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Jacob Ludwig Karl Grimm (4 January 1785 – 20 September 1863), also known as Ludwig Karl, was a German linguist, philologist, jurist, and
folklorist Folklore studies, also known as folkloristics, and occasionally tradition studies or folk life studies in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, ...
. He is known as the discoverer of
Grimm's law Grimm's law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) is a set of sound laws A sound change, in historical linguistics, is a language change, change in the pronunciation of a language over time. A sound change can involve the replacement ...
of linguistics, the co-author of the monumental ''
Deutsches Wörterbuch The ''Deutsches Wörterbuch'' (; "The German Dictionary"), abbreviated ''DWB'', is the largest and most comprehensive dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific languages, often arranged Alphabe ...
'', the author of ''
Deutsche Mythologie ''Deutsche Mythologie'' (, ''Teutonic Mythology'') is a treatise on Germanic mythology Germanic mythology consists of the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as fou ...
'', and the editor of ''
Grimms' Fairy Tales ''Grimms' Fairy Tales'', originally known as the ''Children's and Household Tales'' (german: Kinder- und Hausmärchen, lead=yes, ), is a German collection of fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Mä ...
''. He was the older brother of
Wilhelm Grimm Wilhelm Carl Grimm (also Karl; 24 February 178616 December 1859) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of ...

Wilhelm Grimm
, of the literary duo the
Brothers Grimm The Brothers Grimm ( or ), Jacob Jacob (; ; ar, يَعْقُوب '' Yaʿqūb'', gr, Ἰακώβ, ''Iakṓb''), later given the name Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל; ar, إِسْرَائِيل), officially known as the ...
.


Life and books

Jacob Grimm was born 4 January 1785, in
Hanau Hanau () is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main and is part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main, Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Its Hanau Hauptbahnhof, station is a ...

Hanau
in
Hesse-Kassel The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (german: Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel), spelled Hesse-Cassel during its entire existence, was a state in the Holy Roman Empire that was imperial immediacy, directly subject to the Emperor. The state was created in ...
. His father,
Philipp Grimm
Philipp Grimm
, was a lawyer who died while Jacob was a child, and his mother was left with a very small income. Her sister was lady of the chamber to the
Landgravine Landgrave (german: Landgraf, nl, landgraaf, sv, lantgreve, french: landgrave; la, comes magnus, ', ', ', ', ') was a noble title used in the Holy Roman Empire, and later on in its former territories. The German titles of ', ' ("margrave"), a ...
of Hesse, and she helped to support and educate the family. Jacob was sent to the public school at
Kassel Kassel (; in Germany, spelled Cassel until 1926) is a city on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Regierungsbezirk Kassel (region), Kassel and the Districts of Germany, district Kassel (district), of th ...

Kassel
in 1798 with his younger brother
Wilhelm Wilhelm may refer to: People * Wilhelm (name), list of people with this name * Wilhelm I, German Emperor (1797–1888), King of Prussia and German Emperor * Wilhelm II, German Emperor (1859–1941), grandson of the former, King of Prussia and Germ ...

Wilhelm
. In 1802, he went to the
University of Marburg The Philipps University of Marburg (german: Philipps-Universität Marburg) was founded in 1527 by Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse Philip or Phillip or Philipp or Phillipp, may refer to: People * Philip (name), a given name, derived from the Gree ...
where he studied law, a profession for which he had been intended by his father. His brother joined him at Marburg a year later, having just recovered from a severe illness, and likewise began the study of law.


Meeting von Savigny

Jacob Grimm became inspired by the lectures of
Friedrich Karl von Savigny Friedrich Carl von Savigny (21 February 1779 – 25 October 1861) was a German jurist A jurist is a person with expert knowledge of law; someone who analyses and comments on law. This person is usually a specialist legal scholarnot necessarily ...
, a noted expert of
Roman law Roman law is the law, legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the ''Corpus Juris Civilis'' (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor J ...
; Wilhelm Grimm, in the preface to the ''Deutsche Grammatik'' (German Grammar), credits Savigny with giving the brothers an awareness of science. Savigny's lectures also awakened in Jacob a love for
historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study and the documentation of the past. Events before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems a ...

historical
and
antiquarian An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Thro ...
investigation, which underlies all his work. It was in Savigny's library that Grimm first saw 's edition of the
Middle High German Middle High German (MHG; german: Mittelhochdeutsch (Mhd.)) is the term for the form of German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * ...
minnesingers and other early texts, which gave him a desire to study their language. In the beginning of 1805, he was invited by Savigny to Paris, to help him in his literary work. There Grimm strengthened his taste for the literature of the Middle Ages. Towards the close of the year, he returned to Kassel, where his mother and brother had settled after Wilhelm finished his studies. The following year, Jacob obtained a position in the war office with a small salary of 100
thalers A thaler (; also taler, from german: Taler) is one of the large silver coin Silver coins are possibly the oldest mass-produced form of age. has been used as a since the times of the s; their silver s were popular trade coins. The ancient Per ...
. He complained that he had to exchange his stylish Paris suit for a stiff uniform and pigtail, but the role gave him spare time for the pursuit of his studies.


Librarianship

In 1808, soon after the death of his mother, he was appointed superintendent of the private library of
Jérôme Bonaparte Jérôme-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Girolamo Buonaparte; 15 November 1784 – 24 June 1860) was the youngest brother of Napoleon, Napoleon I and reigned as Jerome Napoleon I (formally Hieronymus Napoleon in German), Kingdom of Westphalia, King of ...

Jérôme Bonaparte
, King of
Westphalia Westphalia (; german: Westfalen ; nds, Westfalen ) is a region of northwestern Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769 ...
, into which
Hesse-Kassel The Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel (german: Landgrafschaft Hessen-Kassel), spelled Hesse-Cassel during its entire existence, was a state in the Holy Roman Empire that was imperial immediacy, directly subject to the Emperor. The state was created in ...

Hesse-Kassel
had been incorporated by
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
. Grimm was appointed an auditor to the state council, while retaining his superintendent post. His salary rose to 4000 francs and his official duties were nominal. In 1813, after the expulsion of Bonaparte and the reinstatement of an elector, Grimm was appointed Secretary of Legation accompanying the Hessian minister to the headquarters of the allied army. In 1814, he was sent to Paris to demand restitution of books taken by the French, and he attended the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
as Secretary of Legation in 1814–1815. Upon his return from Vienna, he was sent to Paris again to secure book restitutions. Meanwhile, Wilhelm had obtained a job at the Kassel library, and Jacob was made second librarian under Volkel in 1816. Upon the death of Volkel in 1828, the brothers both expected promotion, and they were dissatisfied when the role of first librarian was given to Rommel, the keeper of the archives. Consequently, they moved the following year to the
University of Göttingen The University of Göttingen, officially the Georg August University of Göttingen, (german: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany. Founded i ...
, where Jacob was appointed professor and librarian, and Wilhelm under-librarian. Jacob Grimm lectured on legal antiquities, historical grammar,
literary history The history of literature is the historical development of writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselves human languages (with t ...
, and
diplomatics Diplomatics (in American English, and in most anglophone countries), or diplomatic (in British English), is a scholarly discipline centred on the critical analysis of document A document is a writing, written, drawing, drawn, presented, or ...
, explained Old German poems, and commented on the ''
Germania Germania ( , ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: ''Free Germania'') or Germanic Barbaricum Barbaricum (from the gr, Βαρβαρικόν, "foreign", "barbarian") is a geographical name used by ...
'' of
Tacitus Publius Cornelius Tacitus ( , ; – ) was a Roman historian and politician. Tacitus is widely regarded as one of the greatest Roman historians by modern scholars. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature Classi ...

Tacitus
.


Later work

Grimm joined other academics, known as the
Göttingen Seven The Göttingen Seven (german: Göttinger Sieben) were a group of seven liberal professors from Göttingen Göttingen (, also , ; nds, Chöttingen) is a college town, university city in Lower Saxony, Germany, the Capital (political), capital o ...
, who signed a protest against the
King of Hanover The King of Hanover (German language, German: ''König von Hannover'') was the official title of the head of state and Hereditary monarchy, hereditary ruler of the Kingdom of Hanover, beginning with the proclamation of the List of British monarch ...
's abrogation of the liberal constitution which had been established some years before. As a result, he was dismissed from his professorship and banished from the Kingdom of Hanover in 1837. He returned to Kassel with his brother, who had also signed the protest. They remained there until 1840, when they accepted King
Frederick William IV Frederick William IV (german: Friedrich Wilhelm IV.; 15 October 17952 January 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 7 June 1840 to his death. Also referred to as the "romanticis ...
's invitation to move to the
University of Berlin Humboldt University of Berlin (german: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an individual or an ...
, where they both received professorships and were elected members of the Academy of Sciences. Grimm was not under any obligation to lecture, and seldom did so; he spent his time working with his brother on their dictionary project. During their time in Kassel, he regularly attended the meetings of the academy and read papers on varied subjects, including Karl Konrad Friedrich Wilhelm Lachmann,
Friedrich Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a Germans, German playwright, poet, and philosopher. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, if complicated, ...

Friedrich Schiller
, old age, and the origin of language. He described his impressions of Italian and Scandinavian travel, interspersing more general observations with linguistic details. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, founded 1780, (abbreviation: AAAS) is one of the oldest learned societies A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization ...

American Academy of Arts and Sciences
in 1857. Grimm died in Berlin at the age of 78, working until the very end of his life. He describes his own work at the end of his autobiography:
Nearly all my labours have been devoted, either directly or indirectly, to the investigation of our earlier language, poetry and laws. These studies may have appeared to many, and may still appear, useless; to me they have always seemed a noble and earnest task, definitely and inseparably connected with our common fatherland, and calculated to foster the love of it. My principle has always been in these investigations to under-value nothing, but to utilize the small for the illustration of the great, the popular tradition for the elucidation of the written monuments.


Linguistic work


''History of the German Language''

Grimm's ''Geschichte der deutschen Sprache'' (History of the German Language) explores German history hidden in the words of the German language and is the oldest linguistic history of the Teutonic tribes. He collected scattered words and allusions from classical literature and tried to determine the relationship between the German language and those of the
Getae The Getae ( ) or Gets ( ; grc, Γέται, singular ) were several Thracian tribes that once inhabited the regions to either side of the Lower Danube The Danube ( ; ) is Europe's List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest ri ...
, Thracians, Scythians, and other nations whose languages were known only through Greek and Latin authors. Grimm's results were later greatly modified by a wider range of available comparison and improved methods of investigation. Many questions that he raised remain obscure due to the lack of surviving records of the languages, but his book's influence was profound.


''German Grammar''

Grimm's famous ''Deutsche Grammatik'' (German Grammar) was the outcome of his purely philological work. He drew on the work of past generations, from the humanists onwards, consulting an enormous collection of materials in the form of text editions, dictionaries, and grammars, mostly uncritical and unreliable. Some work had been done in the way of comparison and determination of general laws, and the concept of a comparative Germanic grammar had been grasped by the Englishman
George Hickes George Hickes may refer to: * George Hickes (divine) (1642–1715), English divine and scholar * George Hickes (Manitoba politician) (born 1946), Canadian politician * George Hickes (Nunavut politician) (born 1968/69), Canadian politician, son of t ...
by the beginning of the 18th century, in his ''Thesaurus''.
Ten KateTen Kate is a Dutch language, Dutch toponymic surname originally meaning "at the house". The modern Dutch word ''kot'' ("kennel") still reminds of the archaic words ''kate'', ''kote'', and ''kotte'' for "house".Old High German Old High German (OHG, german: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. ) is the earliest stage of the German language German ( Standard High German: , ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Euro ...
postulated
Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes **Gothic language, an extinct East Germanic language spoken by the Goths **Crimean Gothic, the Gothic language spoken by ...
, and that the later stages of German could not be understood without the help of other
West Germanic The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples ...
varieties including English, and that the literature of Scandinavia could not be ignored. The first edition of the first part of the ''Grammar'', which appeared in 1819, treated the inflections of all these languages, and included a general introduction in which he vindicated the importance of a historical study of the German language against the quasi-philosophical methods then in vogue. In 1822 the book appeared in a second edition (really a new work, for, as Grimm himself says in the preface, he had to "mow the first crop down to the ground"). The considerable gap between the two stages of Grimm's development of these editions is shown by the fact that the second volume addresses phonology in 600 pages – more than half the volume. Grimm had concluded that all philology must be based on rigorous adherence to the laws of
sound change A sound change, in historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change Language change is variation over time in a language A language is a structured syste ...
, and he subsequently never deviated from this principle. This gave to all his investigations a consistency and force of conviction that had been lacking in the study of philology before his day. His advances have been attributed mainly to the influence of his contemporary Rasmus Christian Rask. Rask was two years younger than Grimm, but the Icelandic paradigms in Grimm's first editions, his Icelandic paradigms are based entirely on Rask's grammar; in his second edition, he relied almost entirely on Rask for Old English. His debt to Rask is shown by comparing his treatment of
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language ...
in the two editions. For example, in the first edition he declines ''dæg, dæges'', plural ''dægas'', without having observed the law of vowel-change pointed out by Rask. (The correct plural is ''dagas.'') The appearance of Rask's Old English grammar was probably the primary impetus for Grimm to recast his work from the beginning. Rask was also the first to clearly formulate the laws of sound-correspondence in the different languages, especially in the vowels (previously ignored by etymologists). The ''Grammar'' was continued in three volumes, treating principally derivation, composition and
syntax In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the ...

syntax
, the last of which was unfinished. Grimm then began a third edition, of which only one part, comprising the vowels, appeared in 1840, his time being afterwards taken up mainly by the dictionary. The ''Grammar'' is noted for its comprehensiveness, method and fullness of detail, with all his points illustrated by an almost exhaustive mass of material, and it has served as a model for all succeeding investigators.
DiezDiez may refer to: *Diez (surname) *''Diez'', a sports newspaper in Bolivia *Diez (Honduras), ''Diez'' (Honduras), a newspaper in Honduras *''Diez'' or ''X'', an album by Intocable *10 (number) in Spanish. *Diez, Germany, a town in Rhineland-Palatin ...

Diez
's grammar of the
Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European languages, Indo- ...
s is founded entirely on Grimm's methods, which have had a profound influence on the wider study of the
Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family A language family is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, based on speech and gesture (spoken language), Signed language, sign, or o ...
in general.


Grimm's law

Jacob is recognized for enunciating
Grimm's law Grimm's law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) is a set of sound laws A sound change, in historical linguistics, is a language change, change in the pronunciation of a language over time. A sound change can involve the replacement ...
, the Germanic Sound Shift, which was first observed by the Danish philologist Rasmus Christian Rask. Grimm's law was the first non-trivial systematic
sound change A sound change, in historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change Language change is variation over time in a language A language is a structured syste ...
to be discovered. Grimm's law, also known as the "Rask-Grimm Rule" or the First Germanic Sound Shift, was the first law in linguistics concerning a non-trivial
sound change A sound change, in historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change Language change is variation over time in a language A language is a structured syste ...
. It was a turning point in the development of linguistics, allowing the introduction of a rigorous methodology to historic linguistic research. It concerns the correspondence of consonants between the ancestral
Proto-Indo-European language Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
and its
Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ...

Germanic
descendants,
Low Saxon Low Saxon or Lower Saxon may refer to: Geography *Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state (''Land'') situated in Northern Germany, northwestern Germany. It is the second-large ...
and
High German The High German dialects (german: hochdeutsche Mundarten), or simply High German (; not to be confused with Standard High German which is imprecisely also called ''High German''), comprise the varieties Variety may refer to: Science and te ...
, and was first fully stated by Grimm in the second edition of the first part of his ''Grammar''. The correspondence of single consonants had been more or less clearly recognized by several of his predecessors, including
Friedrich von Schlegel Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (after 1814: von) Schlegel (; ; 10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829) was a German poet A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may describe themselves as such or be described as such by others. A poet may simply be a ...
, Rasmus Christian Rask and
Johan Ihre Johan Ihre (3 March 1707 – 1 December 1780) was a Sweden, Swedish philologist and historical linguist. Life Ihre was born in Lund, son of the theologian Thomas Ihre and his spouse Brita Steuchia. After his father's death in 1720, Johan Ihre ...
, the last having established a considerable number of ''literarum permutationes'', such as b for f, with the examples ''bœra'' = ''ferre'' ("to bear"), ''befwer'' = ''fibra'' ("fiber"). Rask, in his essay on the origin of the
Icelandic language Icelandic (; is, íslenska, link=no ) is a North Germanic language The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic language ...
, gave the same comparisons, with a few additions and corrections, and even the same examples in most cases. As Grimm in the preface to his first edition expressly mentioned Rask's essay, there is every probability that it inspired his own investigations. But there is a wide difference between the isolated permutations described by his predecessors and his own comprehensive generalizations. The extension of the law to High German in any case is entirely Grimm's work. The idea that Grimm wished to deprive Rask of his claims to priority is based on the fact that he does not expressly mention Rask's results in his second edition, but it was always his plan to refrain from all controversy or reference to the works of others. In his first edition, he calls attention to Rask's essay, and praises it ungrudgingly. Nevertheless, a certain bitterness of feeling afterwards sprang up between Grimm and Rask, after Rask refused to consider the value of Grimm's views when they clashed with his own.


''German Dictionary''

Grimm's monumental
dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific languages, often arranged Alphabetical order, alphabetically (or by radical-and-stroke sorting, radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include in ...

dictionary
of the
German Language German ( Standard High German: , ) is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultu ...

German Language
, the ''
Deutsches Wörterbuch The ''Deutsches Wörterbuch'' (; "The German Dictionary"), abbreviated ''DWB'', is the largest and most comprehensive dictionary A dictionary is a listing of lexemes from the lexicon of one or more specific languages, often arranged Alphabe ...
'', was started in 1838 and first published in 1854. The Brothers anticipated it would take 10 years and encompass some six to seven volumes. However, it was undertaken on so large a scale as to make it impossible for them to complete it. The dictionary, as far as it was worked on by Grimm himself, has been described as a collection of disconnected antiquarian essays of high value. It was finally finished by subsequent scholars in 1961 and supplemented in 1971. At 33 volumes at some 330,000 headwords, it remains a standard work of reference to the present day. A current project at the
Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities The Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities (german: Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften), abbreviated BBAW, is the official academic society for the natural science Natural science is a branch A branch ( ...
is underway to update the ''Deutsches Wörterbuch'' to modern academic standards. Volumes A–F were scheduled for release in 2012.


Literary work

The first work Jacob Grimm published, ''Über den altdeutschen Meistergesang'' (1811), was of a purely literary character. Yet even in this essay Grimm showed that ''
Minnesang ''Minnesang'' (, "love song") was a tradition of lyric- and song-writing in Germany that flourished in the Middle High German literature, Middle High German period. This period of Middle High German literature, medieval German literature began in ...
'' and '''' were really one form of poetry, of which they merely represented different stages of development, and also announced his important discovery of the invariable division of the ''Lied'' into three strophic parts. Grimm's text-editions were mostly prepared in conjunction with his brother. In 1812 they published the two ancient fragments of the ''
Hildebrandslied The ''Hildebrandslied'' (; ''Lay'' or ''Song of Hildebrand'') is a heroic lay written in Old High German Old High German (OHG, german: Althochdeutsch, German abbr. ) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the per ...
'' and the '' Weißenbrunner Gebet'', Jacob having discovered what till then had never been suspected — namely the
alliteration In literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definiti ...
in these poems. However, Jacob had little taste for text editing, and, as he himself confessed, working on a critical text gave him little pleasure. He therefore left this department to others, especially Lachmann, who soon turned his brilliant critical genius, trained in the severe school of classical philology, to Old and
Middle High German Middle High German (MHG; german: Mittelhochdeutsch (Mhd.)) is the term for the form of German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * ...
poetry and metre. Both Brothers were attracted from the beginning by all national poetry, whether in the form of epics, ballads or popular tales. They published In 1816–1818 a collection of legends culled from diverse sources and published the two-volume ''Deutsche Sagen'' (German Legends). At the same time they collected all the folktales they could find, partly from the mouths of the people, partly from manuscripts and books, and published in 1812–1815 the first edition of those ''
Kinder- und Hausmärchen ''Grimms' Fairy Tales'', originally known as the ''Children's and Household Tales'' (german: Kinder- und Hausmärchen, lead=yes, ), is a German collection of fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Mä ...
'' (Children's and Household Tales), which has carried the name of the brothers Grimm into every household of the western world. The closely related subject of the satirical beast epic of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
also held great charm for Jacob Grimm, and he published an edition of the ''Reinhart Fuchs'' in 1834. His first contribution to mythology was the first volume of an edition of the
Edda "Edda" (; Old Norse ''Edda'', plural ''Eddur'') is an Old Norse term that has been attributed by modern scholars to the collective of two Medieval Icelandic literary works: what is now known as the ''Prose Edda'' and an older collection of poem ...

Edda
ic songs, undertaken jointly with his brother, and was published in 1815. However, this work was not followed by any others on the subject. The first edition of his ''
Deutsche Mythologie ''Deutsche Mythologie'' (, ''Teutonic Mythology'') is a treatise on Germanic mythology Germanic mythology consists of the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as fou ...
'' (German Mythology) appeared in 1835. This work covered the whole range of the subject, attempting to trace the mythology and superstitions of the old
Teutons The Teutons ( la, Teutones, , grc, Τεύτονες) were an ancient northern European tribe mentioned by Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD * ...
back to the very dawn of direct evidence, and following their evolution to modern-day popular traditions, tales, and expressions.


Legal scholarship

Grimm's work as a jurist was influential for the development of the
history of law History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the History of writing#Inventions of writing, invention of writing systems are considered ...
, particularly in Northern Europe. His essay ''Von der Poesie im Recht'' (''Poetry in Law'', 1816) developed a far-reaching, suprapositivist Romantic conception of law. The ''Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer'' (''German Legal Antiquities'', 1828) was a comprehensive compilation of sources of law from all Germanic languages, whose structure allowed an initial understanding of older German legal traditions not influenced by Roman law. Grimm's '' Weisthümer'' (4 vol., 1840–63), a compilation of partially oral legal traditions from rural Germany, allows research of the development of written law in Northern Europe.


Politics

Jacob Grimm's work tied in strongly with his views on Germany and its culture. His work on both fairy tales and philology dealt with the country's origins. He wished for a united Germany, and, like his brother, supported the
Liberal Liberal or liberalism may refer to: Politics *a supporter of liberalism, a political and moral philosophy **Liberalism by country *an adherent of a Liberal Party Arts, entertainment and media *''El Liberal'', a Spanish newspaper published betw ...

Liberal
movement for a constitutional monarchy and civil liberties, as demonstrated by their involvement in the Göttingen Seven protest. In the
German revolution of 1848 German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language * Germanic peoples * Ger ...
, he was elected to the Frankfurt National Parliament. The people of Germany had demanded a constitution, so the Parliament, formed of elected members from various German states, met to form one. Grimm was selected for the office largely because of his part in the University of Goettingen's refusal to swear to the king of Hanover. He then went to Frankfurt, where he made some speeches, and was adamant that the Danish-ruled but German-speaking duchy of
Holstein Holstein (; nds, label=Northern Low Saxon, Holsteen; da, Holsten; Latin and historical en, Holsatia, italic=yes) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider (river), Eider. It is the southern half of Schleswig-Holstein, the northernmost S ...
to be under German control. Grimm soon became disillusioned with the National Assembly and asked to be released from his duties to return to his studies. He was elected to the
American Philosophical Society The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 in Philadelphia Philadelphia (colloquially known simply as Philly) is the largest city in the Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community ...
in 1863.


Death

Jacob Grimm died on 20 September 1863, in Berlin, Germany from natural causes, at the age of 78.


Works

The following is a complete list of Grimm's separately published works. Those he published with his brother are marked with a star (*). For a list of his essays in periodicals, etc., see vol. V of his ''Kleinere Schriften'', from which the present list is taken. His life is best studied in his own ''Selbstbiographie'', in vol. I of the ''Kleinere Schriften''. There is also a brief memoir by in ''Göttinger Professoren'' (Gotha (Perthes), 1872). *''Über den altdeutschen Meistergesang'' (Göttingen, 1811) **''
Kinder- und Hausmärchen ''Grimms' Fairy Tales'', originally known as the ''Children's and Household Tales'' (german: Kinder- und Hausmärchen, lead=yes, ), is a German collection of fairy tale A fairy tale, fairytale, wonder tale, magic tale, fairy story or ''Mä ...
'' (Berlin, 1812–1815) (many editions) **''Das Lied von Hildebrand und des Weissenbrunner Gebet'' (Kassel, 1812) *''Altdeutsche Wälder'' (Kassel, Frankfurt, 1813–1816, 3 vols.) **''Der arme Heinrich von Hartmann von der Aue'' (Berlin, 1815) *''Irmenstrasse und Irmensäule'' (Vienna, 1815) **''Die Lieder der alten Edda'' (Berlin, 1815) *''Silva de romances viejos'' (Vienna, 1815) **''Deutsche Sagen'' (Berlin, 1816–1818, 2nd ed., Berlin, 1865–1866) *''Deutsche Grammatik'' (Göttingen, 1819, 2nd ed., Göttingen, 1822–1840) (reprinted 1870 by
Wilhelm Scherer Wilhelm Scherer (26 April 18416 August 1886) was a German philologist Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics (with espe ...

Wilhelm Scherer
, Berlin) *''Wuk Stephanowitsch' Kleine Serbische Grammatik, verdeutscht mit einer Vorrede'' (Leipzig and Berlin, 1824) Vuk Stefanovic Karadzic – Serbian Grammar *''Zur Recension der deutschen Grammatik'' (Kassel, 1826) **''Irische Elfenmärchen, aus dem Englischen'' (Leipzig, 1826) *''Deutsche Rechtsaltertümer'' (Göttingen, 1828, 2nd ed., 1854) *''Hymnorum veteris ecclesiae XXVI. interpretatio theodisca'' (Göttingen, 1830) *''Reinhart Fuchs'' (Berlin, 1834) *''
Deutsche Mythologie ''Deutsche Mythologie'' (, ''Teutonic Mythology'') is a treatise on Germanic mythology Germanic mythology consists of the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as fou ...
'' (Göttingen, 1835, 3rd ed., 1854, 2 vols.) *''Taciti Germania edidit'' (Göttingen, 1835) *''Über meine Entlassung'' (Basel, 1838) *(together with Schmeller) ''Lateinische Gedichte des X. und XI. Jahrhunderts'' (Göttingen, 1838) *''Sendschreiben an Karl Lachmann über Reinhart Fuchs'' (Berlin, 1840) *''Weistümer, Th. i.'' (Göttingen, 1840) (continued, partly by others, in 5 parts, 1840–1869) *''Andreas und Elene'' (Kassel, 1840) *''Frau Aventure'' (Berlin, 1842) *''Geschichte der deutschen Sprache'' (Leipzig, 1848, 3rd ed., 1868, 2 vols.) *''Des Wort des Besitzes'' (Berlin, 1850) **''Deutsches Wörterbuch'', Bd. i. (Leipzig, 1854) *''Rede auf Wilhelm Grimm und Rede über das Alter'' (Berlin, 1868, 3rd ad., 1865) *''Kleinere Schriften'' (F. Dümmler, Berlin, 1864–1884, 7 vols.). ** vol. 1 : ''Reden und Abhandlungen'' (1864, 2nd ed. 1879) ** vol. 2 : ''Abhandlungen zur Mythologie und Sittenkunde'' (1865) ** vol. 3 : ''Abhandlungen zur Litteratur und Grammatik'' (1866) ** vol. 4 : ''Recensionen und vermischte Aufsätze'', part I (1869) ** vol. 5 : ''Recensionen und vermischte Aufsätze'', part II (1871) ** vol. 6 : ''Recensionen und vermischte Aufsätze'', part III ** vol. 7 : ''Recensionen und vermischte Aufsätze'', part IV (1884)


Citations


External links

* * * * * Works co-authored by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm:
Teutonic Mythology
English translation of Grimm's ''Deutsche Mythologie'' (1880).

(This site is the only one to feature all of the Grimms' notes translated in English along with the tales from Hunt's original edition. Andrew Lang's introduction is also included.) * * * *
The Grimm dictionary online


{{DEFAULTSORT:Grimm, Jakob 1785 births 1863 deaths 19th-century anthropologists
19th-century German writers Writer A writer is a person who uses written words in different styles and techniques to communicate ideas. Writers produce different forms of literary art and creative writing such as novels, short stories, books, poetry, plays, screenplays, ...
19th-century German male writers {{CatAutoTOC 19th-century German writers, +Male 19th-century male writers, German German male writers ...
19th-century German jurists 19th-century philologists People from Hanau People from the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel Members of the Frankfurt Parliament German anthropologists Linguists from Germany German philologists
German male non-fiction writers {{CatAutoTOC Male non-fiction writers German non-fiction writers, Male German male writers, Non-fiction ...
Writers on Germanic paganism
Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellows, Associate Fellows and Foreign Honorary Members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. {{CatAutoTOC, numerals=no American Academy of Arts and Sciences Fellows of learned societies of the United States, Arts and Sciences, American Ac ...
Germanic studies scholars Grammarians from Germany Linguists of German Mythographers Romanticism Indo-Europeanists Linguists of Germanic languages
Linguists of Indo-European languagesIndo-Europeanists Indo-European linguistics Linguists by language group of study, Indo-European, {{CatAutoTOC ...
University of Marburg alumni University of Göttingen faculty Members of the Prussian Academy of Sciences Members of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences Members of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Recipients of the Pour le Mérite (civil class)