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The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is a name used by various
paramilitary Paramilitary forces usually tend to wear similar but different uniforms to the military, for instance gray " urban camouflage".A paramilitary organization is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subcultur ...
organisations in
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
throughout the 20th and the 21st centuries. Organisations going by this name have been dedicated to
irredentism Irredentism is a political and popular movement whose members claim (usually on behalf of their nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a sha ...
through
Irish republicanism Irish republicanism ( ga, poblachtánachas Éireannach) is the political movement for the unity Unity may refer to: Buildings * Unity Building The Unity Building, in Oregon, Illinois, is a historic building in that city's Oregon Commercial H ...
, the belief that all of
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
should be an independent republic free from British rule. The original
Irish Republican Army (1919–1922) The Irish Republican Army (IRA; ga, Óglaigh na hÉireann) was an Irish republican revolutionary paramilitary organisation. The ancestor of many groups also known as the Irish Republican Army, and distinguished from them as the Old IRA, it wa ...
, often now referred to as the "old IRA", was raised in 1917 from members of the
Irish Volunteers The Irish Volunteers ( ga, Óglaigh na hÉireann), sometimes called the Irish Volunteer Force or Irish Volunteer Army, was a military organisation established in 1913 by Irish nationalists. It was ostensibly formed in response to the formatio ...
and the
Irish Citizen Army The Irish Citizen Army (), or ICA, was a small paramilitary group of trained trade union volunteers from the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union (ITGWU) established in Dublin for the defence of workers' demonstrations from the Dublin Metro ...
, later reinforced by Irishmen, formerly in the
British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' us ...
in
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, who returned to Ireland to fight against Britain in the
Irish War of Independence The Irish War of Independence ( ga, Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought in Ireland from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is a name used by various paramilitary or ...
. In Irish law, this IRA was the army of the
revolutionary A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates a revolution. Also, when used as an adjective, the term ''revolutionary'' refers to something that has a major, sudden impact on society or on some aspect of human endeavor. D ...
Irish Republic The Irish Republic ( ga, Poblacht na hÉireann or ) was an unrecognised revolutionary state that declared its independence from the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the Unite ...

Irish Republic
as declared by its parliament,
Dáil Éireann Dáil Éireann ( , ; ) is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community i ...
, in 1919. In the century that followed, the original IRA was reorganised, changed and split on multiple occasions, to such a degree that many subsequent paramilitary organisations have been known by that title – most notably the
Provisional Irish Republican Army The Irish Republican Army (IRA; ), also known as the Provisional Irish Republican Army, and informally as the Provos, was an Irish republican paramilitary Paramilitary forces usually tend to wear similar but different uniforms to the mili ...
which was a key participant during
the Troubles The Troubles ( ga, Na Trioblóidí) were an ethno-nationalist Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethnonationalism, is a form of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation A na ...
. The contemporary IRA organisations each claim the sole right to use that name, as they each insist they are the only legitimate descendants of the original IRA.


Overview of the IRAs

The playwright and former IRA member
Brendan Behan Brendan Francis Aidan Behan (christened Francis Behan) ( ; ga, Breandán Ó Beacháin; 9 February 1923 – 20 March 1964) was an Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situat ...

Brendan Behan
once said that the first issue on any Irish organisation's agenda was "the split". For the IRA, that has often been the case. The first split came after the
Anglo-Irish Treaty The 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty ( ga , An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingd ...
in 1921, with supporters of the Treaty forming the nucleus of the National Army of the newly created
Irish Free State The Irish Free State ( ga, Saorstát Éireann, , ; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of St ...
, while the anti-treaty forces continued to use the name ''Irish Republican Army''. After the end of the
Irish Civil War The Irish Civil War ( ga, Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland I ...
(1922–23), the IRA was around in one form or another for forty years, when it split into the
Official IRA The Official Irish Republican Army or Official IRA (OIRA; ) was an Irish republican paramilitary group whose goal was to remove Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label= Ulster-Scots, Norlin Airlann) is ...
and the
Provisional IRA The Irish Republican Army (IRA; ), also known as the Provisional Irish Republican Army, and informally as the Provos, was an Irish republican paramilitary Paramilitary forces usually tend to wear similar but different uniforms to the mili ...
in 1969. The latter then had its own breakaways, namely the
Real IRA The Real Irish Republican Army, or Real IRA (RIRA), is a Dissident republican, dissident Irish republicanism, Irish republican paramilitary group that aims to bring about a united Ireland. It formed in 1997 following a split in the Provisional ...
and the
Continuity IRA The Continuity Irish Republican Army (Continuity IRA or CIRA), styling itself as the Irish Republican Army (), is an Irish republican paramilitary group that aims to bring about a united Ireland United Ireland, also referred to as Irish re ...
, each claiming to be the true successor of the Army of the
Irish Republic The Irish Republic ( ga, Poblacht na hÉireann or ) was an unrecognised revolutionary state that declared its independence from the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the Unite ...

Irish Republic
. *The
Irish Republican Army (1919–1922) The Irish Republican Army (IRA; ga, Óglaigh na hÉireann) was an Irish republican revolutionary paramilitary organisation. The ancestor of many groups also known as the Irish Republican Army, and distinguished from them as the Old IRA, it wa ...
, known as the "Old IRA", in later years, was recognized by the
First Dáil The First Dáil ( ga, An Chéad Dáil) was Dáil Éireann (Irish Republic), Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919 to 1921. It was the first meeting of the Unicameralism, unicameral Legislature, parliament of the revolutionary republic, revolut ...
as the legitimate army of the Irish Republic in April 1921 due to the fact that it had fought in the
Irish War of Independence The Irish War of Independence ( ga, Cogadh na Saoirse) or Anglo-Irish War was a guerrilla war fought in Ireland from 1919 to 1921 between the Irish Republican Army The Irish Republican Army (IRA) is a name used by various paramilitary or ...
. On ratification of the
Anglo-Irish Treaty The 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty ( ga , An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingd ...
by the Dáil, it split into pro-Treaty forces, the National Army, also known as the ''Government forces'' or the ''Regulars,'' and anti-Treaty forces, the ''Republicans'', ''Irregulars'' or ''Executive forces,'' after the Treaty. These two forces went on to fight the
Irish Civil War The Irish Civil War ( ga, Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland I ...
. *The
Irish Republican Army (1922–1969) This article discusses the Irish Republican Army of 1922–1969, an anti-Treaty sub-group of the original Irish Republican Army that fought against the Irish Free State in the Irish Civil War The Irish Civil War ( ga, Cogadh Cathartha na hÉir ...
, the anti-treaty IRA which fought and lost the civil war and thereafter refused to recognize either the Irish Free State or
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster- ...

Northern Ireland
, deeming both of them to be the creations of British
imperialism Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending rule over peoples and other countries, for extending political and economic access, power and control, often through employing hard power Hard power is the use of military and economics, economi ...

imperialism
. It existed in one form or another for over 40 years before it split in 1969. *The
Official IRA The Official Irish Republican Army or Official IRA (OIRA; ) was an Irish republican paramilitary group whose goal was to remove Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label= Ulster-Scots, Norlin Airlann) is ...
(OIRA), the remainder of the IRA after the 1969 split from the Provisionals; was primarily
Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern societies progress, ...
in its political orientation. It is now inactive in a military sense, while its political wing, Official Sinn Féin, became the
Workers' Party of Ireland The Workers' Party ( ga, Páirtí na nOibrithe) is a Marxist–Leninist political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. It arose as the History of Sinn Féin, original Sinn Féin organisation founded in 1905 by Art ...
. *The
Provisional IRA The Irish Republican Army (IRA; ), also known as the Provisional Irish Republican Army, and informally as the Provos, was an Irish republican paramilitary Paramilitary forces usually tend to wear similar but different uniforms to the mili ...
(PIRA) broke from the OIRA in 1969 due to
abstentionism Abstentionism is standing for election to a deliberative assembly while refusing to take up any seats won or otherwise participate in the assembly's business. Abstentionism differs from an election boycott in that abstentionists participate in ...
and differing views on how to deal with the increasing violence in Northern Ireland. Although it opposed the OIRA's Marxism, it came to develop a
left-wing Left-wing politics support social equality Social equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social in ...
orientation and it also increased its political activity. *The
Continuity IRA The Continuity Irish Republican Army (Continuity IRA or CIRA), styling itself as the Irish Republican Army (), is an Irish republican paramilitary group that aims to bring about a united Ireland United Ireland, also referred to as Irish re ...
(CIRA) broke from the PIRA in 1986, because the latter ended its policy on
abstentionism Abstentionism is standing for election to a deliberative assembly while refusing to take up any seats won or otherwise participate in the assembly's business. Abstentionism differs from an election boycott in that abstentionists participate in ...
(thus recognising the authority of the
Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective id ...

Republic of Ireland
). *The
Real IRA The Real Irish Republican Army, or Real IRA (RIRA), is a Dissident republican, dissident Irish republicanism, Irish republican paramilitary group that aims to bring about a united Ireland. It formed in 1997 following a split in the Provisional ...
(RIRA), a 1997 breakaway from the PIRA consisting of members opposed to the
Northern Ireland peace process The Northern Ireland peace process includes the events leading up to the 1994 Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) ceasefire, the end of most of the violence of the Troubles, the Good Friday Agreement of 1998, and subsequent political developme ...
. *In April 2011, former members of the Provisional IRA announced a resumption of hostilities, and that "they had now taken on the mantle of the mainstream IRA." They further claimed "We continue to do so under the name of the Irish Republican Army. We are the IRA." and insisted that they "were entirely separate from the Real IRA,
Óglaigh na hÉireann Óglaigh na hÉireann (), abbreviated ÓÉ, is an Irish-language Irish (also called in Standard Irish) is a Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, which is itself a part of the Indo-European lang ...
(ONH), and the Continuity IRA." They claimed responsibility for the April assassination of PSNI constable Ronan Kerr as well as responsibility for other attacks that had previously been claimed by the Real IRA and ONH. *The New IRA, which was formed as a merger between the Real IRA and other republican groups in 2012. (see
Real IRA The Real Irish Republican Army, or Real IRA (RIRA), is a Dissident republican, dissident Irish republicanism, Irish republican paramilitary group that aims to bring about a united Ireland. It formed in 1997 following a split in the Provisional ...
)


Genealogy of the IRA and its splits

The IRA and its splinter groups include: *Original IRA (the "old IRA") – fought in the War of Independence 1919–1921 **That part of the IRA that accepted the compromise of the 1921 treaty which established the
Irish Free State The Irish Free State ( ga, Saorstát Éireann, , ; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of St ...
and that became the initial Free State government. Its supporters became the modern-day Fine Gael Party, currently the third largest party in the
Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga, Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective id ...

Republic of Ireland
. With additional recruits, it became the National Army, later known as the
Irish Defence Forces The Defence Forces ( ga, Fórsaí Cosanta, officially styled ) derives its origins from the Irish Volunteers. Whilst the Irish for ''Defence Forces'' is , as Ó Cearúil (1999) points out, the Defence Forces are officially styled . is used in ...
. **That part of the original IRA organised within
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label=Ulster-ScotsUlster Scots, also known as Scotch-Irish, may refer to: * Ulster Scots people The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots The Ulster Scots (Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster- ...

Northern Ireland
not included within the Free State (see below). **That part of the IRA, organised within the twenty-six counties that became the Free State, which rejected the compromise of the 1921 treaty with Britain and under Liam Lynch fought the
Irish Civil War The Irish Civil War ( ga, Cogadh Cathartha na hÉireann; 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923) was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland I ...
against the Free State's National Army (led by Michael Collins), with the support of the anti-treaty faction of Sinn Féin, led by
Éamon de Valera Éamon de Valera (, ; first registered as ''George de Valero''; changed some time before 1901 to ''Edward de Valera''; 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was a prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland. He served severa ...

Éamon de Valera
. ***Some years after losing the Civil War a faction led by de Valera resigned from
Sinn Féin Sinn Féin ( , ; en, "eOurselves") is an Irish republican and democratic socialist political party active throughout Ireland; both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The History of Sinn Féin, original Sinn Féin organisation wa ...

Sinn Féin
and established the
Fianna Fáil Fianna Fáil (, ; meaning 'Soldiers of Destiny' or 'Warriors of Fál'), officially Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party ( ga, audio=ga-Fianna Fáil.ogg, Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach), is a conservative Conser ...
party in 1926, which is currently the second-largest party in
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
. (In December 2007, Fianna Fáil was officially registered as a political party in Northern Ireland.) ***In the 1930s, the remainder of the IRA including that part of the Old IRA organised within Northern Ireland, attempted a bombing campaign in Britain, a campaign in Northern Ireland (after a change in leadership to the north) and some military activities in the Free State (later the Republic of Ireland). After a period of poor relations, the symbiotic relationship between Sinn Féin and the IRA was re-established in the late 1930s. ****By the 1960s, after the failed border campaign, Sinn Féin moved towards a
Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how modern societies progress, ...
class struggle Class conflict, also referred to as class struggle and class warfare, is the political tension and economic antagonism that exists in society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, socia ...
outlook. With the outbreak of
the Troubles The Troubles ( ga, Na Trioblóidí) were an ethno-nationalist Ethnic nationalism, also known as ethnonationalism, is a form of nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation A na ...
, Sinn Féin, or as it came to be called after the formation of the Provisional IRA and Provisional Sinn Féin,
Official IRA The Official Irish Republican Army or Official IRA (OIRA; ) was an Irish republican paramilitary group whose goal was to remove Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; sco, label= Ulster-Scots, Norlin Airlann) is ...
/ Official Sinn Féin found itself sidelined because of its decision not to engage the British state militarily. Over time the Official IRA faded away, while Official Sinn Féin moved to a purely Marxist position, renaming itself first Sinn Féin the Workers Party, and then in 1982 the
Workers' Party of Ireland The Workers' Party ( ga, Páirtí na nOibrithe) is a Marxist–Leninist political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. It arose as the History of Sinn Féin, original Sinn Féin organisation founded in 1905 by Art ...
. *****After the Official IRA's 1972 ceasefire, it and Official Sinn Féin suffered a split in 1974 leading to the formation of the
far left Far or FAR may refer to: Agriculture * far, spelt, Triticum spelta – One of the first varieties of domesticated wheat, used for Ancient Roman In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing ...
Irish National Liberation Army The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA, ga, Arm Saoirse Náisiúnta na hÉireann) is an Irish republican Irish republicanism ( ga, poblachtánachas Éireannach) is the political movement for the unity Unity may refer to: Buildings * Uni ...
(INLA) and
Irish Republican Socialist Party The Irish Republican Socialist Party or IRSP ( ga, Páirtí Poblachtach Sóisialach na hÉireann) is a Irish republicanism, republican socialist party active in Ireland. It is often referred to as the "political wing" of the Irish National Libe ...
, led by
Seamus Costello Seamus Costello ( ga, Séamus Mac Coisdealbha, 1939 – 5 October 1977) was a leader of Official Sinn Féin and the Official Irish Republican Army The Official Irish Republican Army or Official IRA (OIRA; ) was an Irish republican paramili ...
(later assassinated by the Official IRA during a bloody feud). The INLA was known for a series of internal feuds and some of the more sectarian killings by Irish nationalists. ******In 1986, the
Irish People's Liberation Organisation The Irish People's Liberation Organisation was a small Irish republican paramilitary organisation which was formed in 1986 by disaffected and expelled members of the Irish National Liberation Army The Irish National Liberation Army (INLA, ga, ...
split from the INLA. *****In 1992, the Workers' Party suffered a split when a majority faction failed to secure changes. They left and formed the Democratic Left. Ultimately, the Democratic Left merged into the
Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
. ****In 1969, the more traditionalist republican members split off into the
Provisional IRA The Irish Republican Army (IRA; ), also known as the Provisional Irish Republican Army, and informally as the Provos, was an Irish republican paramilitary Paramilitary forces usually tend to wear similar but different uniforms to the mili ...
and
Sinn Féin Sinn Féin ( , ; en, "eOurselves") is an Irish republican and democratic socialist political party active throughout Ireland; both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The History of Sinn Féin, original Sinn Féin organisation wa ...

Sinn Féin
. The Provisional IRA operated mostly in Northern Ireland, using violence against the
Royal Ulster Constabulary The Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) was the police The police are a constituted body of persons A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason Reason is the capacity of conscio ...

Royal Ulster Constabulary
and the
British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' us ...
, and British institutions and economic targets. They also killed members of the Irish Army and the
Garda Síochána (; meaning "the Guardian of the Peace"), more commonly referred to as the Gardaí (; "Guardians") or "the Guards", is the national police service of the Republic of Ireland. The service is headed by the Garda Commissioner who is appointed by the ...
(the Republic's police force), which was against one of their
standing order#REDIRECT Standing orderA Standing Order is a rule of procedure in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Both the House of Commons and the House of Lords can set Standing Orders to regulate their own affairs. These contain many important constitution ...
s. *****A further split occurred in 1986, when the former leader of Sinn Féin Ruairí Ó Brádaigh – who was replaced by
Gerry Adams Gerard Adams ( ga, Gearóid Mac Ádhaimh; born 6 October 1948) is an Irish republican politician who was the president of Sinn Féin between 13 November 1983 and 10 February 2018, and served as a Teachta Dála A Teachta Dála ( , plural ) ...
in 1983 – walked out of the Sinn Féin Ard Fheis after delegates voted to end the policy of
abstentionism Abstentionism is standing for election to a deliberative assembly while refusing to take up any seats won or otherwise participate in the assembly's business. Abstentionism differs from an election boycott in that abstentionists participate in ...
to
Dáil Éireann Dáil Éireann ( , ; ) is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community i ...
. The followers of Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, who adhere to republican legitimatism, and opposing Sinn Féin's decision to abandon abstentionism, set up a rival party and military wing, called Republican Sinn Féin and the
Continuity IRA The Continuity Irish Republican Army (Continuity IRA or CIRA), styling itself as the Irish Republican Army (), is an Irish republican paramilitary group that aims to bring about a united Ireland United Ireland, also referred to as Irish re ...
. ******In 2006, the Irish Republican Liberation Army,
Óglaigh na hÉireann Óglaigh na hÉireann (), abbreviated ÓÉ, is an Irish-language Irish (also called in Standard Irish) is a Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, which is itself a part of the Indo-European lang ...
and Saoirse na hÉireann split from the Continuity IRA. *****In 1997, Members of the Provisional IRA who did not accept the peace process split off to form the
Real IRA The Real Irish Republican Army, or Real IRA (RIRA), is a Dissident republican, dissident Irish republicanism, Irish republican paramilitary group that aims to bring about a united Ireland. It formed in 1997 following a split in the Provisional ...
. Its political wing is the 32 County Sovereignty Movement. ******In 2009,
Óglaigh na hÉireann Óglaigh na hÉireann (), abbreviated ÓÉ, is an Irish-language Irish (also called in Standard Irish) is a Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, which is itself a part of the Indo-European lang ...
split from the Real IRA. *******In 2012, the Real IRA merged with other republican groups including the Republican Action Against Drugs (RAAD) to form the New IRA. *****In 2011, former members of the Provisional IRA according to the
Belfast Telegraph The ''Belfast Telegraph'' is a daily newspaper published in Belfast Belfast ( ; , ) is the capital and largest city of Northern Ireland, standing on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast. It is the 12th-largest city in the United ...
, announced a resumption of hostilities, under the name "Irish Republican Army".


See also

*
Physical force Irish republicanism Physical force Irish republicanism is the recurring appearance of a non-parliamentary violent insurrection in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It ...
*
List of designated terrorist groups A number of national governments and two international organisations have created lists of organisations that they designate as terrorist. The following list of designated terrorist groups lists groups designated as terrorist by current and f ...


References


Bibliography

*Bell, J. Bower, The Secret Army. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. 1997. . *Cronin, Sean, ''The Ideology of the IRA'' (Ann Arbor 1972) *Hart, Peter, ''IRA at War 1916–1923'' (Oxford 2003) *Hart, P, ''The IRA and its Enemies: Violence and Community in Cork 1916–1923'' (Oxford 1998) *Joy, Sinead, ''The IRA in Kerry 1916–1921'' (Cork 2005) *Liebknecht, Karl, ''Militarism and Anti-Militarism'' (1907); an English translation (Cambridge 1973). *Martin, F.X., (ed.) ''Irish Volunteers 1913–1915. Recollections and Documents'' (Dublin 1963) *O'Ruairc, Padraig Og, ''Blood on the Banner: The Republican Struggle in Clare 1913–1923'' (Cork 2009) *Ryan, Meda, ''Tom Barry: IRA Freedom Fighter'' (Cork 2005) *Townshend, Charles, 'The Irish Republican Army and the Development of Guerrilla Warfare 1916–21', ''English Historical Review'' 94 (1971), pp. 318–345. *W?, ''With the IRA in the Fight For Freedom'' (London 1968) *Nolan, Cillian, ''The IRA True History 1922-1969'' (Kerry 1985) {{DEFAULTSORT:Irish Republican Army
IRA Ira or IRA may refer to: *Ira (name), a Hebrew, Sanskrit, Russian or Finnish language personal name *Ira (surname), a rare Estonian and some other language family name Law *Individual retirement account, in the US, giving tax benefits *Indian Reor ...
Lists of military units and formations