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Italian Ethiopia (in Italian: ''Etiopia italiana''), also known as the Italian Empire of Ethiopia, was the territory of the
Ethiopian Empire The Ethiopian Empire (), also formerly known by the Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic '), or just simply known as Ethiopia (; and : ኢትዮጵያ , , : Itoophiyaa, : Itoobiya, : ''Itiyoophiyaa''), was an that historically spanned the g ...
which was occupied by Italy for approximately five years. Italian Ethiopia was not an administrative entity, but the formal name of the former territory of the Ethiopian Empire which now constituted the Governorates of
Amhara Amhara may refer to: * Amhara, Bihar, India * Amhara people, an ethnic group of Ethiopia * Amhara Province, a medieval province of Ethiopia * Amhara Region, an administrative region of modern Ethiopia * Amhara, a subdivision of the former Italian Ea ...
,
Harar Harar ( amh, ሐረር; Gē "the City", om, Harar, ar, هرر) is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia. It is known in Arabic as the City of Wali, Saints ( ar, مدينة الأَوْلِيَاء). Harar is the capital of the East Hararghe Zone ...
, Galla-Sidamo, and Scioa after the establishment of
Italian East Africa Italian East Africa ( it, Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍 ...

Italian East Africa
(''Africa Orientale Italiana'', AOI). After the
Second Italo-Ethiopian War The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a war of aggression A war of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged without the justification of self-defense, usual ...

Second Italo-Ethiopian War
, in which Ethiopia was occupied by Fascist Italy, the Ethiopian territories were proclaimed part of
Italian East Africa Italian East Africa ( it, Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍 ...

Italian East Africa
(AOI) in 1936, with the capital of the AOI being established in
Addis Ababa Addis Ababa ( am, አዲስ አበባ ' , "new flower"), also known as Finfinne ( om, Finfinne "natural spring") and Sheger ( ', ), is the and largest city of . According to the 2007 census, the city has a population of 2,739,551 inhabitants. ...

Addis Ababa
and
Victor Emmanuel III Victor or Viktor may refer to: Arts and entertainment Film * ''Victor'' (1951 film), a French drama film * ''Victor'' (1993 film), a French short film * ''Victor'' (2008 film), a 2008 TV film about Canadian swimmer Victor Davis * ''Victor ...

Victor Emmanuel III
proclaiming himself
Emperor of Ethiopia The Emperor of Ethiopia ( gez, ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings King of Kings was a ruling title employed primarily by monarchs based in the Middle East. Though most commonly associated with History of Iran, Iran ...
. Fighting between Ethiopian and Italian regular forces continued until February 1937, and afterward guerrilla fighting persisted until 1939. In 1941, during World War II, Ethiopia was occupied by Allied forces, mainly from the
British Empire The British Empire was composed of the dominions, Crown colony, colonies, protectorates, League of Nations mandate, mandates, and other Dependent territory, territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. ...

British Empire
, in the East African Campaign, but an Italian guerrilla war continued until 1943. The country was placed under British military administration; Emperor
Haile Selassie Haile Selassie I ( gez, ቀዳማዊ ኀይለ ሥላሴ, Qädamawi Häylä Səllasé, ; born Tafari Makonnen; 23 July 189227 August 1975) was Emperor of Ethiopia The Emperor of Ethiopia ( gez, ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, ...

Haile Selassie
was allowed to return and claim his throne, but the British authorities ruled the country until December 1944, when full sovereignty was restored with the signing of an
Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement The Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement was a joint effort between Ethiopia and the United Kingdom at reestablishing Ethiopian independent Sovereign state, statehood following the East African campaign (World War II), ousting of Italian troops by combined B ...
, although some regions remained under British control for more years.Clapham,"Ḫaylä Ś�llase", ''Encyclopaedia Aethiopica'', p. 1063. Under the peace treaty of 1947, Italy recognized the sovereignty and independence of Ethiopia and renounced all claims to special interests or influence in that country. Many Italian settlers remained for decades after receiving full pardon by Emperor Selassie.


Characteristics

Since 1 June 1936 Italian Ethiopia was part of the newly created
Italian East Africa Italian East Africa ( it, Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍 ...

Italian East Africa
, and was administratively composed of four governorates:
Amhara Amhara may refer to: * Amhara, Bihar, India * Amhara people, an ethnic group of Ethiopia * Amhara Province, a medieval province of Ethiopia * Amhara Region, an administrative region of modern Ethiopia * Amhara, a subdivision of the former Italian Ea ...
,
Harar Harar ( amh, ሐረር; Gē "the City", om, Harar, ar, هرر) is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia. It is known in Arabic as the City of Wali, Saints ( ar, مدينة الأَوْلِيَاء). Harar is the capital of the East Hararghe Zone ...
, Galla-Sidamo and Scioa. The Scioa Governorate was originally known as the
Addis Abeba Governorate The Scioa Governorate (), also known as the Shewa Governorate, was one of the six governorates of Italian East Africa The Kingdom of Italy, Italian colony of Italian East Africa ( it, Africa Orientale Italiana) was composed of 6 Governorates whic ...
, but enlarged in November 1938 with parts of the neighboring governorates of Harar, Galla-Sidamo, and Amhara. Each Governorate was under the authority of an Italian governor, answerable to the Italian viceroy, who represented the Emperor
Victor Emmanuel III Victor or Viktor may refer to: Arts and entertainment Film * ''Victor'' (1951 film), a French drama film * ''Victor'' (1993 film), a French short film * ''Victor'' (2008 film), a 2008 TV film about Canadian swimmer Victor Davis * ''Victor ...

Victor Emmanuel III
. Italian Ethiopia had an area of and a population of 9,450,000 inhabitants, resulting in a density of
Some territories of the defeated Kingdom of Ethiopia were added to Italian Eritrea and Italian Somalia inside the AOI. This was not just since they were mainly populated by Eritreans and Somalis respectively, but also as a reward for their colonial soldiers who fought in the Italian Army against the
Negus Negus ( gez, ንጉሥ, ' ; cf. ti, ነጋሲ ' ) is a title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualifi ...

Negus
troops). The currency used was the
Italian East African lira The lira AOI was a special banknote circulating in Italian East Africa (''Africa Orientale Italiana'', or AOI) between 1938 and 1941. Data When Kingdom of Italy#Fascist_regime_.281922.E2.80.931943.29, Fascist Italy imposed the Italian lira in Eth ...
: the ''Lira AOI'' were special banknotes of 50 lire and 100 lire circulating in AOI between 1938 and 1941:


History


Conquest and occupation

Emperor Haile Selassie's reign was interrupted on 3 October 1935 when Italian forces, under the direction of dictator Benito Mussolini, invaded and occupied Ethiopia. They occupied the capital, Addis Ababa, on 5 May 1936. Emperor Haile Selassie pleaded to the
League of Nations The League of Nations (french: Société des Nations ), was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member state ...
for aid in resisting the Italians. Nevertheless, the country was formally occupied on 9 May 1936 and the Emperor went into exile. The war was full of cruelty. Italian troops used
mustard gas Mustard gas or sulfur mustard is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element he ...

mustard gas
in aerial bombardments (in violation of the
Geneva Conventions file:Geneva Convention 1864 - CH-BAR - 29355687.pdf, upright=1.15, Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions are four Treaty, treaties, and three additional Protocol (diplomacy), protocols, that establish internatio ...
) against combatants and civilians in an attempt to discourage the Ethiopian people from supporting the resistance. Deliberate Italian attacks against ambulances and hospitals of the
Red Cross The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian Humanitarianism is an active belief in the value of human life, whereby human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread specie ...
were reported.Rainer Baudendistel, ''Between bombs and good intentions: the Red Cross and the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935–1936''. Berghahn Books. 2006 pp. 239, 131–

/ref> By all estimates, hundreds of thousands of Ethiopian civilians died as a result of the Italian invasion, including during the reprisal
Yekatit 12 Yekatit 12 () is a date in the Ge'ez calendar which refers to the massacre and imprisonment of Ethiopians by the Kingdom of Italy, Italian occupation forces following an attempted assassination of Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, Rodolfo Graziani, Mar ...
massacre in Addis Ababa, in which as many as 30,000 civilians were killed. These Italian reprisals against Ethiopian civilians have been described by some historians as constituting
genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish t ...
. Crimes by Ethiopian troops included the use of Dum-Dum bullets (in violation of the Hague Conventions), the killing of civilian workmen (including during the Gondrand massacre) and the mutilation of captured
Eritrean Ascari The Royal Corps Of Eritrean Colonial Troops were indigenous soldiers from Eritrea, who were enrolled as askaris in the Royal Corps of Colonial Troops (''Regio Corpo di Truppe Coloniali'') of the Royal Italian Army (''Regio Esercito'') during the per ...
and Italians (often with castration), beginning in the first weeks of war. Marshal
Rodolfo Graziani Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis A marquess (; french: marquis ), es, marqués, pt, marquês. is a nobleman Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a f ...
, who replaced Marshal Badoglio as viceroy of Italian East Africa in May 1936 was short-tempered and inclined to violence and atrocities multiplied under his administration. Following a failed attack against Addis Ababa by rebels on 28 July 1936, he had the archbishop of Dessie, whom he suspected of being behind the attack shot the same afternoon. All resisting Ethiopians were declared "bandits" and he ordered that they be shot on capture. Mussolini approved the decision but requested that the order be kept secret. Following the defeat of rebels led by Ras Desta in the western part of the country in late December 1936, he had 1,600 rebel troops who surrendered summarily executed by firing squads. Villages that had been friendly to Desta were burned to the ground and women and children shot. Desta and other captured rebel leaders were executed in February 1937. The Italians undertook many other terrorist actions during this period. Following a bloody attempt on the life of Graziani and other Italian officials by two Eritreans during a ceremony to celebrate the birth of the Prince of Naples on 19 February 1937, the police and soldiers, fearing a general uprising, fired indiscriminately into the crowd. Innocent bystanders were shot. For the next three days, the Italians, led by the
Blackshirts The Voluntary Militia for National Security ( it, Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, MVSN), commonly called the Blackshirts ( it, Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: ''Camicia Nera'') or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally ...
, went on a rampage of murder and destruction throughout Addis Ababa. By the end of 1937 more than 5,000 people had been executed for alleged crimes related to the attempt against Graziani, and a total of 19,200 to 30,000 civilians were killed.. Among the dead were virtually all the young educated Ethiopians the Italians could lay their hands on and all the officers and cadets of the Holeta Military Academy. The Italian viceroy had hermits, soothsayers and travelling minstrels rounded up and executed. Convinced that the high clergy had known about the plot, he had many executed. In May 1937, he ordered 297 monks of the monastery of
Debre Libanos Debre Libanos (Amharic language, Amharic: ደብረ ሊባኖስ, om, Dabra libanose) is an Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo monastery, lying northwest of Addis Ababa in the North Shewa Zone (Oromia), North She ...

Debre Libanos
and 23 other individuals suspected of complicity shot. Over 100 deacons and students were also executed. Several hundred monks were sent to concentration camps. Viceroy Graziani was finally replaced in November 1938 by the more humane
Duke of Aosta Image:Coat of arms of the savoy-aosta line.svg, 125px, Coat of arms of the Dukes of Aosta In the mid-13th century the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II, made the County of Aosta a duchy; its arms were carried in th ...

Duke of Aosta
, who put an end to wanton atrocities which had had the effect of increasing resistance to Italian domination. While some countries recognized the Italian conquest, Britain, France and the League of Nations refused formally to recognize it and consequently it remained illegitimate in international law. The King of Italy (
Victor Emmanuel III Victor or Viktor may refer to: Arts and entertainment Film * ''Victor'' (1951 film), a French drama film * ''Victor'' (1993 film), a French short film * ''Victor'' (2008 film), a 2008 TV film about Canadian swimmer Victor Davis * ''Victor ...

Victor Emmanuel III
) was crowned
Emperor of Ethiopia The Emperor of Ethiopia ( gez, ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings King of Kings was a ruling title employed primarily by monarchs based in the Middle East. Though most commonly associated with History of Iran, Iran ...
and the Italians created an
Italian empire The Italian colonial empire ( it, Impero coloniale italiano), known as the Italian Empire (''Impero italiano'') between 1936 and 1943, began in Africa in the 19th century and comprised the colonies In political science, a colony is a terr ...

Italian empire
in Africa (
Italian East Africa Italian East Africa ( it, Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍 ...

Italian East Africa
) with Ethiopia, Eritrea and Italian Somalia. In 1937 Mussolini boasted that, with his conquest of Ethiopia, "finally Adua was avenged". The Italians decreed
miscegenation Miscegenation () is the interbreeding of people who are considered to be members of different races. The word, usually considered pejorative, is derived from a combination of the Latin terms ''miscere'' (meaning "to mix" by German mistranslati ...
to be illegal. Racial separation, including residential segregation, was enforced as thoroughly as possible and the Italians showed favouritism to non-Christian groups. To isolate the dominant
Amhara Amhara may refer to: * Amhara, Bihar, India * Amhara people, an ethnic group of Ethiopia * Amhara Province, a medieval province of Ethiopia * Amhara Region, an administrative region of modern Ethiopia * Amhara, a subdivision of the former Italian Ea ...
rulers of Ethiopia, who supported Selassie, the Italians granted the Oromos, the
Somalis The Somalis ( so, Soomaalida 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒆𐒖, ar, صوماليون) are an Cushitic peoples, East Cushitic ethnic group native to the Horn of Africa who share a common ancestry, culture and history. The Somali language is the ...
and other Muslims, many of whom had supported the invasion, autonomy and rights. There was substantial investment in Ethiopian infrastructure development, with the budget for AOI from 1936 to 1937 requiring 19,136 billion
lire Lire may refer to: * Lire (magazine), ''Lire'' (magazine), a French literary magazine * Lira (plural lire), a monetary unit in several countries * Liré, a former commune in France * Lire Phiri, Mosotho footballer * Pratica di Mare Air Base, an Ital ...

lire
when the annual revenue of Italy was only 18,581 billion lire. This infrastructure development was part of a plan to bring half a million Italians to colonize the Ethiopian plateaus. In October 1939 the Italian colonists in Ethiopia were 35,441, of whom 30,232 male (85.3%) and 5,209 female (14.7%), most of them living in urban areas. Only 3,200 Italian farmers moved to colonize farm areas, mostly around the capital and in the
Scioa Governorate The Scioa Governorate (), also known as the Shewa Governorate, was one of the six governorates of Italian East Africa The Kingdom of Italy, Italian colony of Italian East Africa ( it, Africa Orientale Italiana) was composed of 6 Governorates whic ...
, where they were under sporadic attack by pro-Haile Selassie guerrillas through 1939. The Italians created the "imperial road" between Addis Ababa and
Massaua Massawa ( ;), or Mitsiwa, is a port city in the Semienawi Keyih Bahri Region of Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Eastern Africa, with its capital at Asmara. It is bordered by Ethiopia in the south, Sud ...
, the Addis Ababa –
Mogadishu Mogadishu (, also ; so, Muqdisho or Xamar ; ar, مقديشو, Muqadīshū ; it, Mogadiscio ), locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital city and most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city ...

Mogadishu
and the Addis Ababa –
Assab Assab or Aseb is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region The Southern Red Sea Region (, it, Regione del Mar Rosso Meridionale, ) is a Regions of Eritrea, region of Eritrea. It lies along the southern half of the Red Sea, and contains the coa ...
. the Italians built more than 4,500 km of roads linking the country beyond 900 km of railways were reconstructed or initiated (like the railway between Addis Ababa and
Assab Assab or Aseb is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region The Southern Red Sea Region (, it, Regione del Mar Rosso Meridionale, ) is a Regions of Eritrea, region of Eritrea. It lies along the southern half of the Red Sea, and contains the coa ...
), dams and hydroelectric plants were built, and many public and private companies were established in the underdeveloped country. The most important were: "Compagnie per il cotone d'Etiopia" (Cotton industry); "Cementerie d'Etiopia" (Cement industry); "Compagnia etiopica mineraria" (Minerals industry); "Imprese elettriche d'Etiopia" (Electricity industry); "Compagnia etiopica degli esplosivi" (Armament industry); "Trasporti automobilistici (Citao)" (Mechanic & Transport industry). Italians also created new airports and in 1936 started the worldwide famous ''Linea dell'Impero'', a flight connecting Addis Ababa to
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
. The line was opened after the and was followed by the first air links with the Italian colonies in
Italian East Africa Italian East Africa ( it, Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍 ...

Italian East Africa
, which began in a pioneering way since 1934. The route was enlarged to 6,379 km and initially joined
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...

Rome
with
Addis Ababa Addis Ababa ( am, አዲስ አበባ ' , "new flower"), also known as Finfinne ( om, Finfinne "natural spring") and Sheger ( ', ), is the and largest city of . According to the 2007 census, the city has a population of 2,739,551 inhabitants. ...

Addis Ababa
via
Syracuse Syracuse may refer to: Places Italy *Syracuse, Sicily Syracuse ( ; it, Siracusa , or scn, Seragusa, label=none ; lat, Syrācūsae ; grc-att, wikt:Συράκουσαι, Συράκουσαι, Syrákousai ; grc-dor, wikt:Συράκο ...

Syracuse
,
Benghazi () , ; it, Bengasi; tr, Bingazi; ber, Bernîk, script=Latn; also: ''Bengasi'', ''Benghasi'', ''Banghāzī'', ''Binghāzī'', ''Bengazi''; grc, Βερενίκη (') and '., group=note (''lit. Son of he'') is a city in . Located on the in t ...
,
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
,
Wadi Halfa Wādī Ḥalfā ( ar, وادي حلفا) is a city in the Northern (state), Northern state of Sudan on the shores of "Lake Nubia" (the Sudanese section of Lake Nasser) near the Egypt–Sudan border, border with Egypt. It is the terminus of a rail ...
,
Khartoum Khartoum or Khartum ( ; ar, الخرطوم, Al-Khurṭūm) is the capital of Sudan Sudan (; ar, السودان, as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan ( ar, جمهورية السودان, link=no, Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is ...

Khartoum
,
Kassala Kassala ( ar, كسلا) is the capital of the state of Kassala (state), Kassala in eastern Sudan. Its 2008 population was recorded to be 419,030. Built on the banks of the Mareb River, Gash River, it is a market town and is famous for its fruit ...

Kassala
,
Asmara Asmara ( ), or Asmera, (Tigrinya Tigrinya (ትግርኛ; also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken in Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in Eastern Africa, with its capital at Asmara. It is ...

Asmara
,
Dire Dawa Dire Dawa ( am, ድሬዳዋ, om, Dirre Dhawaa, lit. "Place of Remedy", so, Diridhaba, Diridhabe, meaning "where Dir Dir, dir, or DIR may refer to: Acronyms * ''De Imperatoribus Romanis'', an online biographical encyclopedia of the ...
. There was a change of aircraft in
Benghazi () , ; it, Bengasi; tr, Bingazi; ber, Bernîk, script=Latn; also: ''Bengasi'', ''Benghasi'', ''Banghāzī'', ''Binghāzī'', ''Bengazi''; grc, Βερενίκη (') and '., group=note (''lit. Son of he'') is a city in . Located on the in t ...
(or sometimes in
Tripoli Tripoli (; ar, طرابلس, ; ber, ⵜⵔⵢⴱⵓⵍⵙ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...
). The route was carried out in three and a half days of daytime flight and the frequency was four flights per week in both directions. Later from Addis Ababa there were three flights a week that continued to
Mogadishu Mogadishu (, also ; so, Muqdisho or Xamar ; ar, مقديشو, Muqadīshū ; it, Mogadiscio ), locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital city and most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city ...

Mogadishu
, capital of
Italian Somalia Italian Somaliland ( it, Somala italiana; ar, الصومال الإيطالي, Al-Sumal Al-Italiy; so, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaalida), was a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that e ...
. The most important railway line in the African colonies of the Kingdom of Italy, the 784 km long Franco-Ethiopian Railway, was seized following the conquest of Ethiopia in 1936. The route was served until 1935 by steam trains that took about 36 hours to do the total trip between the capital of Ethiopia and the port of
Djibouti Djibouti, ar, جيبوتي ', french: link=no, Djibouti, so, Jabuuti officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsu ...

Djibouti
. Following the Italian conquest was obtained in 1938 the increase of speed for the trains with the introduction of four railcars high capacity "type 038" derived from the model ''Fiat ALn56''. These diesel trains were able to reach 70 km/h and cutting time travel in half to just 18 hours: they were used until the mid 1960s. At the main stations there were some bus connections to the other cities of Italian Ethiopia not served by the railway. Additionally, a special fire-control unit was created near the Addis Ababa station, which was the first one in Africa. Through 1938 trains carried protective military units because of ongoing Ethiopian guerrilla activity.
Shifta Shifta or "shufta" is a term used in East Africa meaning ''Rebellion, rebel'', ''outlaw'', or ''bandit''. The Swahili language, Swahili word was loaned from the Somalis, Somali shufta during the Shifta War, which is in turn derived from Amharic ሽ ...
(Ethiopian guerrillas) were still in control of nearly a quarter of the Ethiopian highlands through late 1939. By the eve of World War II they were still in control of Harar and the Galla-Sidamo Governorate.
Abebe Aregai ''Ras Ras or RAS may refer to: Arts and media * RAS Records Real Authentic Sound, a reggae record label * Rundfunk Anstalt Südtirol, a Tyrolese public broadcasting service * Rás 1, an Icelandic radio station * Rás 2, an Icelandic radio sta ...
, the last leader of the "
Arbegnoch The ''Arbegnoch'' (Amharic Amharic ( or ; (Amharic: ), ', ) is an Ethiopian Semitic languages, Ethiopian Semitic language, which is a subgrouping within the Semitic languages, Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages. It is spoken as a fir ...
s" (as the guerrilla fighters were called in Ethiopia) made a surrender proposal to the Italians in spring 1940 after the 1939 surrender of Ethiopian leaders Zaudiè Asfau and Olonà Dinkel. During the five years of Italian occupation,
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
also grew in importance, thanks mainly to the efforts of missionaries like Elisa Angela Meneguzzi. She became known as the "Ecumenical Fire" due to her strong efforts at
ecumenism Ecumenism (), also spelled oecumenism, is the concept and principle in which Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion ...
with
Coptic Christians The Copts ( cop, ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, translit=niremenkhemi; ar, الْقِبْط, ) are an ethnoreligious group An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group whose members are also unified by a common Rel ...
and
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
while also catering to relations with the Catholics of
Dire Dawa Dire Dawa ( am, ድሬዳዋ, om, Dirre Dhawaa, lit. "Place of Remedy", so, Diridhaba, Diridhabe, meaning "where Dir Dir, dir, or DIR may refer to: Acronyms * ''De Imperatoribus Romanis'', an online biographical encyclopedia of the ...
.


World War II

During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, in the summer of 1940 Italian armed forces completed the
Italian conquest of British Somaliland The Italian invasion of British Somaliland (3–19 August 1940) was part of the East African campaign (World War II), East African campaign (1940–1941) in which Kingdom of Italy, Italian, Italian Eritrea, Eritrean and Italian Somalia, Somali f ...
. By the spring of 1941, the British had counter-attacked and pushed deep into
Italian East Africa Italian East Africa ( it, Africa Orientale Italiana, AOI) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍 ...

Italian East Africa
. By 5 May, Haile Selassie had returned to
Addis Ababa Addis Ababa ( am, አዲስ አበባ ' , "new flower"), also known as Finfinne ( om, Finfinne "natural spring") and Sheger ( ', ), is the and largest city of . According to the 2007 census, the city has a population of 2,739,551 inhabitants. ...

Addis Ababa
to reclaim his throne. In November, the last organised Italian resistance in Ethiopia ended with the fall of
Gondar Gondar or Gonder (Amharic language, Amharic: ጎንደር, ''Gonder'' or ''Gondär''; formerly , ''Gʷandar'' or ''Gʷender'') is a city and Districts of Ethiopia, woreda in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Located in the Semien Gondar Zone of the Amha ...
. Following the surrender of East Africa, some Italians conducted a guerrilla war which lasted for two more years. This guerrilla action was done primarily by military units with Italian officers (like Captain Paolo Aloisi, Captain Leopoldo Rizzo, Blackshirt officer De Varda and Major Lucchetti) but also by civilians like Rosa Dainelli. She was a doctor who in August 1942 succeeded in entering the main ammunition depot of the British army in
Addis Ababa Addis Ababa ( am, አዲስ አበባ ' , "new flower"), also known as Finfinne ( om, Finfinne "natural spring") and Sheger ( ', ), is the and largest city of . According to the 2007 census, the city has a population of 2,739,551 inhabitants. ...

Addis Ababa
, and blowing it up, miraculously survived the huge explosion. Her sabotage destroyed the ammunition for the new British
Sten The STEN (or Sten gun) is a family of British submachine gun A submachine gun, abbreviated SMG, is a magazine A magazine is a periodical publication Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) i ...
sub machine gun, delaying the use of this "state of the art" armament for many months. Her true name was Danielli Rosa and the date of attack was September 15, 1941.


After World War II

The recognition by the United Kingdom of the full sovereignty of Ethiopia occurred with the signing on 19 December 1944 of the Anglo-Ethiopian agreement which acknowledged Ethiopia to be "a free and independent state" although various regions remained under British occupation for some years. In the peace treaty of February 1947, Italy renounced sovereignty over its African colonies of Libya, Eritrea and Somalia (art. 23) and recognised the independence of Ethiopia (art. 33), by then a sovereign member of the United Nations. Italy further agreed to: * Pay
War reparation War reparations are compensation payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors. They are intended to cover Collateral damage, damage or injury inflicted during a war. Generally, the term ''war reparations'' refers to money or goods cha ...
of US$25,000,000 to Ethiopia * Accept "Annex XI of the Treaty", upon the recommendation of the United Nations General Assembly in Resolution 390, that indicated that
Eritrea Eritrea ( ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA), also known as the Somali Peninsula, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a ...

Eritrea
was to be federated with Ethiopia. After the war, the Italian Ethiopians were given a full pardon by the newly returned Emperor Haile Selassie, as he saw the opportunity to continue the modernization efforts of the country. He declared that no reprisals would be taken against the Italians, and many remained for decades, until the overthrow of the Emperor in the
Ethiopian Civil War The Ethiopian Civil War was a civil war A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same Sovereign state, state (or country). The aim of one side may be to take control of th ...

Ethiopian Civil War
in 1974. Nearly 22,000 Italo-Ethiopians took refuge in Italy during the 1970s. Their main organization in Italy is the Associazione Italiana Profughi dall'Etiopia ed Eritrea (A.I.P.E.E.). In recent years, some Italian companies have returned to operate in Ethiopia, and a large number of Italian technicians and managers arrived with their families, residing mainly in the metropolitan area of the capital.


Contemporary relations

In the mid-1990s despite a previous arrangement with the
Derg The Derg (also spelled Dergue; , ; om, Dergii), officially the Provisional Military Administrative Council (PMAC), was the military junta A military junta () is a government A government is the system or group of people governin ...

Derg
regime under
Mengistu Haile Mariam Mengistu Haile Mariam ( am, መንግሥቱ ኀይለ ማሪያም, pronunciation: ; born 21 May 1937) is an Ethiopian former army officer and politician who was the head of state of Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democra ...
in the 1970s to cede the
Obelisk of Axum The Obelisk of Axum (Tigrinya Tigrinya (; also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic Semitic most commonly refers to the Semitic languages, a name used since the 1770s to refer to the language family currently present in West Asia, North and East ...

Obelisk of Axum
to Italy in exchange for medical facilities and forgiving an accumulated debt to the Italian government, a populist movement made up of Italians and Ethiopians (both in country and expatriates around the world) began to petition the then current Italian government to return the obelisk, an event which eventually culminated in its
repatriation Repatriation is the process of returning an asset, an item of symbolic value, or a person—voluntarily or forcibly—to its owner or their place of origin or citizenship. The term may refer to non-human entities, such as converting a foreign c ...
in 2008 to Axum, the city of its creation. The Italian firm Salini Costruttori was chosen by the Ethiopian government to design and build the Millennium or on the
Blue Nile river The Blue Nile (; ), is a river originating at Lake Tana in Ethiopia. It travels for approximately through Ethiopia and Sudan. Along with the White Nile, it is one of the two major tributaries of the Nile, and supplies about 80% of the water ...

Blue Nile river
, which when completed will be the largest dam and hydroelectric plant in Africa. As the Italian engineers had helped to build the first railway from Addis Ababa to Djibouti in the past, the Ethiopian government has contracted them again to expand the railroad network along with India and China. For the last 20 years, Italy has continued to be among the top 5 trading partners with Ethiopia and a major investor in the Ethiopian economy. Ethiopian languages such as Amharic and Tigrinya have many words borrowed from the Italian language, for example "gettone" (token), "bigli" from Italian "biglie" (glass marbles), "borsa" (bag), "machìna" from Italian "macchina" (car), "carburatore" (carburetor) and others.''I prestiti italiani in amarico e tigrino'', Yaqob Beyene Ethiopia has Italian schools and cultural institutes (such as the Scuola Statale Italiana of Addis Ababa), which foster and promote Italian and Ethiopian culture and are free to the public.


Banknotes and postage stamps

On 5 May 1936 the capital Addis Ababa was captured by the Italians: on 22 May three new stamps showing the King of Italy were issued. Four further values inscribed "ETIOPIA" were issued on 5 December 1936. After that date, the stamps were issued with the name "Africa Orientale Italiana" on it.


See also

* *
Italians of Ethiopia Italians of Ethiopia are Italian diaspora, immigrants who moved from Italy to Ethiopia starting in the 19th century, as well as their descendants. Emperor Menelik II did not allow the sale of lands belonging to Ethiopia to Italians (Eritrea) and ...
*
Italian Eritrea Italian Eritrea (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italia ...
*
Italian Somalia Italian Somaliland ( it, Somala italiana; ar, الصومال الإيطالي, Al-Sumal Al-Italiy; so, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaalida), was a protectorate of the Kingdom of Italy The Kingdom of Italy ( it, Regno d'Italia) was a state that e ...
*
Linea dell'Impero The Imperial Line (Italian ''Linea dell'Impero'' or ''Linea Imperiale'') was a Airway (aviation), flight route of the Italian national airline Ala Littoria between 1935 and 1941 during the Fascist era. It was the longest route in the Italian Emp ...
*
Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta (Amedeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni di Savoia-Aosta; 21 October 1898 – 3 March 1942) was the third Duke of Aosta and a Cousin, first cousin, once removed of the King of Italy, Victor ...

Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta


Notes


Footnotes


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * {{Authority control
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the ...
Ethiopia Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the ...
History of Ethiopia 1930s in Ethiopia 1940s in Ethiopia 1930s in Italy 1940s in Italy Ethiopia–Italy relations 1936 establishments in Ethiopia 1947 disestablishments in Africa 1936 establishments in Italy 1947 disestablishments in Italy States and territories established in 1936 States and territories disestablished in 1947