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Articles in
economics journals Economics () is a social science that studies the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics), consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on the behaviour and interact ...
are usually classified according to JEL classification codes, which derive from the ''
Journal of Economic Literature The ''Journal of Economic Literature'' is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified mem ...
''. The ''JEL'' is published quarterly by the
American Economic Association The American Economic Association (AEA) is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization that exists to promote an discipline (academia), academic discip ...
(AEA) and contains survey articles and information on recently published books and dissertations. The AEA maintains
EconLit EconLit is an academic literature abstracting database service published by the American Economic Association The American Economic Association (AEA) is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly soc ...
, a searchable data base of citations for articles, books, reviews, dissertations, and working papers classified by JEL codes for the years from 1969. A recent addition to EconLit is indexing of economics-journal articles from 1886 to 1968 parallel to the print series ''Index of Economic Articles''.


Structure

There are 26 primary JEL categories: ;JEL Subcategories: Each JEL primary category has secondary and tertiary subcategories, for example, under JEL: D – Microeconomics: :JEL: D1 – Household Behavior and Family Economics ::JEL: D11 – Consumer Economics: TheoryAn alphabetic list of category links constructed as corresponding JEL-code (sub)categories and listed below is at :Categories which are included in the JEL classification codes. JEL code (sub)categories, including periodic updates, are referenced a
Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) Classification System
Links to definitions of (sub)categories are a
JEL Classification Codes Guide
with corresponding examples of article titles linked to publication information, such as
abstracts An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, academic conference, conference proceedings, proceeding, or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpos ...
.


Purpose

Articles in economics journals also list JEL codes (for example JEL: B12), facilitating their use across
search engine A search engine is a software system A software system is a system of intercommunicating software component, components based on forming part of a computer system (a combination of Computer hardware, hardware and software). It "consists of a n ...
s. Comprehensive uses of JEL (sub)classifications include: :• ''The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics'', 2008, v. 8, Appendix IV, pp. 854–69, and for the online version by drilling to the primary, secondary, or tertiary JEL code of interest
here
and pressing the Search button below it for article-preview links . :• National Bureau of Economic Research Working Papers abstracts by year vi
links
:• Research Papers in Economics vi
links


JEL categories


A. General Economics and Teaching

A1 Economics, General Economics ::A10 Economics, General ::A11 Role of Economics • Role of Economists • Market for Economists ::A12 :Interdisciplinary subfieldolkgckxghhmfxmgv bs of economics, Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines ::A13 Socioeconomics, Relation of Economics to Social Values ::A14 Sociology of Economics ::A19 Other A2 Economics education, Economic Education and Teaching of Economics ::A20 General ::A21 Pre-college ::A22 Undergraduate ::A23 Graduate ::A29 Other A3 Collective Works ::A30 General ::A31 Collected Writings of Individuals ::A32 Collective Volumes ::A33 Economics handbooks, Handbooks ::A39 Other


B. History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches

::B00 General B1 :History of economic thought, History of Economic Thought through 1925 ::B10 History of economic thought, General ::B11 :Preclassical economics, Preclassical (Ancient, Medieval, Mercantilist, Physiocratic) ::B12 :Classical economics, Classical (includes Adam Smith) ::B13 Neoclassical economics, Neoclassical through 1925 (Austrian, Marshallian, Walrasian, Wicksellian) ::B14 History of socialism, Socialist • Marxist theory, Marxist ::B15 Historical school of economics, Historical • Institutional economics, Institutional • Evolutionary economics, Evolutionary ::B16 Mathematical economics#History, Quantitative and Mathematical ::B17 International Trade and Finance ::B19 Other B2 :History of economic thought, History of Economic Thought since 1925 ::B20 History of economic thought, General ::B21 Microeconomics ::B22 Macroeconomics ::B23 Econometrics • Quantitative and Mathematical Studies ::B24 History of socialism, Socialist • Marxist theory, Marxist • Piero Sraffa#Major works, Sraffian ::B25 Historical school of economics, Historical • Institutional economics, Institutional • Evolutionary economics, Evolutionary • Austrian School, Austrian • Stockholm School ::B26 Financial Economics ::B27 International Trade and Finance ::B29 Other B3 :History of economic thought, History of Economic Thought: Individuals ::B30 History of economic thought, General ::B31 Individuals ::B32 Obituaries B4 Economic methodology, Economic Methodology ::B40 General ::B41 Economic methodology, Economic Methodology ::B49 Other B5 Heterodox economics, Current Heterodox Approaches ::B50 Heterodox economics, General ::B51 History of socialism, Socialist • Marxist theory, Marxist • Piero Sraffa#Major works, Sraffian ::B52 Historical school of economics, Historical • Institutional economics, Institutional • Evolutionary economics, Evolutionary ::B53 Austrian School, Austrian ::B54 Feminist economics, Feminist Economics ::B59 Other


:Mathematical and quantitative methods (economics), C. Mathematical and Quantitative Methods

::C00 General ::C01 Econometrics ::C02 Mathematical economics, Mathematical Methods C1 :Econometrics, Econometric and Statistics, Statistical Methods and Methodology: General ::C10 General ::C11 :Bayesian statistics, Bayesian Analysis: General ::C12 Hypothesis testing, Hypothesis Testing: General ::C13 Estimation theory, Estimation: General ::C14 Semiparametric model, Semiparametric and Non-parametric statistics, Nonparametric Methods: General ::C15 Simulation, Statistical Simulation Methods: General ::C18 Methodological Issues: General ::C19 Other C2 :Single-equation methods (econometrics), Single Equation Models • Single Variables ::C20 Single equation methods (econometrics), General ::C21 Cross-sectional analysis, Cross-Sectional Models • Spatial analysis, Spatial Models • Effect size, Treatment Effect Models • Quantile regression, Quantile Regressions ::C22 Time series, Time-Series Models • Dynamic Quantile Regressions • Dynamic Treatment Effect Models • Diffusion Processes ::C23 Panel data, Panel Data Models • Spatio-temporal Models ::C24 Truncated regression model, Truncated and Censored regression models, Censored Models • Switching Regression Models • Threshold Regression Models ::C25 Poisson regression, Discrete Regression and Discrete choice, Qualitative Choice Models • Discrete Regressors • Proportions • Probabilities ::C26 Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation ::C29 Other C3 :Simultaneous equation methods (econometrics), Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models • Multiple Variables ::C30 Simultaneous equation methods (econometrics), General ::C31 Cross-sectional analysis, Cross-Sectional Models • Spatial analysis, Spatial Models • Effect size, Treatment Effect Models • Quantile Regressions • Social Interaction Models ::C32 Time series, Time-Series Models • Dynamic Quantile Regressions • Dynamic Treatment Effect Models • Diffusion Processes • State Space Models ::C33 Panel data, Panel Data Models • Spatio-temporal Models ::C34 Truncated regression model, Truncated and Censored regression models, Censored Models • Switching Regression Models ::C35 Poisson regression, Discrete Regression and Discrete choice, Qualitative Choice Models • Poisson regression, Discrete Regressors • Proportions ::C36 Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation ::C38 Classification Methods • Cluster Analysis • Principal Components • Factor Models ::C39 Other C4 :Econometrics, Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics ::C40 General ::C41 Survival analysis, Duration Analysis • Optimal Timing Strategies ::C43 Index (economics), Index Numbers and Aggregation problem, Aggregation ::C44 Operations research, Operations Research • Decision theory, Statistical Decision Theory ::C45 Neural networks, Neural Networks and Related Topics ::C46 Probability distribution, Specific Distributions • Specific Statistics ::C49 Other C5 :Econometric models, Econometric Modeling ::C50 Econometric models, General ::C51 Statistical model, Model Construction and Estimation ::C52 Model selection, Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection ::C53 Economic forecasting, Forecasting and Prediction Methods • Simulation#Economics simulation, Simulation Methods ::C54 Quantitative Policy Modeling ::C55 Large Data Sets: Modeling and Analysis ::C57 Econometrics of Games and Auctions ::C58 Financial Econometrics ::C59 Other C6 :Mathematical economics, Mathematical Methods • Mathematical programming, Programming Models • Mathematical modeling, Mathematical and Simulation modeling, Simulation Modeling ::C60 Mathematical economics, General ::C61 Optimization (mathematics), Optimization Techniques • Operations research, Programming Models • Dynamical systems, Dynamic Analysis ::C62 Existence theorem, Existence and Stability theory, Stability Conditions of Economic equilibrium, Equilibrium ::C63 Computational economics, Computational Techniques • Simulation modeling, Simulation Modeling ::C65 Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools ::C67 Input-output model, Input–Output Models ::C68 Computable general equilibrium, Computable General Equilibrium Models ::C69 Other C7 :Game theory, Game Theory and Bargaining Theory ::C70 General ::C71 Cooperative game theory, Cooperative Games ::C72 Noncooperative game, Noncooperative Games ::C73 Stochastic game, Stochastic and Dynamic game, Dynamic Games • Evolutionary game theory, Evolutionary Games • Repeated Games ::C78 Bargaining, Bargaining Theory • Matching theory (economics), Matching Theory ::C79 Other C8 :Economic data, Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology • Computer programs, Computer Programs ::C80 Economic data, General ::C81 Survey sampling, Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data • Data Access ::C82 Official statistics, Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data • Data Access ::C83 Survey Methods • Sampling Methods ::C87 Econometric software, Econometric Software ::C88 Computer software, Other Computer Software ::C89 Other C9 :Design of experiments, Design of Experiments ::C90 Experimental economics, General ::C91 Experimental psychology, Laboratory, Individual Behavior ::C92 Social psychology, Laboratory, Group Behavior ::C93 Field experiments, Field Experiments ::C99 Other


:Microeconomics, D. Microeconomics

::D00 Microeconomics, General ::D01 Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles ::D02 Institutions: Design, Formation, Operations, and Impact ::D03 Behavioral Microeconomics: Underlying Principles ::D04 Microeconomic Policy: Formulation, Implementation, and Evaluation D1 Household Behavior and Family Economics ::D10 General ::D11 Consumer Economics: Theory ::D12 Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis ::D13 Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation ::D14 Household Saving • Personal Finance ::D15 Intertemporal Household Choice • Life Cycle Models and Saving ::D16 Collaborative Consumption ::D18 Consumer Protection ::D19 Other D2 Production and Organizations ::D20 General ::D21 Firm Behavior: Theory ::D22 Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis ::D23 Organizational Behavior • Transaction Costs • Property Rights ::D24 Production • Cost • Capital • Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity • Capacity ::D25 Intertemporal Firm Choice: Investment, Capacity, and Financing ::D29 Other D3 Distribution ::D30 General ::D31 Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions ::D33 Factor Income Distribution ::D39 Other D4 Market Structure, Pricing, and Design ::D40 General ::D41 Perfect Competition ::D42 Monopoly ::D43 Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection ::D44 Auctions ::D45 Rationing • Licensing ::D46 Value Theory ::D47 Market Design ::D49 Other D5 General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium ::D50 General ::D51 Exchange and Production Economies ::D52 Incomplete Markets ::D53 Financial Markets ::D57 Input–Output Tables and Analysis ::D58 Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models ::D59 Other D6 Welfare Economics ::D60 General ::D61 Allocative Efficiency • Cost–Benefit Analysis ::D62 Externalities ::D63 Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement ::D64 Altruism • Philanthropy • Intergenerational Transfers ::D69 Other D7 Analysis of Collective Decision-Making ::D70 General ::D71 Social Choice • Clubs • Committees • Associations ::D72 Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior ::D73 Bureaucracy • Administrative Processes in Public Organizations • Corruption ::D74 Conflict • Conflict Resolution • Alliances • Revolutions ::D78 Positive Analysis of Policy Formulation and Implementation ::D79 Other D8 Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty ::D80 General ::D81 Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty ::D82 Asymmetric and Private Information • Mechanism Design ::D83 Search • Learning • Information and Knowledge • Communication • Belief • Unawareness ::D84 Expectations • Speculations ::D85 Network Formation and Analysis: Theory ::D86 Economics of Contract: Theory ::D87 Neuroeconomics ::D89 Other D9 Micro-Based Behavioral Economics ::D90 General ::D91 Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making ::D99 Other


E. :Macroeconomics, Macroeconomics and :Monetary economics, Monetary Economics

::E00 Macroeconomics, General ::E01 Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth • Environmental Accounts ::E02 Institutions and the Macroeconomy ::E03 Behavioral Macroeconomics E1 General Aggregative Models ::E10 General ::E11 Marxian • Sraffian • Kaleckian ::E12 Keynes • Keynesian • Post-Keynesian ::E13 Neoclassical ::E14 Austrian • Evolutionary • Institutional ::E16 Social Accounting Matrix ::E17 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications ::E19 Other E2 Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy ::E20 General ::E21 Consumption • Saving • Wealth ::E22 Investment • Capital • Intangible Capital • Capacity ::E23 Production ::E24 Employment • Unemployment • Wages • Intergenerational Income Distribution • Aggregate Human Capital • Aggregate Labor Productivity ::E25 Aggregate Factor Income Distribution ::E26 Informal Economy • Underground Economy ::E27 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications ::E29 Other E3 Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles ::E30 General ::E31 Price Level • Inflation • Deflation ::E32 Business Fluctuations • Cycles ::E37 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications ::E39 Other E4 Money and Interest Rates ::E40 Monetary economics, General ::E41 Demand for Money ::E42 Monetary Systems • Standards • Regimes • Government and the Monetary System • Payment Systems ::E43 Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects ::E44 Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy ::E47 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications ::E49 Other E5 Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit ::E50 General ::E51 Money Supply • Credit • Money Multipliers ::E52 Monetary Policy ::E58 Central Banks and Their Policies ::E59 Other E6 Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook ::E60 General ::E61 Policy Objectives • Policy Designs and Consistency • Policy Coordination ::E62 Fiscal Policy ::E63 Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy • Stabilization • Treasury Policy ::E64 Incomes Policy • Price Policy ::E65 Studies of Particular Policy Episodes ::E66 General Outlook and Conditions ::E69 Other


:International economics, F. International Economics

::F00 International economics, General ::F01 Global Outlook ::F02 International Economic Order and Integration F1 Trade ::F10 General ::F11 Neoclassical Models of Trade ::F12 Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies • Fragmentation ::F13 Trade Policy • International Trade Organizations ::F14 Empirical Studies of Trade ::F15 Economic Integration ::F16 Trade and Labor Market Interactions ::F17 Trade Forecasting and Simulation ::F18 Trade and Environment ::F19 Other F2 International Factor Movements and International Business ::F20 General ::F21 International Investment • Long-Term Capital Movements ::F22 International Migration ::F23 Multinational Firms • International Business ::F24 Remittances ::F29 Other F3 International Finance ::F30 General ::F31 Foreign Exchange ::F32 Current Account Adjustment • Short-Term Capital Movements ::F33 International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions ::F34 International Lending and Debt Problems ::F35 Foreign Aid ::F36 Financial Aspects of Economic Integration ::F37 International Finance Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications ::F38 International Financial Policy: Financial Transactions Tax; Capital Controls ::F39 Other F4 Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance ::F40 General ::F41 Open Economy Macroeconomics ::F42 International Policy Coordination and Transmission ::F43 Economic Growth of Open Economies ::F44 International Business Cycles ::F45 Macroeconomic Issues of Monetary Unions ::F47 Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications ::F49 Other F5 International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy ::F50 General ::F51 International Conflicts • Negotiations • Sanctions ::F52 National Security • Economic Nationalism ::F53 International Agreements and Observance • International Organizations ::F54 Colonialism • Imperialism • Postcolonialism ::F55 International Institutional Arrangements ::F59 Other F6 Economic Impacts of Globalization ::F60 General ::F61 Microeconomic Impacts ::F62 Macroeconomic Impacts ::F63 Economic Development ::F64 Environment ::F65 Finance ::F66 Labor ::F68 Policy ::F69 Other


:Financial economics, G. Financial Economics

::G00 Financial economics, General ::G01 Financial Crises ::G02 Behavioral Finance: Underlying Principles G1 General Financial Markets ::G10 General ::G11 Portfolio Choice • Investment Decisions ::G12 Asset Pricing • Trading Volume • Bond Interest Rates ::G13 Contingent Pricing • Futures Pricing ::G14 Information and Market Efficiency • Event Studies • Insider Trading ::G15 International Financial Markets ::G17 Financial Forecasting and Simulation ::G18 Government Policy and Regulation ::G19 Other G2 Financial Institutions and Services ::G20 General ::G21 Bank, Banks • Depository Institutions • Micro Finance Institutions • Mortgages ::G22 Insurance • Insurance Companies • Actuarial Studies ::G23 Non-bank Financial Institutions • Financial Instruments • Institutional Investors ::G24 Investment Banking • Venture Capital • Brokerage • Ratings and Ratings Agencies ::G28 Government Policy and Regulation ::G29 Other G3 Corporate Finance and Governance ::G30 General ::G31 Capital Budgeting • Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies • Capacity ::G32 Financing Policy • Financial Risk and Risk Management • Capital and Ownership Structure • Value of Firms • Goodwill ::G33 Bankruptcy • Liquidation ::G34 Mergers • Acquisitions • Restructuring • Corporate Governance ::G35 Payout Policy ::G38 Government Policy and Regulation ::G39 Other


:Public economics, H. Public Economics

::H00 Public economics, General H1 Structure and Scope of Government ::H10 General ::H11 Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government ::H12 Crisis Management ::H13 Economics of Eminent Domain • Expropriation • Nationalization ::H19 Other H2 Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue ::H20 General ::H21 Efficiency • Optimal Taxation ::H22 Incidence ::H23 Externalities • Redistributive Effects • Environmental Taxes and Subsidies ::H24 Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies ::H25 Business Taxes and Subsidies ::H26 Tax Evasion and Avoidance ::H27 Other Sources of Revenue ::H29 Other H3 Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents ::H30 General ::H31 Household ::H32 Firm ::H39 Other H4 Publicly Provided Goods ::H40 General ::H41 Public Goods ::H42 Publicly Provided Private Goods ::H43 Project Evaluation • Social Discount Rate ::H44 Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets ::H49 Other H5 National Government Expenditures and Related Policies ::H50 General ::H51 Government Expenditures and Health ::H52 Government Expenditures and Education ::H53 Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs ::H54 Infrastructures • Other Public Investment and Capital Stock ::H55 Social Security and Public Pensions ::H56 National Security and War ::H57 Procurement ::H59 Other H6 National Budget, Deficit, and Debt ::H60 General ::H61 Budget • Budget Systems ::H62 Deficit • Surplus ::H63 Debt • Debt Management • Sovereign Debt ::H68 Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits, and Debt ::H69 Other H7 State and Local Government • Intergovernmental Relations ::H70 General ::H71 State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue ::H72 State and Local Budget and Expenditures ::H73 Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects ::H74 State and Local Borrowing ::H75 State and Local Government: Health • Education • Welfare • Public Pensions ::H76 State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories ::H77 Intergovernmental Relations • Federalism • Secession ::H79 Other H8 Miscellaneous Issues ::H80 General ::H81 Governmental Loans • Loan Guarantees • Credits • Grants • Bailouts ::H82 Governmental Property ::H83 Public Administration • Public Sector Accounting and Audits ::H84 Disaster Aid ::H87 International Fiscal Issues • International Public Goods ::H89 Other


I. Health, Education, and Welfare

::I00 General I1 Health economics, Health ::I10 General ::I11 Analysis of Health Care Markets ::I12 Health Behavior ::I13 Health Insurance, Public and Private ::I14 Health and Inequality ::I15 Health and Economic Development ::I18 Government Policy • Regulation • Public Health ::I19 Other I2 Education economics, Education and Research Institutions ::I20 General ::I21 Analysis of Education ::I22 Educational Finance • Financial Aid ::I23 Higher Education • Research Institutions ::I24 Education and Inequality ::I25 Education and Economic Development ::I26 Returns to Education ::I28 Government Policy ::I29 Other I3 Social welfare provision, Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty ::I30 General ::I31 General Welfare, Well-Being ::I32 Measurement and Analysis of Poverty ::I38 Government Policy • Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs ::I39 Other


J. :Labor economics, Labor and :Demographic economics, Demographic Economics

::J00 General ::J01 Labour economics, Labor Economics: General ::J08 Labour economics, Labor Economics: Policies J1 Demographic economics, Demographic Economics ::J10 General ::J11 Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts ::J12 Marriage • Marital Dissolution • Family Structure • Domestic Abuse ::J13 Fertility • Family Planning • Child Care • Children • Youth ::J14 Economics of the Elderly • Economics of the Handicapped • Non-Labor Market Discrimination ::J15 Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants • Non-labor Discrimination ::J16 Economics of Gender • Non-labor Discrimination ::J17 Value of Life • Forgone Income ::J18 Public Policy ::J19 Other J2 Demand and Supply of Labor ::J20 General ::J21 Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure ::J22 Time Allocation and Labor Supply ::J23 Labor Demand ::J24 Human Capital • Skills • Occupational Choice • Labor Productivity ::J26 Retirement • Retirement Policies ::J28 Safety • Job Satisfaction • Related Public Policy ::J29 Other J3 Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs ::J30 General ::J31 Wage Level and Structure • Wage Differentials ::J32 Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits • Retirement Plans • Private Pensions ::J33 Compensation Packages • Payment Methods ::J38 Public Policy ::J39 Other J4 Particular Labor Markets ::J40 General ::J41 Labor Contracts ::J42 Monopsony • Segmented Labor Markets ::J43 Agricultural Labor Markets ::J44 Professional Labor Markets • Occupational Licensing ::J45 Public Sector Labor Markets ::J46 Informal Labor Markets ::J47 Coercive Labor Markets ::J48 Public Policy ::J49 Other J5 Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining ::J50 General ::J51 Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects ::J52 Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation • Collective Bargaining ::J53 Labor–Management Relations • Industrial Jurisprudence ::J54 Producer Cooperatives • Labor Managed Firms • Employee Ownership ::J58 Public Policy ::J59 Other J6 Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers ::J60 General ::J61 Geographic Labor Mobility • Immigrant Workers ::J62 Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational Mobility ::J63 Turnover • Vacancies • Layoffs ::J64 Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search ::J65 Unemployment Insurance • Severance Pay • Plant Closings ::J68 Public Policy ::J69 Other J7 Labor Discrimination ::J70 General ::J71 Discrimination ::J78 Public Policy ::J79 Other J8 Labor Standards: National and International ::J80 General ::J81 Working Conditions ::J82 Labor Force Composition ::J83 Workers' Rights ::J88 Public Policy ::J89 Other


:Law and economics, K. Law and Economics

::K00 Law and economics, General K1 Basic Areas of Law ::K10 General ::K11 Property Law ::K12 Contract Law ::K13 Tort Law and Product Liability • Forensic Economics ::K14 Criminal Law ::K15 Civil Law • Common Law ::K16 Election Law ::K19 Other K2 Regulation and Business Law ::K20 General ::K21 Antitrust Law ::K22 Business and Securities Law ::K23 Regulated Industries and Administrative Law ::K24 Cyber Law ::K25 Real Estate Law ::K29 Other K3 Other Substantive Areas of Law ::K30 General ::K31 Labor Law ::K32 Energy, Environmental, Health, and Safety Law ::K33 International Law ::K34 Tax Law ::K35 Personal Bankruptcy Law ::K36 Family and Personal Law ::K37 Immigration Law ::K38 Human Rights Law • Gender Law ::K39 Other K4 Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior ::K40 General ::K41 Litigation Process ::K42 Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law ::K49 Other


:Industrial organization, L. Industrial Organization

::L00 Industrial organization, General L1 Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance ::L10 General ::L11 Production, Pricing, and Market Structure • Size Distribution of Firms ::L12 Monopoly • Monopolization Strategies ::L13 Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets ::L14 Transactional Relationships • Contracts and Reputation • Networks ::L15 Information and Product Quality • Standardization and Compatibility ::L16 Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics: Industrial Structure and Structural Change • Industrial Price Indices ::L17 Open Source Products and Markets ::L19 Other L2 Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior ::L20 General ::L21 Business Objectives of the Firm ::L22 Firm Organization and Market Structure ::L23 Organization of Production ::L24 Contracting Out • Joint Ventures • Technology Licensing ::L25 Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope ::L26 Entrepreneurship ::L29 Other L3 Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise ::L30 General ::L31 Nonprofit Institutions • NGOs • Social Entrepreneurship ::L32 Public Enterprises • Public-Private Enterprises ::L33 Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises and Nonprofit Institutions • Privatization • Contracting Out ::L38 Public Policy ::L39 Other L4 Antitrust Issues and Policies ::L40 General ::L41 Monopolization • Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices ::L42 Vertical Restraints • Resale Price Maintenance • Quantity Discounts ::L43 Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation ::L44 Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprises, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations ::L49 Other L5 Regulation and Industrial Policy ::L50 General ::L51 Economics of Regulation ::L52 Industrial Policy • Sectoral Planning Methods ::L53 Enterprise Policy ::L59 Other L6 Industry Studies: Manufacturing ::L60 General ::L61 Metals and Metal Products • Cement • Glass • Ceramics ::L62 Automobiles • Other Transportation Equipment • Related Parts and Equipment ::L63 Microelectronics • Computers • Communications Equipment ::L64 Other Machinery • Business Equipment • Armaments ::L65 Chemicals • Rubber • Drugs • Biotechnology • Plastics ::L66 Food • Beverages • Cosmetics • Tobacco • Wine and Spirits ::L67 Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather Goods; Household Goods; Sports Equipment ::L68 Appliances • Furniture • Other Consumer Durables ::L69 Other L7 Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction ::L70 General ::L71 Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels ::L72 Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources ::L73 Forest Products ::L74 Construction ::L78 Government Policy ::L79 Other L8 Industry Studies: Services ::L80 General ::L81 Retail and Wholesale Trade • e-Commerce ::L82 Entertainment • Media ::L83 Sports • Gambling • Restaurants • Recreation • Tourism ::L84 Personal, Professional, and Business Services ::L85 Real Estate Services ::L86 Information and Internet Services • Computer Software ::L87 Postal and Delivery Services ::L88 Government Policy ::L89 Other L9 Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities ::L90 General ::L91 Transportation: General ::L92 Railroads and Other Surface Transportation ::L93 Air Transportation ::L94 Electric Utilities ::L95 Gas Utilities • Pipelines • Water Utilities ::L96 Telecommunications ::L97 Utilities: General ::L98 Government Policy ::L99 Other


M. Business Administration and Business Economics • :Marketing, Marketing • :Accounting, Accounting • :Personnel economics, Personnel Economics

::M00 General M1 Business Administration ::M10 Business administration, General ::M11 Production Management ::M12 Personnel Management • Executives; Executive Compensation ::M13 New Firms • Startups ::M14 Corporate Culture • Diversity • Social Responsibility ::M15 IT Management ::M16 International Business Administration ::M19 Other M2 Business Economics ::M20 :Business economics, General ::M21 Business economics, Business Economics ::M29 Other M3 :Marketing, Marketing and :Advertising, Advertising ::M30 General ::M31 Marketing ::M37 Advertising ::M38 Government Policy and Regulation ::M39 Other M4 :Accounting, Accounting and :Auditing, Auditing ::M40 General ::M41 Accounting ::M42 Auditing ::M48 Government Policy and Regulation ::M49 Other M5 :Personnel economics, Personnel Economics ::M50 Personnel economics, General ::M51 Firm Employment Decisions • Promotions ::M52 Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects ::M53 Training ::M54 Labor Management ::M55 Labor Contracting Devices ::M59 Other


:Economic history, N. Economic History

::N00 Economic history, General ::N01 Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods N1 Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics • Industrial Structure • Growth • Fluctuations ::N10 General, International, or Comparative ::N11 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913 ::N12 U.S. • Canada: 1913– ::N13 Europe: Pre-1913 ::N14 Europe: 1913– ::N15 Asia including Middle East ::N16 Latin America • Caribbean ::N17 Africa • Oceania N2 Financial Markets and Institutions ::N20 General, International, or Comparative ::N21 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913 ::N22 U.S. • Canada: 1913– ::N23 Europe: Pre-1913 ::N24 Europe: 1913– ::N25 Asia including Middle East ::N26 Latin America • Caribbean ::N27 Africa • Oceania N3 Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy ::N30 General, International, or Comparative ::N31 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913 ::N32 U.S. • Canada: 1913- ::N33 Europe: Pre-1913 ::N34 Europe: 1913- ::N35 Asia including Middle East ::N36 Latin America • Caribbean ::N37 Africa • Oceania N4 Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation ::N40 General, International, or Comparative ::N41 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913 ::N42 U.S. • Canada: 1913– ::N43 Europe: Pre-1913 ::N44 Europe: 1913– ::N45 Asia including Middle East ::N46 Latin America • Caribbean ::N47 Africa • Oceania N5 Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries ::N50 General, International, or Comparative ::N51 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913 ::N52 U.S. • Canada: 1913– ::N53 Europe: Pre-1913 ::N54 Europe: 1913– ::N55 Asia including Middle East ::N56 Latin America • Caribbean ::N57 Africa • Oceania N6 Manufacturing and Construction ::N60 General, International, or Comparative ::N61 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913 ::N62 U.S. • Canada: 1913– ::N63 Europe: Pre-1913 ::N64 Europe: 1913– ::N65 Asia including Middle East ::N66 Latin America • Caribbean ::N67 Africa • Oceania N7 Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services ::N70 General, International, or Comparative ::N71 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913 ::N72 U.S. • Canada: 1913– ::N73 Europe: Pre-1913 ::N74 Europe: 1913– ::N75 Asia including Middle East ::N76 Latin America • Caribbean ::N77 Africa • Oceania N8 Micro-Business History ::N80 General, International, or Comparative ::N81 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913 ::N82 U.S. • Canada: 1913– ::N83 Europe: Pre-1913 ::N84 Europe: 1913– ::N85 Asia including Middle East ::N86 Latin America • Caribbean ::N87 Africa • Oceania N9 Regional and Urban History ::N90 General, International, or Comparative ::N91 U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913 ::N92 U.S. • Canada: 1913– ::N93 Europe: Pre-1913 ::N94 Europe: 1913– ::N95 Asia including Middle East ::N96 Latin America • Caribbean ::N97 Africa • Oceania


O. Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth

O1 Economic development, Economic Development ::O10 General ::O11 Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development ::O12 Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development ::O13 Agriculture • Natural Resources • Energy • Environment • Other Primary Products ::O14 Industrialization • Manufacturing and Service Industries • Choice of Technology ::O15 Human Resources • Human Development • Income Distribution • Migration ::O16 Financial Markets • Saving and Capital Investment • Corporate Finance and Governance ::O17 Formal and Informal Sectors • Shadow Economy • Institutional Arrangements ::O18 Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis • Housing • Infrastructure ::O19 International Linkages to Development • Role of International Organizations O2 Development Planning and Policy ::O20 General ::O21 Planning Models • Planning Policy ::O22 Project Analysis ::O23 Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development ::O24 Trade Policy • Factor Movement Policy • Foreign Exchange Policy ::O25 Industrial Policy ::O29 Other O3 Innovation • Research and development, Research and Development • Technological change, Technological Change • Intellectual property rights, Intellectual Property Rights ::O30 General ::O31 Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives ::O32 Management of Technological Innovation and R&D ::O33 Technological Change: Choices and Consequences • Diffusion Processes ::O34 Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital ::O35 Social Innovation ::O38 Government Policy ::O39 Other O4 Economic growth, Economic Growth and Aggregate productivity, Aggregate Productivity ::O40 General ::O41 One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models ::O42 Monetary Growth Models ::O43 Institutions and Growth ::O44 Environment and Growth ::O47 Empirical Studies of Economic Growth • Aggregate Productivity • Cross-Country Output Convergence ::O49 Other O5 Economywide Country Studies ::O50 General ::O51 U.S. • Canada ::O52 Europe ::O53 Asia including Middle East ::O54 Latin America • Caribbean ::O55 Africa ::O56 Oceania ::O57 Comparative Studies of Countries


:Economic systems, P. Economic Systems

::P00 General P1 Capitalist Systems ::P10 General ::P11 Planning, Coordination, and Reform ::P12 Capitalist Enterprises ::P13 Cooperative Enterprises ::P14 Property Rights ::P16 Political Economy ::P17 Performance and Prospects ::P18 Energy • Environment ::P19 Other P2 Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies ::P20 General ::P21 Planning, Coordination, and Reform ::P22 Prices ::P23 Factor and Product Markets • Industry Studies • Population ::P24 National Income, Product, and Expenditure • Money • Inflation ::P25 Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics ::P26 Political Economy • Property Rights ::P27 Performance and Prospects ::P28 Natural Resources • Energy • Environment ::P29 Other P3 Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions ::P30 General ::P31 Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions ::P32 Collectives • Communes • Agriculture ::P33 International Trade, Finance, Investment, Relations, and Aid ::P34 Financial Economics ::P35 Public Economics ::P36 Consumer Economics • Health • Education and Training • Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty ::P37 Legal Institutions • Illegal Behavior ::P39 Other P4 Other Economic Systems ::P40 General ::P41 Planning, Coordination, and Reform ::P42 Productive Enterprises • Factor and Product Markets • Prices • Population ::P43 Public Economics • Financial Economics ::P44 National Income, Product, and Expenditure • Money • Inflation ::P45 International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid ::P46 Consumer Economics • Health • Education and Training • Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty ::P47 Performance and Prospects ::P48 Political Economy • Legal Institutions • Property Rights • Natural Resources • Energy • Environment • Regional Studies ::P49 Other P5 Comparative economic systems, Comparative Economic Systems ::P50 General ::P51 Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems ::P52 Comparative Studies of Particular Economies ::P59 Other


Q. Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics • :Environmental economics, Environmental and :Ecological economics, Ecological Economics

::Q00 General ::Q01 Sustainable development, Sustainable Development ::Q02 Commodity Markets Q1 Agricultural economics, Agriculture ::Q10 General ::Q11 Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis • Prices ::Q12 Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets ::Q13 Agricultural Markets and Marketing • Cooperatives • Agribusiness ::Q14 Agricultural Finance ::Q15 Land Ownership and Tenure • Land Reform • Land Use • Irrigation • Agriculture and Environment ::Q16 R&D • Agricultural Technology • Biofuels • Agricultural Extension Services ::Q17 Agriculture in International Trade ::Q18 Agricultural Policy • Food Policy ::Q19 Other Q2 Natural resource economics, Renewable Resources and Conservation ::Q20 General ::Q21 Demand and Supply • Prices ::Q22 Fishery • Aquaculture ::Q23 Forestry ::Q24 Land ::Q25 Water ::Q26 Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources ::Q27 Issues in International Trade ::Q28 Government Policy ::Q29 Other Q3 Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation ::Q30 General ::Q31 Demand and Supply • Prices ::Q32 Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development ::Q33 Resource Booms ::Q34 Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts ::Q35 Hydrocarbon Resources ::Q37 Issues in International Trade ::Q38 Government Policy ::Q39 Other Q4 Energy ::Q40 General ::Q41 Demand and Supply • Prices ::Q42 Alternative Energy Sources ::Q43 Energy and the Macroeconomy ::Q47 Energy Forecasting ::Q48 Government Policy ::Q49 Other Q5 Environmental economics, Environmental Economics ::Q50 General ::Q51 Valuation of Environmental Effects ::Q52 Pollution Control Adoption and Costs • Distributional Effects • Employment Effects ::Q53 Air Pollution • Water Pollution • Noise • Hazardous Waste • Solid Waste • Recycling ::Q54 Climate • Natural Disasters and Their Management • Global Warming ::Q55 Technological Innovation ::Q56 Environment and Development • Environment and Trade • Sustainability • Environmental Accounts and Accounting • Environmental Equity • Population Growth ::Q57 Ecological economics, Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services • Biodiversity Conservation • Bioeconomics • Industrial Ecology ::Q58 Government Policy ::Q59 Other


:Urban, rural, and regional economics, R. Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and :Transport economics, Transportation Economics

::R00 General R1 Regional economics, General Regional Economics ::R10 General ::R11 Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes ::R12 Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity ::R13 General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies ::R14 Land Use Patterns ::R15 Econometric and Input–Output Models • Other Models ::R19 Other R2 Real estate, Household Analysis ::R20 General ::R21 Housing Demand ::R22 Other Demand ::R23 Regional Migration • Regional Labor Markets • Population • Neighborhood Characteristics ::R28 Government Policy ::R29 Other R3 Urban economics, Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location ::R30 General ::R31 Housing Supply and Markets ::R32 Other Spatial Production and Pricing Analysis ::R33 Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets ::R38 Government Policy ::R39 Other R4 Transportation economics, Transportation Economics ::R40 General ::R41 Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion • Travel Time • Safety and Accidents • Transportation Noise ::R42 Government and Private Investment Analysis • Road Maintenance • Transportation Planning ::R48 Government Pricing and Policy ::R49 Other R5 Regional Government Analysis ::R50 General ::R51 Finance in Urban economics, Urban and Rural economics, Rural Economies ::R52 Land Use and Other Regulations ::R53 Public Facility Location Analysis • Public Investment and Capital Stock ::R58 Regional Development Planning and Policy ::R59 Other


Y. Miscellaneous Categories

Y1 Data: Tables and Charts ::Y10 Data: Tables and Charts Y2 Introductory Material ::Y20 Introductory Material Y3 Book Reviews (unclassified) ::Y30 Book Reviews (unclassified) Y4 Dissertations (unclassified) ::Y40 Dissertations (unclassified) Y5 Further Reading (unclassified) ::Y50 Further Reading (unclassified) Y6 Excerpts ::Y60 Excerpts Y7 No Author General Discussions ::Y70 No Author General Discussions Y8 Related Disciplines ::Y80 Related Disciplines Y9 Other ::Y90 Other ::Y91 Pictures and Maps ::Y92 Novels, Self-Help Books, etc.


Z. Other Special Topics

::Z00 General Z1 Cultural economics, Cultural Economics • Economic sociology, Economic Sociology • Economic anthropology, Economic Anthropology ::Z10 General ::Z11 Economics of the arts and literature, Economics of the Arts and Literature ::Z12 Economics of religion, Religion ::Z13 Economic sociology, Economic Sociology • Economic anthropology, Economic Anthropology • Economics of language, Language • Social stratification, Social and Economic stratification, Economic Stratification ::Z18 Public Policy ::Z19 Other Z2 Sport management, Sports Economics ::Z20 General ::Z21 Industry Studies ::Z22 Labor Issues ::Z23 Finance ::Z28 Policy ::Z29 Other Z3 Tourism economics, Tourism Economics ::Z30 General ::Z31 Industry Studies ::Z32 Tourism and Development ::Z33 Marketing and Finance ::Z38 Policy ::Z39 Other


Notes

: JEL codes A through Z denote primary categories (e.g. ''D Microeconomics''). Secondary categories are specified by an additional Arabic numeral (e.g. ''D3 Distribution''), tertiary categories by a following second Arabic numeral (e.g. ''D30 General''). Articles in economics publications use JEL codes in this manner: ''JEL: B12''. : Developed in the context of the
Journal of Economic Literature The ''Journal of Economic Literature'' is a peer-reviewed Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people with similar competencies as the producers of the work ( peers). It functions as a form of self-regulation by qualified mem ...
, the JEL classification system became a standard method of classifying economics literature, including journal articles, books, collective volume articles, dissertations, working papers in economics, book reviews from the ''Journal of Economic Literature'', and
EconLit EconLit is an academic literature abstracting database service published by the American Economic Association The American Economic Association (AEA) is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly soc ...
.


References

{{reflist


External links


Full list of JEL classifications

JEL Classification Codes Guide
a more detailed explanation of the classification system Library cataloging and classification, * Economics journals Economics profession and organizations Economics lists