often owned by individuals who also owned a Townhouse ( ...
by
John Thorpe John Thorpe or Thorp (c.1565–1655?; fl.1570–1618) was an English architect. Life Little is known of his life, and his work is dubiously inferred, rather than accurately known, from a folio of drawings in the Sir John Soane's Museum Sir ...
;
Plas Teg Plas Teg is a Listed building, Grade I listed Jacobean era, Jacobean house in Wales. It is near the village of Pontblyddyn, Flintshire between Wrexham and Mold, Flintshire, Mold. It is considered to be one of the finest examples of Jacobean architec ...

Plas Teg
near
Pontblyddyn Pontblyddyn is a small village outside Leeswood, in Flintshire, Wales and is situated around 8 miles from Wrexham. Plas Teg, one of the most important Jacobean era houses in Wales, is located near the village. References

Villages in Fl ...
, between
Wrexham Wrexham ( ; cy, Wrecsam; ) is a large market town and the administrative centre of Wrexham County Borough Wrexham County Borough ( cy, Bwrdeistref Sirol Wrecsam) is a Local government in Wales#Principal areas, county borough in the North Ea ...
and
Mold A mold () or mould () is a fungus A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of ...
in Wales;
Bank Hall Bank Hall is a Jacobean mansion A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended f ...
in Bretherton;
Castle Bromwich Hall Castle Bromwich Hall is a Jacobean architecture, Jacobean mansion in the Castle Bromwich area of Birmingham, England. It is a Grade I listed building. History The Hall was built between 1557 and 1585 by Sir Edward Devereux, 1st Baronet of Castl ...

Castle Bromwich Hall
near Solihull;
Lilford Hall Lilford Hall is a Grade I listed Jacobean architecture, Jacobean stately home in Northamptonshire in the United Kingdom. The 100-room house is located in the eastern part of the county, south of Oundle and north of Thrapston. History It was starte ...
in Northamptonshire and
Chastleton House Chastleton House () is a Jacobean country house at Chastleton Chastleton is a village and Civil parishes in England, civil parish in the Cotswolds, Cotswold Hills in Oxfordshire, England, about northeast of Stow-on-the-Wold. Chastleton is in ...
in Oxfordshire. Although the term is generally employed of the style which prevailed in England during the first quarter of the 17th century, its peculiar decadent detail will be found nearly twenty years earlier at
Wollaton Hall Wollaton Hall is an Elizabethan English country house, country house of the 1580s standing on a small but prominent hill in Wollaton Park, Nottingham, England. The house is now Nottingham Natural History Museum, with Nottingham Industrial Muse ...

Wollaton Hall
,
Nottingham Nottingham ( or locally ) is a city status in the United Kingdom, city and Unitary authorities of England, unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, England. Part of the East Midlands region, it is north of London, south of Sheffield, north ...

Nottingham
, and in
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
and
Cambridge Cambridge ( ) is a university city and the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' ...

Cambridge
examples exist up to 1660, notwithstanding the introduction of the purer Italian style by
Inigo Jones Inigo Jones (; 15 July 1573 – 21 June 1652) was the first significant Architecture of England, architect in England in the Early modern Europe, early modern period, and the first to employ Vitruvius, Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry ...
in 1619 at
Whitehall Whitehall is a road and area in the City of Westminster, Central London. The road forms the first part of the A roads in Zone 3 of the Great Britain numbering scheme, A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea, London, Chelsea. It is the main ...

Whitehall
.


In the Americas

In 1607 and 1620, England founded her first successful colonies:
Jamestown, Virginia The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent British colonization of the Americas, English settlement in the Americas. It was located on the northeast bank of the James River, James (Powhatan) River about southwe ...
and Plymouth, Massachusetts. As with other settlers in the New World, the men and women that built the homes and buildings that formed the infrastructure of these towns and the others that followed over the coming century often built edifices that were consistent with Jacobean vernacular architecture in the portion of England that they originated from: for example, the clapboard common to houses in New England and later Nova Scotia to this day are derived from a local style of architecture popular in Northeast England in the early to mid 17th century. Historians often classify this architecture as a subtype of colonial American architecture, called First Period architecture, however there is an enormous amount of overlap between the architecture of the commoner class in early 17th century England and colonial America architecture, where some of the key features of the Jacobean era often outlived James I and VI owing to less contact between the American colonists and the fashions of England. When the Puritans arrived in the winter of 1620 in New England, there was very little time to waste owing to the bitterly cold weather and the fact that many of the occupants of the ship that brought them, the Mayflower, were very ill and needed to get into housing before circumstances could allow the diseases on board to spread further. Those that were still able bodied had to act quickly and as a result the first buildings of New England most resembled the wattle and daub cottages of the common people back home, especially of places like East Anglia and Devonshire, with the thatched roofs that remained common in England until the 1660s differing only in that the main material chosen for thatching was grass found in the local salt marshes. Most of these would have been hall and parlor dwellings with a simple central chimney, a feature of British architecture since the earlier Elizabethan era, a timber frame, a squat lower floor and an upper floor with bare beams and a space to be used for storage. Measurements of the archaeological remains of houses owned by Myles Standish and John Alden done in the mid nineteenth and the mid twentieth century in Duxbury, Massachusetts, a town across the harbor from Plymouth, also settled by the original Pilgrim Fathers, and inhabited just eight years later, reveal that the original homes were very narrow and small, averaging approximately forty feet long by fifteen feet wide. This concurs with the dimensions of houses that would have been found amongst the English commoner classes (specifically yeoman and small farmers) as evidenced by the surviving tax rolls of the Jacobean era. Examples of original Jacobean architecture in the Americas include Drax Hall Estate, Drax Hall Great House and St Nicholas Abbey, St. Nicholas Abbey, both located in Barbados, and Bacon's Castle in Surry County, Virginia. In the 19th Century, the Jacobean Gothic or “Jacobethan” style was briefly popular. Excellent examples are Coxe Hall, Williams Hall, and Medbury Hall, which define the West and North sides of the quadrangle of Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Hobart College in Geneva, NY. Other notable collegiate examples include The University of Florida and Florida State University both designed by William Augustus Edwards.


See also

* Jacobean era * Jacobethan, Jacobean Revival


Notes


References

* Marcus Whiffen, ''An Introduction to Elizabethan and Jacobean Architecture'' (1952). * J. Summerson, ''Architecture in Britain, 1530–1830'' (rev. ed. 1963). * ''The Columbia Encyclopedia'', Sixth Edition. 2001. {{Architecture of England Jacobean architecture, Renaissance architecture in England English architecture by period British architecture by period or style Stuart England Architectural styles Architecture of Barbados 17th-century architecture