Isolationism is a category of foreign policies
institutionalized by leaders who assert that nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance. One possible motivation for limiting international involvement is to avoid being drawn into dangerous and otherwise undesirable conflicts. There may also be a perceived benefit from avoiding international trade agreements or other mutual assistance pacts.
Isolationism has been defined as:
Before 1999, Bhutan
had banned television
and the Internet
in order to preserve its culture, environment, identity etc. Eventually, Jigme Singye Wangchuck
lifted the ban on television and the Internet. His son, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck
, was elected as Druk Gyalpo of Bhutan, which helped forge the Bhutanese democracy
has subsequently undergone a transition from an absolute monarchy
to a constitutional monarchy multi-party democracy
. The development of ''Bhutanese democracy'' has been marked by the active encouragement and participation of reigning Bhutanese monarchs
since the 1950s, beginning with legal reforms such as the abolition of slavery
, and culminating in the enactment of Bhutan's Constitution
After Zheng He's voyages
in the 15th century, the foreign policy of the Ming dynasty
became increasingly isolationist. The Hongwu Emperor
was not the first to propose the policy to ban all maritime shipping in 1390. The Qing dynasty
that came after the Ming dynasty often continued the Ming dynasty's isolationist policies. Wokou
, which literally translates to "Japanese pirates" or "dwarf pirates", were pirates who raided the coastlines of China, Japan, and Korea, and were one of the key primary concerns, although the maritime ban was not without some control.
Since the division of the territory following the Chinese Civil War
in 1949, China is divided into two regimes with the People's Republic of China
solidified control on mainland China
while the existing Republic of China
was confined to the island of Taiwan
as both governments lay claim to each other's sovereignty. While the PRC is recognized by the United Nations
, European Union
, and the majority of the world's states, the ROC remains diplomatically isolated although 15 states recognize it as "China" with some countries maintain unofficial diplomatic relations through trade offices
From 1641 to 1853, the Tokugawa shogunate
enforced a policy which it called ''kaikin''. The policy prohibited foreign contact with most outside countries. The commonly held idea that Japan was entirely closed, however, is misleading. In fact, Japan maintained limited-scale trade and diplomatic relations with China
and Ryukyu Islands
, as well as the Dutch Republic
as the only Western trading partner of Japan for much of the period.
The culture of Japan developed with limited influence from the outside world and had one of the longest stretches of peace in history. During this period, Japan developed thriving cities, castle towns, increasing commodification of agriculture and domestic trade, wage labor, increasing literacy and concomitant print culture
, laying the groundwork for modernization even as the shogunate itself grew weak.
In 1863, Emperor Gojong
took the throne of the Joseon Dynasty
when he was a child. His father, Regent Heungseon Daewongun
, ruled for him until Gojong reached adulthood. During the mid-1860s he was the main proponent of isolationism and the principal instrument of the persecution of both native and foreign Catholics.
Following the division
of the peninsula after independence from Japan
in 1945–48, Kim il-Sung
inaugurated an isolationist ethnonationalist regime
in the North
, which has been continued by his son
to the present day.
Just after independence was achieved, Paraguay
was governed from 1814 by the dictator José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
, who closed the country's borders and prohibited trade or any relation with the outside world until his death in 1840. The Spanish
settlers who had arrived just before independence had to marry old colonists or the native Guarani
to create a single Paraguayan people
Francia had a particular dislike of foreigners, and those came to Paraguay during his rule, which was very difficult, were not allowed to leave for the rest of their lives. An independent character, he hated European influences and the Catholic Church
and turned church courtyards into artillery parks and confession boxes into border sentry posts to try to keep foreigners at bay.
Some scholars, such as Robert J. Art
, believe that the United States
had an isolationist history, but other scholars dispute that by describing the United States as following a strategy of unilateralism
Robert Art makes his argument in ''A Grand Strategy for America'' (2003).
Books that have made the argument that the United States followed unilaterism instead of isolationism include Walter A. McDougall
's ''Promised Land, Crusader State'' (1997), John Lewis Gaddis
's ''Surprise, Security, and the American Experience'' (2004), and Bradley F. Podliska
's ''Acting Alone'' (2010). Both sides claim policy prescriptions from George Washington's Farewell Address
as evidence for their argument.
Bear F. Braumoeller argues that even the best case for isolationism, the United States in the interwar period, has been widely misunderstood and that Americans proved willing to fight as soon as they believed a genuine threat existed.
Events during and after the Revolution related to the treaty of alliance with France, as well as difficulties arising over the neutrality policy pursued during the French revolutionary wars and the Napoleonic wars, encouraged another perspective. A desire for separateness and unilateral freedom of action merged with national pride and a sense of continental safety to foster the policy of isolation. Although the United States maintained diplomatic relations and economic contacts abroad, it sought to restrict these as narrowly as possible in order to retain its independence. The Department of State continually rejected proposals for joint cooperation, a policy made explicit in the Monroe Doctrine's emphasis on unilateral action. Not until 1863 did an American delegate attend an international conference.
Isolationism has been criticized for the lack of aiding nations with major troubles. One notable example is that of American isolationism, which Benjamin Schwartz
described as a "tragedy" inspired by Puritanism
*United States non-interventionism
*Unilateralism in the United States
*Indigenous peoples in voluntary isolation
*Barry, Tom"A Global Affairs Commentary: The Terms of Power,"
''Foreign Policy in Focus'', November 6, 2002, University Press.
*Berry, Mary Elizabeth
. (2006). ''Japan in Print: Information and Nation in the Early Modern Period.'' Berkeley: University of California Press. ;
*Chalberg, John C. (1995). ''Isolationism: Opposing Viewpoints.'' San Diego: Greenhaven Press. ;
. (1961). ''Chōshū in the Meiji Restoration.'' Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ;
*Glahn, Richard Von. (1996). ''Fountain of Fortune: Money and Monetary Policy in China, 1000–1700.'' Berkeley: University of California Press. ;
*Graebner, Norman A. (1956). ''The New Isolationism; a Study in Politics and Foreign Policy Since 1950.'' New York: Ronald Press.
*Jansen, Marius B.
(1961). ''Sakamoto Ryoma and the Meiji Restoration.'' Princeton: Princeton University Press.
*Nichols, Christopher McKnight (2011). "Promise and Peril: America at the Dawn of a Global Age." Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2011.
*Nordlinger, Eric A. (1995). ''Isolationism Reconfigured: American Foreign Policy for a New Century.'' Princeton: Princeton University Press. ;
*Smith, Thomas C. (1959). ''The Agrarian Origins of Modern Japan.'' Stanford: Stanford University Press.
*Sullivan, Michael P.
"Isolationism." World Book Deluxe 2001. CD-ROM.
*Toby, Ronald P.
(1984). ''State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu.'' Princeton: Princeton University Press. ;
"Washington's Farewell Address 1796." ''Yale Law School Avalon Project, 2008''. Web. 12 Sept 2013.
Category:International relations theory