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Islington () is a district in
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
, England, and part of the
London Borough of Islington The London Borough of Islington ( ) is a London boroughs, London borough in Inner London. The borough includes a significant area to the south which forms part of central London. Islington has an estimated population of 215,667. It was formed in ...
. It is a mainly residential district of
Inner London Inner London is the name for the group of London boroughs The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county of Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county ...
, extending from Islington's
High Street #REDIRECT High Street High Street is a common street name for the primary business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services) ...

High Street
to Highbury Fields, encompassing the area around the busy High Street,
Upper Street Upper Street is the main street of the Islington Islington () is a district in Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington. It is a mainly residential district of Inner London, extending from Islington's Islington#Is ...
,
Essex Road Essex Road is a main road in Islington, London. It is part of the A104 road (England), A104 and connects Islington High Street with Balls Pond Road via Essex Road railway station. Location The road is about long. It starts as continuation of Isl ...
(former "Lower Street"), and
Southgate Road {{infobox UK place , country = England , static_image_name = Houses,_Southgate_Road,_Islington_-_geograph.org.uk_-_94835.jpg , static_image_caption = Houses on Southgate_Road, Islington , map_type ...
to the east.


Modern definition

Islington grew as a sprawling
Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a Historic counties of England, historic county in South East England, southeast England. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the Ceremonial counties of En ...

Middlesex
village along the line of the Great North Road, and has provided the name of the modern borough. This gave rise to some confusion, as neighbouring districts may also be said to be in Islington. This district is bounded by
Liverpool Road Liverpool Road is a street in Islington, North London. It covers a distance of between Islington High Street and Holloway Road, running roughly parallel to Upper Street through the area of Barnsbury. It contains several attractive Terraced h ...

Liverpool Road
to the west and
City Road City Road or The City Road is a road that runs through central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the innermost part of London, in England, spanning several London borough, boroughs. Over time, a numbe ...

City Road
and Southgate Road to the south-east. Its northernmost point is in the area of
Canonbury Canonbury is a residential area of Islington in the London Borough of Islington, North London. It is roughly in the area between Essex Road, Upper Street and Cross Street and either side of St Paul's Road. In 1253 land in the area was granted to ...
. The main north–south high street,
Upper Street Upper Street is the main street of the Islington Islington () is a district in Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington. It is a mainly residential district of Inner London, extending from Islington's Islington#Is ...
splits at Highbury Corner to Holloway Road to the west and St. Paul's Road to the east. The
Angel An angel is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also includes claimed abilities embodied in or provided by such ...
business improvement district A business improvement district (BID) is a defined area within which businesses are required to pay an additional tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In ...

business improvement district
(BID), an area centered around the
Angel tube station Angel is a London Underground station in the Angel, London, Angel area of the London Borough of Islington. It is on the Bank and Monument stations, Bank branch of the Northern line, between Old Street station, Old Street and King's Cross St. Pan ...

Angel tube station
, exists within southern Islington district and northern portions of two other districts in the London Borough of Islington –
Finsbury Finsbury is a district of Central London, forming the south-eastern part of the London Borough of Islington. It borders the City of London. The Manorialism, Manor of Finsbury is first recorded as ''Vinisbir'' (1231) and means "manor of a man ...
and
Pentonville Pentonville is an area on the northern fringe of Central London, in the London Borough of Islington. It is located north-northeast of Charing Cross on the London Inner Ring Road, Inner Ring Road. Pentonville developed in the northwestern edge o ...
.


History


Etymology

Islington was originally named by the
Saxons The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic langua ...

Saxons
''Giseldone'' (1005), then ''Gislandune'' (1062). The name means "Gīsla's hill" from the Old English
personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, history, and use of proper names. An ''wikt:orthonym, orthonym'' is the proper name of the object in question, the object of onomastic study. ...
''Gīsla'' and ''dun'' ("hill", "
down Down most often refers to: * Down, the relative direction Body relative directions (also known as egocentric coordinates) are orientation (geometry), geometrical orientations relative to a body such as a human person's. The most common one ...
"). The name later mutated to ''Isledon'', which remained in use well into the 17th century when the modern form arose."Islington: Growth", A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 8: Islington and Stoke Newington parishes (1985), pp. 9–19
Retrieved 13 March 2007
In medieval times, Islington was just one of many small manors thereabouts, along with ''Bernersbury'', ''Neweton Berewe'' or ''Hey-bury'' and ''Canonesbury'' (Barnsbury, Highbury and Canonbury – names first recorded in the 13th and 14th centuries).


Origins

Some roads on the edge of the area, including
Essex Road Essex Road is a main road in Islington, London. It is part of the A104 road (England), A104 and connects Islington High Street with Balls Pond Road via Essex Road railway station. Location The road is about long. It starts as continuation of Isl ...
, were known as ''streets'' by the medieval period, possibly indicating a
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in the New Testament of the Christian Bible Roman ...

Roman
origin, but little physical evidence remains. What is known is that the Great North Road from
Aldersgate Aldersgate was one of the northern gates in the London Wall The London Wall was a defensive wall first built by the Romans around the strategically important port town of Londinium in 200 CE. It has origins as an initial mound wall an ...
came into use in the 14th century, connecting with a new turnpike (toll road) up Highgate Hill. This was along the line of modern Upper Street, with a toll gate at The Angel defining the extent of the village. The ''Back Road'', the modern
Liverpool Road Liverpool Road is a street in Islington, North London. It covers a distance of between Islington High Street and Holloway Road, running roughly parallel to Upper Street through the area of Barnsbury. It contains several attractive Terraced h ...

Liverpool Road
, was primarily a
drovers' road , South Gloucestershire, England. Image:Old Drovers Path at Cotkerse.jpg, 250px, A section of drover's road at Cotkerse near Blairlogie, Scotland A drovers' road, drove
SmithfieldSmithfield_may_refer_to: _Places_Australia *Smithfield,_New_South_Wales,_a_suburb_of_Sydney *Smithfield,_Queensland,_a_northern_suburb_of_Cairns *Smithfield,_South_Australia,_a_northern_suburb_of_Adelaide **Smithfield_railway_station,_Adelaide *El_...
._Pens_and_sheds_were_erected_along_this_road_to_accommodate_the_animals. The_first_recorded_church,_St_Mary's_Church,_Islington.html" ;"title="Smithfield,_London.html" "title="oador droveway is a route for droving livestock on foot from one place to ...
where cattle would be rested before the final leg of their journey to Smithfield, London">SmithfieldSmithfield may refer to: Places Australia *Smithfield, New South Wales, a suburb of Sydney *Smithfield, Queensland, a northern suburb of Cairns *Smithfield, South Australia, a northern suburb of Adelaide **Smithfield railway station, Adelaide *El ...
. Pens and sheds were erected along this road to accommodate the animals. The first recorded church, St Mary's Church, Islington">St Mary's, was erected in the twelfth century and was replaced in the fifteenth century.John Richardson, ''Islington Past'', Revised Edition, Historical Publications Limited, 2000;pp 59–60. Islington lay on the estates of the Bishop of London and the Dean and Chapter of St Paul's Cathedral, St Pauls. There were substantial medieval moated manor houses in the area, principally at Canonbury and Highbury. In 1548, there were 440 communicants listed and the rural atmosphere, with access to the City and Westminster, made it a popular residence for the rich and eminent. The local inns harboured many fugitives and sheltered recusants. The
Royal Agricultural Hall The Business Design Centre is a Grade II listed building A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Build ...
was built in 1862 on the
Liverpool Road Liverpool Road is a street in Islington, North London. It covers a distance of between Islington High Street and Holloway Road, running roughly parallel to Upper Street through the area of Barnsbury. It contains several attractive Terraced h ...

Liverpool Road
site of William Dixon's Cattle Layers. The hall was 75 ft high and the arched glass roof spanned 125 ft. It was built for the annual
Smithfield Show The Smithfield Show, formerly the Smithfield Club Cattle Show and later the Royal Smithfield Show, was an annual British agricultural show An agricultural show is a public event exhibiting the equipment, animals, sports and recreation associat ...
in December of that year but was popular for other purposes, including recitals and the
Royal Tournament The Royal Tournament was the world's largest military tattoo and pageant, held by the British Armed Forces annually between 1880 and 1999. The venue was originally the Royal Agricultural Hall and latterly the Earls Court Exhibition Centre. In its la ...
. It was the primary exhibition site for London until the 20th century and the largest building of its kind, holding up to 50,000 people. It was requisitioned for use by the Mount Pleasant sorting office during World War II and never re-opened. The main hall has now been incorporated into the Business Design Centre.'Islington: Social and cultural activities', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 8: Islington and Stoke Newington parishes (1985), pp. 45–51
Retrieved 8 March 2007


Water sources

The hill on which Islington stands has long supplied the
City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It ...

City of London
with water, the first projects drawing water through wooden pipes from the many springs that lay at its foot, in
Finsbury Finsbury is a district of Central London, forming the south-eastern part of the London Borough of Islington. It borders the City of London. The Manorialism, Manor of Finsbury is first recorded as ''Vinisbir'' (1231) and means "manor of a man ...
. These included
Sadler's Wells Sadler's Wells Theatre is a performing arts venue in Clerkenwell, London, England located on Rosebery Avenue next to New River Head. The present-day theatre is the sixth on the site since 1683. It consists of two performance spaces: a 1,500-seat ...
, London Spa and
Clerkenwell Clerkenwell () is an area of central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands ...
. By the 17th century these traditional sources were inadequate to supply the growing population and plans were laid to construct a waterway, the New River, to bring fresh water from the source of the
River Lea The River Lea is in South East England South East England is one of the nine official regions of England The regions, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England ...

River Lea
, in
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the s ...

Hertfordshire
to
New River Head New River Head is a historic site located adjacent to Sadler's Wells Theatre Sadler's Wells Theatre is a performing arts venue in Clerkenwell, London, England located on Rosebery Avenue next to New River Head. The present-day theatre is the si ...
, below Islington in
Finsbury Finsbury is a district of Central London, forming the south-eastern part of the London Borough of Islington. It borders the City of London. The Manorialism, Manor of Finsbury is first recorded as ''Vinisbir'' (1231) and means "manor of a man ...
. The river was opened on 29 September 1613 by Sir
Hugh Myddelton Sir Hugh Myddelton (or Middleton), 1st Baronet (1560 – 10 December 1631) was a Welsh clothmaker, entrepreneur, mine-owner, goldsmith, banker and self-taught engineer. The spelling of his name is inconsistently reproduced, but Myddelton appears ...

Hugh Myddelton
, the constructor of the project. His statue still stands where Upper Street meets Essex Road. The course of the river ran to the east of Upper Street, and much of its course is now covered and forms a ''linear park'' through the area. The
Regent's Canal Regent's Canal is a canal across an area just north of central London, England. It provides a link from the Paddington Arm of the Grand Union Canal (old), Grand Union Canal, north-west of Paddington Basin in the west, to the Limehouse Basin an ...

Regent's Canal
passes through Islington, for much of which in an tunnel that runs from Colebrook Row east of the Angel, to emerge at Muriel Street near Caledonian Road. The stretch is marked above with a series of pavement plaques so walkers may find their way from one entrance to the other. The area of the canal east of the tunnel and north of the City Road was once dominated by much warehousing and industry surrounding the large City Road Basin and Wenlock Basin. Those old buildings that survive here are now largely residential or small creative work units. This stretch has an old double-fronted pub ''The Narrowboat'', one side accessed from the towpath. The canal was constructed in 1820 to carry cargo from
Limehouse Limehouse is a district in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a covering much of the traditional . It was formed in 1965 from the merger of the former of , , and . 'Tower Hamlets' was originally an ...
into the canal system. There is no tow-path in the tunnel so bargees had to ''walk'' their barges through, braced against the roof. Commercial use of the canal has declined since the 1960s.


Market gardens and entertainments

In the 17th and 18th centuries the availability of water made Islington a good place for growing vegetables to feed London. The manor became a popular excursion destination for Londoners, attracted to the area by its rural feel. Many
public houses A pub (short for public house) is an establishment licensed to serve alcoholic drink An alcoholic drink is a drink A drink (or beverage) is a liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid In physics, a fluid is a sub ...
were therefore built to serve the needs of both the excursionists and travellers on the turnpike. By 1716, there were 56 ale-house keepers in Upper Street, also offering pleasure and tea gardens, and activities such as archery, skittle alleys and bowling. By the 18th century, music and dancing were offered, together with billiards, firework displays and balloon ascents. The '' King's Head Tavern'', now a
Victorian Victorian or Victorians may refer to: 19th century * Victorian era, British history during Queen Victoria's 19th-century reign ** Victorian architecture ** Victorian house ** Victorian decorative arts ** Victorian fashion ** Victorian literature ...
building with a theatre, has remained on the same site, opposite the parish church, since 1543. The founder of the theatre, Dan Crawford, who died in 2005, disagreed with the introduction of decimal coinage. For twenty-plus years after decimalisation (on 15 February 1971), the bar continued to show prices and charge for drinks in pre-decimalisation currency. By the 19th century many music halls and theatres were established around
Islington Green Islington Green is a small triangle of open land at the convergence of A1 road (London)#Upper Street, Upper Street and Essex Road (once called Lower Street) in the London Borough of Islington. It roughly marks the northern boundary between the mod ...
. One such was Collins' Music Hall, the remains of which are now partly incorporated into a bookshop. The remainder of the Hall has been redeveloped into a new theatre, with its entrance at the bottom of
Essex Road Essex Road is a main road in Islington, London. It is part of the A104 road (England), A104 and connects Islington High Street with Balls Pond Road via Essex Road railway station. Location The road is about long. It starts as continuation of Isl ...
. It stood on the site of the Landsdowne Tavern, where the landlord had built an entertainment room for customers who wanted to sing (and later for professional entertainers). It was founded in 1862 by Samuel Thomas Collins Vagg and by 1897 had become a 1,800-seat theatre with 10 bars. The theatre suffered damage in a fire in 1958 and has not reopened. Between 92 and 162 acts were put on each evening and performers who started there included
Marie Lloyd Matilda Alice Victoria Wood (12 February 1870 – 7 October 1922), professionally known as Marie Lloyd ; was an English music hall Music hall is a type of British theatrical entertainment that was popular from the early Victorian er ...

Marie Lloyd
,
George Robey Sir George Edward Wade, Commander of the Order of the British Empire, CBE (20 September 1869 – 29 November 1954),James Harding (music writer), Harding, James"Robey, George" ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University P ...
,
Harry Lauder Sir Henry Lauder (; 4 August 1870 – 26 February 1950)Russell, Dave"Lauder, Sir Henry (1870–1950)" ''Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'', Oxford University Press, 2004, online edition, January 2011, accessed 27 April 2014 was a Sc ...

Harry Lauder
,
Harry Tate Ronald Macdonald Hutchison (4 July 1872 – 14 February 1940), professionally known as Harry Tate, was an English comedian, who performed in the music halls, in variety shows, and in films. Career Born in Lambeth, the son of a Scottish tea mer ...
,
George Formby George Formby, (born George Hoy Booth; 26 May 1904 – 6 March 1961) was an English actor, singer-songwriter and comedian who became known to a worldwide audience through his films of the 1930s and 1940s. On stage, screen and record he sa ...
,
Vesta Tilley Matilda Alice Powles (13May 186416September 1952) was an English music hall performer. She adopted the stage name Vesta Tilley and became one of the best-known male impersonators of her era. Her career lasted from 1869 until 1920. Starting in pr ...

Vesta Tilley
,
Tommy Trinder Thomas Edward Trinder CBE (24 March 1909 – 10 July 1989), known as Tommy Trinder, was an English stage, screen and radio comedian of the pre- and post-war years whose catchphrase was 'You lucky people!' Life Tommy Trinder was born at 54 Wel ...
,
Gracie Fields Dame Gracie Fields (born Grace Stansfield; 9 January 189827 September 1979) was an English actress, singer, comedian and star of cinema and music hall Music hall is a type of British theatrical entertainment Entertainment is a ...
,
Tommy Handley Thomas Reginald Handley (17 January 1892 – 9 January 1949) was an English comedian, best known for the BBC radio programme ''It's That Man Again'' ("''ITMA''") which ran between 1939 and 1949. Born in Liverpool, Lancashire, Handley went o ...
and
Norman Wisdom Sir Norman Joseph Wisdom, (4 February 1915 – 4 October 2010) was an English actor, comedian and singer best known for a series of comedy films produced between 1953 and 1966 featuring his hapless onscreen character that was often called Norma ...
. The Islington Literary and Scientific Society was established in 1833 and first met in Mr. Edgeworth's Academy on Upper Street. Its goal was to spread knowledge through lectures, discussions, and experiments, politics and theology being forbidden. A building, the Literary and Scientific Institution, was erected in 1837 in Wellington (later Almeida) Street, designed by Roumieu and Gough in a stuccoed Grecian style. It included a library (containing 3,300 volumes in 1839), reading room, museum, laboratory, and lecture theatre seating 500. The subscription was two guineas a year. After the library was sold off in 1872, the building was sold or leased in 1874 to the ''Wellington Club'', which occupied it until 1886. In 1885 the hall was used for concerts, balls, and public meetings. The
Salvation Army Salvation (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...

Salvation Army
bought the building in 1890, renamed it the Wellington Castle barracks, and remained there until 1955. The building became a factory and showroom for Beck's British Carnival Novelties for a few years from 1956, after which it stood empty. In 1978 a campaign began with the goal to redevelop the building as a theatre. A public appeal was launched in 1981, and a festival of avant-garde theatre and music was held there and at other Islington venues in 1982. What has become the successful
Almeida Theatre The Almeida Theatre, opened in 1980, is a 325-seat producing house with an international reputation, which takes its name from the street on which it is located, off A1 road (London), Upper Street, in the London Borough of Islington. The theatre p ...
was founded.


Housing

Some early development took place to accommodate the popularity of the nearby Sadler's Wells, which became a resort in the 16th century, but the 19th century saw the greatest expansion in housing, soon to cover the whole parish. In 1801, the population was 10,212, but by 1891 this had increased to 319,143. This rapid expansion was partly due to the introduction of horse-drawn omnibuses in 1830. Large well-built houses and fashionable squares drew clerks, artisans and professionals to the district. However, from the middle of the 19th century the poor were being displaced by clearances in inner London to build the new railway stations and goods yards. Many of the displaced settled in Islington, with the houses becoming occupied by many families. This, combined with the railways pushing into outer Middlesex, reduced Islington's attraction for the "better off" as it became "unfashionable". The area fell into a long decline; and by the mid-20th century, it was largely run-down and a byword for urban poverty. The aerial bombing of World War II caused much damage to Islington's housing stock, with 3,200 dwellings destroyed. Before the war a number of 1930s
council housing Public housing (known as ''council housing'' or ''social housing'' in the UK) provided the majority of rented accommodation in the United Kingdom until 2011 when the number of households in private rental housing surpassed the number in social ...
blocks had been added to the stock. After the war, partly as a result of bomb site redevelopment, the council housing boom got into its stride, reaching its peak in the 1960s: several extensive estates were constructed, by both the
Metropolitan Borough of Islington Islington was a civil parish and metropolitan borough in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the s ...

Metropolitan Borough of Islington
and the
London County Council London County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London The County of London was a county of England from 1889 to 1965, corresponding to the area known today as Inner London. It was created as part of th ...
. Clearance of the worst
terraced housing __NOTOC__ In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming. This type of landscaping is th ...
was undertaken, but Islington continued to be very densely populated, with a high level of overcrowding. The district has many council blocks, and the local authority has begun to replace some of them. From the 1960s, the remaining
Georgian Georgian may refer to: Common meanings * Anything related to, or originating from Georgia (country) **Georgians, an indigenous Caucasian ethnic group **Georgian language, a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians **Georgian scripts, three scripts ...
terraces were rediscovered by middle-class families. Many of the houses were rehabilitated, and the area became newly fashionable. This displacement of the poor by the aspirational has become known as
gentrification Gentrification is the process of changing the character of a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard ...

gentrification
. Among the new residents were a number of figures who became central in the
New Labour New Labour is a period in the history of the British Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua a ...
movement, including
Tony Blair Sir Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party (UK), Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007. On his resig ...

Tony Blair
before his victory in the
1997 general election1997 general election may refer to: * 1997 Canadian federal election * 1997 Irish general election * 1997 Singaporean general election * 1997 United Kingdom general election {{Disambiguation ...
. According to ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
in 2006,'' "Islington is widely regarded as the spiritual home of Britain's left-wing intelligentsia." The '' Granita Pact'' between
Gordon Brown James Gordon Brown (born 20 February 1951) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government The head of government is either the h ...

Gordon Brown
and Tony Blair is said to have been made at a now defunct restaurant on Upper Street. The
African National Congress The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populo ...
's headquarters in-exile was based on Penton Street. It was the target of a bomb attack in 1982. The completion of the
Victoria line The Victoria line is a London Underground The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a system serving and some parts of the adjacent of , and in the United Kingdom. The Undergrou ...

Victoria line
and redevelopment of
Angel tube station Angel is a London Underground station in the Angel, London, Angel area of the London Borough of Islington. It is on the Bank and Monument stations, Bank branch of the Northern line, between Old Street station, Old Street and King's Cross St. Pan ...

Angel tube station
created the conditions for developers to renovate many of the early Victorian and Georgian townhouses. They also built new developments. Islington remains a district with diverse inhabitants, with its private houses and apartments not far from social housing in immediately neighbouring wards such as Finsbury and Clerkenwell to the south, Bloomsbury and King's Cross to the west, and Highbury to the north west, and also the Hackney districts of De Beauvoir and Old Street to the north east. Islington is the most densely populated borough in the UK according to the 2011 census, with a population density of 138.7 people per hectare, compared to an average of 52.0 for London.


Upper Street

Upper Street Upper Street is the main street of the Islington Islington () is a district in Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington. It is a mainly residential district of Inner London, extending from Islington's Islington#Is ...
is the main shopping street of central Islington, and carries the
A1 road A list of road designation, roads designated A1 (disambiguation), A1, sorted by alphabetical order of country. * A01 highway (Afghanistan), a long ring road or beltway connecting Kabul, Kandahar, Herat and Mazar * A1 motorway (Albania), connecting ...
.


Islington High Street

Islington High Street is the former
High Street #REDIRECT High Street High Street is a common street name for the primary business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and services) ...

High Street
of the original village of Islington. High Street runs approximately from the intersection of
Pentonville Road Pentonville Road is a road in Central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the innermost part of London, in England, spanning several London borough, boroughs. Over time, a number of definitions have been ...
and
City Road City Road or The City Road is a road that runs through central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the innermost part of London, in England, spanning several London borough, boroughs. Over time, a numbe ...

City Road
at the south end to
Islington Green Islington Green is a small triangle of open land at the convergence of A1 road (London)#Upper Street, Upper Street and Essex Road (once called Lower Street) in the London Borough of Islington. It roughly marks the northern boundary between the mod ...
at the north end, where it branches into
Upper Street Upper Street is the main street of the Islington Islington () is a district in Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington. It is a mainly residential district of Inner London, extending from Islington's Islington#Is ...
and
Essex Road Essex Road is a main road in Islington, London. It is part of the A104 road (England), A104 and connects Islington High Street with Balls Pond Road via Essex Road railway station. Location The road is about long. It starts as continuation of Isl ...
(former Lower Street) – though some maps may simply show High Street as the southern portion of Upper Street. The earliest reference to Islington High Street is its appearance on a 1590 map of the area. At this time, nine
inns Inns are generally establishments or buildings where travelers can seek lodging Lodging refers to the use of a short-term dwelling In law, a dwelling (also known as a residence or an abode) is a self-contained unit of accommodation ...
(including the famous
Angel An angel is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also includes claimed abilities embodied in or provided by such ...
, which has subsequently given its name to the area around High Street), as well as housing and a public pond were shown lining the street. Then as now, Islington was and is unusual in that the village church, St Mary's, does not stand on the high street but is some way off on Upper Street. In 1716 Islington High Street came under the control of the newly formed Islington Turnpike Trust. The Trust grew rapidly, and soon had control of most major roads in the area, building a number of major road arteries through the expanding residential areas, including Caledonian Road,
Euston Road Euston Road is a road in Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on ...
,
City Road City Road or The City Road is a road that runs through central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the innermost part of London, in England, spanning several London borough, boroughs. Over time, a numbe ...

City Road
and New North Road. The Peacock Inn at 11 Islington High Street dates from 1564, although the current
façade A façade or facade () is generally the front part or exterior of a building A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety ...

façade
dates from 1857. It featured in ''
Tom Brown's Schooldays ''Tom Brown's School Days'' (sometimes written ''Tom Brown's Schooldays'', also published under the titles ''Tom Brown at Rugby'', ''School Days at Rugby'', and ''Tom Brown's School Days at Rugby'') is an 1857 novel by Thomas Hughes. The story ...
'' as the inn at which Tom stays prior to travelling to
Rugby School Rugby School is a public school (English independent Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group), a group of modernist painters based in the New Hope, Pennsylvania, a ...
. It closed in 1962, although the building still stands.
Angel tube station Angel is a London Underground station in the Angel, London, Angel area of the London Borough of Islington. It is on the Bank and Monument stations, Bank branch of the Northern line, between Old Street station, Old Street and King's Cross St. Pan ...

Angel tube station
on Islington High Street has the longest
escalator An escalator is a moving staircase which carries people between floors of a building or structure. It consists of a motor An engine or motor is a machine A machine is a man-made device that uses power to apply forces and control ...

escalator
on the
London Underground The London Underground (also known simply as the Underground, or by its nickname the Tube) is a rapid transit system serving Greater London and some parts of the adjacent ceremonial counties of England, counties of Buckinghamshire, Essex and H ...

London Underground
system, at 318 steps. In 2006 a Norwegian man made headlines after
skiing Skiing is the use of ski A ski is a narrow strip of semi-rigid material worn underfoot to glide over snow. Substantially longer than wide and characteristically employed in pairs, skis are attached to ski boot Ski boots are used in to p ...

skiing
down the escalator at the station.


In literature

Islington features extensively in modern English literature and culture:


Books

* Islington locations appear in many novels and other writings by
Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian e ...

Charles Dickens
, including: ** ''
Oliver Twist ''Oliver Twist; or, the Parish Boy's Progress'', Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional charact ...
'' (1837–1839): Mr Brownlow’s house is in
Pentonville Pentonville is an area on the northern fringe of Central London, in the London Borough of Islington. It is located north-northeast of Charing Cross on the London Inner Ring Road, Inner Ring Road. Pentonville developed in the northwestern edge o ...
, and several scenes take place in and around Islington. **The
Christmas Christmas is an annual festival commemorating Nativity of Jesus, the birth of Jesus Christ, observed primarily on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people Observance of Christmas by country, around the world ...

Christmas
story ''The Lamplighter'' (1838) is partially set in Canonbury, near
Canonbury Tower Canonbury Tower is a Tudor period, Tudor tower in Canonbury, and is the oldest building in Islington, North London. It is the most substantial remaining part of what used to be Canonbury House, erected for the Canons of St Bartholomew's Priory b ...
. ** ''
Martin Chuzzlewit ''The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit'' (commonly known as ''Martin Chuzzlewit'') is a novel by Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He ...
'' (1844): Tom Pinch and his sister, Ruth, take lodgings in Islington. **''
David Copperfield ''The Personal History, Adventures, Experience and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger of Blunderstone Rookery (Which He Never Meant to Publish on Any Account)'', commonly known as ''David Copperfield'',Dickens invented over 14 varia ...

David Copperfield
'' (1849-50):
Wilkins Micawber Wilkins Micawber is a clerk in Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by ...
lives in
City Road City Road or The City Road is a road that runs through central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the innermost part of London, in England, spanning several London borough, boroughs. Over time, a numbe ...

City Road
early in the novel. ** ''
Bleak House ''Bleak House'' is a novel by Charles Dickens, first published as a 20-episode Serial (literature), serial between March 1852 and September 1853. The novel has many characters and several sub-plots, and is told partly by the novel's heroine, E ...
''(1852-53): William Guppy, a law clerk, lives in
Pentonville Pentonville is an area on the northern fringe of Central London, in the London Borough of Islington. It is located north-northeast of Charing Cross on the London Inner Ring Road, Inner Ring Road. Pentonville developed in the northwestern edge o ...
. ** ''
Our Mutual Friend ''Our Mutual Friend'', written in 1864–1865, is the last novel completed by Charles Dickens Charles John Huffam Dickens (; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's ...
'' (1864–65): the Wilfers live in
HollowayA hollow way is a sunken lane. Holloway may refer to: People *Holloway (surname) *Holloway Halstead Frost (1889–1935), American World War I Navy officer Place names ;United Kingdom *Holloway, London, inner-city district in the London Borough of ...
. * In ''
The Way We Live Now ''The Way We Live Now'' is a satire, satirical novel by Anthony Trollope, published in London in 1875 after first appearing in Serial (literature), serialised form. It is one of the last significant Victorian novels to have been published in mo ...

The Way We Live Now
'' (1875) by
Anthony Trollope Anthony Trollope (; 24 April 1815 – 6 December 1882) was an English novelist and civil servant of the Victorian era. Among his best-known works is a series of novels collectively known as the Chronicles of Barsetshire, which revolves around th ...

Anthony Trollope
, the glamorous widow, Mrs Hurtle, has lodgings in Islington. In the same book the upper class cad Sir Felix visits a music hall on the
City Road City Road or The City Road is a road that runs through central London Central London (also known less commonly as London city centre) is the innermost part of London, in England, spanning several London borough, boroughs. Over time, a numbe ...

City Road
with Ruby, who vainly hopes to marry him. *In ''
The Diary of a Nobody ''The Diary of a Nobody'' is an English comic novel written by the brothers George Grossmith, George and Weedon Grossmith, with illustrations by the latter. It originated as an intermittent serial in ''Punch (magazine), Punch'' magazine in 1888 ...
'' (first serialized in ''Punch'' magazine in 1888–89 and first printed in book form, in 1892), an English comic novel written by George Grossmith and his brother Weedon Grossmith, the main character lives off the Holloway Road in Brickfield Terrace. * Upper Street and other Islington locations appear throughout
George Gissing George Robert Gissing (; 22 November 1857 – 28 December 1903) was an English novelist, who published 23 novels between 1880 and 1903. His best-known novels, which have reappeared in modern editions, include '' The Nether World'' (1889), ''New G ...

George Gissing
's '' The Nether World'' (1889). * In '' Sinister Street'' (1914), by
Compton MacKenzie Sir Edward Montague Compton Mackenzie, (17 January 1883 – 30 November 1972) was an English-born Scottish writer of fiction, biography, histories and a memoir, as well as a cultural commentator, raconteur and lifelong Scottish independence, Sco ...

Compton MacKenzie
, Michael Fane, the main protagonist, undertakes teenage rebellion by leaving boring, respectable, upper-middle class
South Kensington South Kensington is a district just west of Central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United King ...

South Kensington
for a couple of visits to the exciting, louche, working class
HollowayA hollow way is a sunken lane. Holloway may refer to: People *Holloway (surname) *Holloway Halstead Frost (1889–1935), American World War I Navy officer Place names ;United Kingdom *Holloway, London, inner-city district in the London Borough of ...
district of Islington. * Islington is referred to in the M. R. James short ghost story "Two Doctors" published in ''
A Thin Ghost and Others A, or a, is the first Letter (alphabet), letter and the first vowel letter of the English alphabet, modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its name in English is English alphabet#Letter names, ''a'' (pronounced ), plural En ...
'' in 1919. * Emma Evans, protagonist of
Margaret Drabble Dame Margaret Drabble, Lady Holroyd, (born 5 June 1939) is an English novelist A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are professional noveli ...

Margaret Drabble
's novel ''The Garrick Year'' (1964), lives, after she has married her husband David, in "an ordinary nineteenth-century terrace house in Islington, and on either side of the front door stood a small stone lion the back garden was up to the standard of the lions". * The
Royal Agricultural Hall The Business Design Centre is a Grade II listed building A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England Historic England (officially the Historic Build ...
on
Liverpool Road Liverpool Road is a street in Islington, North London. It covers a distance of between Islington High Street and Holloway Road, running roughly parallel to Upper Street through the area of Barnsbury. It contains several attractive Terraced h ...

Liverpool Road
features as the location for a Victorian walking match in
Peter Lovesey Peter (Harmer) Lovesey (born 1936), also known by his pen name Peter Lear, is a British writer of historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Eve ...
’s novel ''Wobble to Death'', (1970) and its BBC Radio's
Saturday Night Theatre ''Saturday Night Theatre'' was a long-running radio drama strand on BBC Radio 4 BBC Radio 4 is a British national radio station owned and operated by the BBC. It broadcasts a wide variety of Talk radio, spoken-word programmes including news, dr ...
adaptation. *
Simon Gray Simon James Holliday Gray (21 October 1936 – 7 August 2008) was an English playwright and memoirist who also had a career as a university lecturer in English literature This article is focused on English-language literature rather than th ...
's play ''
Otherwise Engaged ''Otherwise Engaged'' is a bleakly comic play by English playwright Simon Gray. The play previewed at the Oxford Playhouse and the Richmond Theatre, and then opened at the Queen's Theatre in London on 10 July 1975, with Alan Bates Sir Al ...
'' (1975) is set in Islington. *
Douglas Adams Douglas Noel Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, screenwriter, essayist, humorist, satirist and dramatist. Adams was author of ''The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy ''The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy'' (some ...
lived in Arlington Avenue. The phone number of his house was 226 7709. In ''
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy ''The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy'' (sometimes referred to as ''HG2G'', ''HHGTTG'', ''H2G2'', or ''tHGttG'') is a comedy science fiction franchise created by Douglas Adams. Originally a 1978 radio comedy broadcast on BBC Radio 4 ...

The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
'' when Arthur Dent and Ford Prefect are rescued in ZZ9 Plural Z Alpha, the probability of that happening was 2 to the power of 267,709 to one against. Douglas also used Islington as a setting in his novels, and named a character in his famous ''Hitchhikers' Guide to the Galaxy'' (1978) series, Hotblack Desiato, after a well-known local estate agent. Islington was also the place in which Arthur Dent meets Trillian during a party in a flat. *
Martha Grimes Martha Grimes (born May 2, 1931) is an American writer of detective fiction Detective fiction is a subgenre of crime fiction and mystery fiction in which an criminal investigation, investigator or a detective—either professional, amateur or re ...
's fictional detective, Richard Jury, lives in a flat in Islington. He first appeared in the novel ‘’The Man With a Load of Mischief’’ (1981). *In
Douglas Adams Douglas Noel Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, screenwriter, essayist, humorist, satirist and dramatist. Adams was author of ''The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy ''The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy'' (some ...
’s ''
Dirk Gently Dirk Gently (born Svlad Cjelli, also known as Dirk Cjelli) is a fictional character created by English writer Douglas Adams and featured in the books ''Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency'', ''The Long Dark Tea-Time of the Soul'' and ''The S ...
'' series commencing with ''
Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency ''Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency'' is a humorous detective novel by English writer Douglas Adams, first published in 1987. It is described by the author on its cover as a "thumping good detective-ghost-horror-who dunnit-time travel-rom ...

Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency
'' (1987), Richard MacDuff's flat, and Susan Way's flat are all in Islington (though Dirk's office is on a fictional street). *In
Neil Gaiman Neil Richard MacKinnon GaimanBorn as Neil Richard Gaiman, with "MacKinnon" added on the occasion of his marriage to Amanda Palmer. (; born Neil Richard Gaiman, 10 November 1960) is an English author of short fiction, novels, comic books, graph ...
's best-selling novel ''
Neverwhere ''Neverwhere'' is an urban fantasy television series by Neil Gaiman that first aired in 1996 on BBC Two. The series is set in "London Below", a magical realm coexisting with the more familiar London, referred to as "London Above". It was devise ...
'' (1996), Islington is a fallen angel that lives under London, named after the Angel tube station. *Nick Hornby's novels ''About a Boy (novel), About a Boy'' (1998) and ''Slam (novel), Slam'' (2007) are set in Islington. *Zoë Heller's novel ''Notes on a Scandal'' (2003) is set in Islington. *In the ''Harry Potter'' series by JK Rowling, commencing with ‘’Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix’’ (2003), the eponymous Order of the Phoenix (fictional organisation), Order is headquartered at Number 12 Grimmauld Place, a fictitious street in Islington. The house belonged to Sirius Black and Harry, Ron, and Hermione used it as a hideout in ''Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows''. *Islington features throughout Charlie Higson's post-apocalyptic, young adult horror series, The Enemy, set in and around London. For example, in ''The Dead (Higson novel), The Dead'' (2010), Islington is the destination of the group travelling on Greg's bus. Greg tells everyone but his son, Liam: "Get some sleep. We'll push on in the morning. I'll take you all as far as Islington. After that you're on your own." *The Gaspard the Fox series of children's books commencing in 2018, are set in Islington, inspired by the remarkable relationship between an urban fox and local author Zeb Soanes, who lives in
Canonbury Canonbury is a residential area of Islington in the London Borough of Islington, North London. It is roughly in the area between Essex Road, Upper Street and Cross Street and either side of St Paul's Road. In 1253 land in the area was granted to ...
. James Mayhew, James Mayhew's illustrations feature numerous local landmarks including the Islington Green War Memorial , De Beauvoir Town, De Beauvoir Square and the
Regent's Canal Regent's Canal is a canal across an area just north of central London, England. It provides a link from the Paddington Arm of the Grand Union Canal (old), Grand Union Canal, north-west of Paddington Basin in the west, to the Limehouse Basin an ...

Regent's Canal
.


Opera

*In Arthur Sullivan and B. C. Stephenson's comic opera, ''The Zoo'' (1875), two of the main characters are the Duke of Islington and his beloved, whom he asks to become the Duchess of Islington.


Poetry

* Abraham Cowley's poem "Of Solitude" (1668) mentions this area in the conclusion of the poem (but not the essay of the same name, which is more common).


Transport

The area is well served by bus routes, with a major bus interchange located near Angel tube station. Red route and residents' parking restrictions apply throughout the area.


Nearby places

*
Angel An angel is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It also includes claimed abilities embodied in or provided by such ...
*Barnsbury *
Canonbury Canonbury is a residential area of Islington in the London Borough of Islington, North London. It is roughly in the area between Essex Road, Upper Street and Cross Street and either side of St Paul's Road. In 1253 land in the area was granted to ...
*De Beauvoir Town *Dalston *
Finsbury Finsbury is a district of Central London, forming the south-eastern part of the London Borough of Islington. It borders the City of London. The Manorialism, Manor of Finsbury is first recorded as ''Vinisbir'' (1231) and means "manor of a man ...
*Highbury *Hoxton *
HollowayA hollow way is a sunken lane. Holloway may refer to: People *Holloway (surname) *Holloway Halstead Frost (1889–1935), American World War I Navy officer Place names ;United Kingdom *Holloway, London, inner-city district in the London Borough of ...
*Kings Cross, London, King's Cross *
Pentonville Pentonville is an area on the northern fringe of Central London, in the London Borough of Islington. It is located north-northeast of Charing Cross on the London Inner Ring Road, Inner Ring Road. Pentonville developed in the northwestern edge o ...
*St Luke's, Islington, St Luke's


Nearby stations

*
Angel tube station Angel is a London Underground station in the Angel, London, Angel area of the London Borough of Islington. It is on the Bank and Monument stations, Bank branch of the Northern line, between Old Street station, Old Street and King's Cross St. Pan ...

Angel tube station
*Arsenal tube station *Drayton Park railway station *Essex Road railway station *Farringdon station *Highbury & Islington station *London King's Cross railway station, King's Cross railway station *King's Cross St Pancras tube station *St Pancras railway station


Education

According to latest figures published by the Department for Education, there are 47 primary and 10 state-funded secondary schools in Islington.


Listed buildings

Grade II* English Heritage list three Grade II* listed buildings within Central Islington (and many more in surrounding districts): *Union Chapel, Islington, The Union Chapel *3 Terrett's Place (an 18th-century house on Upper Street) *St Paul's Church, St Paul's Road (designed by Sir Charles Barry, now the St Paul's Rudolf Steiner, Steiner Project) *Finsbury Town Hall *
Canonbury Tower Canonbury Tower is a Tudor period, Tudor tower in Canonbury, and is the oldest building in Islington, North London. It is the most substantial remaining part of what used to be Canonbury House, erected for the Canons of St Bartholomew's Priory b ...
Grade II (selected): The area contains numerous Georgian townhouses, shops and pubs. Many whole terraces are listed including much of
Liverpool Road Liverpool Road is a street in Islington, North London. It covers a distance of between Islington High Street and Holloway Road, running roughly parallel to Upper Street through the area of Barnsbury. It contains several attractive Terraced h ...

Liverpool Road
(one side of which is in Barnsbury) and Islington High Street/
Upper Street Upper Street is the main street of the Islington Islington () is a district in Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington. It is a mainly residential district of Inner London, extending from Islington's Islington#Is ...
. Other multiply listed streets include Arlington Square (one of the UK's top 10 garden squares) Camden Passage, Compton Terrace, Colebrooke Row, Cross Street, Duncan Terrace,
Essex Road Essex Road is a main road in Islington, London. It is part of the A104 road (England), A104 and connects Islington High Street with Balls Pond Road via Essex Road railway station. Location The road is about long. It starts as continuation of Isl ...
, Gibson Square and Milner Square. Other Grade II listed structures include: *Almeida Theatre, The Almeida Theatre. *The Angel Baptist Church, Cross Street. *The Angel public house (the original one, now a Co-op bank – not the newer Wetherspoon's), Islington High Street. *The Business Design Centre (part of which is the former Royal Agricultural Hall), Upper Street. *The Camden Head public house, Camden Passage. *The Hope and Anchor, Islington, Hope and Anchor public house, Upper Street. *Ironmonger Row Baths. *Islington Town Hall. *M Manze's Pie and Eel Shop, Chapel Market. *The Old Queen's Head public house, Essex Road. *Resurrection Manifestations GracePoint church (originally the Carlton Cinema, Essex Road, and later a Mecca Bingo Hall). *St John's Church, Duncan Terrace. *St Mary's Church, Islington, St Mary's Church, Upper Street (rebuilt after World War 2 – only the spire remains from the original). *South Library, Essex Road. *The York public house. *Emirates Stadium
London Art House


See also

*List of people from Islington *Islington Museum *Islington Studios *Islington Local History Centre *
Almeida Theatre The Almeida Theatre, opened in 1980, is a 325-seat producing house with an international reputation, which takes its name from the street on which it is located, off A1 road (London), Upper Street, in the London Borough of Islington. The theatre p ...
*Little Angel Theatre *Arsenal F.C. *Business Design Centre *Crafts Council *Highbury Fields *
Islington Green Islington Green is a small triangle of open land at the convergence of A1 road (London)#Upper Street, Upper Street and Essex Road (once called Lower Street) in the London Borough of Islington. It roughly marks the northern boundary between the mod ...
*Market Estate *Union Chapel, Islington, The Union Chapel *St James' Church, Islington *The Bomb Factory Art Foundation


References


Further reading

* *
A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 8
(Note that even this largely refers to the old parish, considerably larger than the modern district)


External links


Islington CouncilIslington Archaeology & History SocietyIslington Literary & Historical StrollsThe Islington SocietySt Mary's ChurchFreightliner's FarmLondon Landscape TV episode (5 mins) about Islington
{{Authority control Islington, Districts of the London Borough of Islington Areas of London Places formerly in Middlesex da:Islington fi:Islington