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The Ionian Sea ( el, Ιόνιο Πέλαγος, ''Iónio Pélagos'' ; it, Mar Ionio ; al, Deti Jon ) is an elongated bay of the
Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the ...
. It is connected to the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...
to the north, and is bounded by
Southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), also known as ''Meridione'' or ''Mezzogiorno'' (, literally "Midday"; in nap, 'o Miezzojuorno; in scn, Mezzujornu), is a macroregion of Italy consisting of the southern hal ...
, including
Calabria it, Calabrese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demogra ...
,
Sicily (masculine) it, Siciliana (feminine) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , de ...
, and the Salento peninsula to the west, southern
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediter ...
(and western
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title ...
, Italy) to the north, and the west coast of
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed by Thessaloniki. Situated on t ...
, including the
Peloponnese The Peloponnese () or Peloponnesus (; el, Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnesos, ) is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on most of its border while being connected to ...
. All major islands in the sea, which are located in the east of the sea, belong to
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is its largest and capital city, followed by Thessaloniki. Situated on t ...
. They are collectively named the
Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands
, the main ones being
Corfu Corfu (, ) or Kerkyra ( el, Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra, ), ; ; la, Corcyra. is a Greek islands, Greek island in the Ionian Sea, of the Ionian Islands, and, including its small satellite islands, forms the margin of the northwestern frontier of Gr ...
,
Kefalonia Cephalonia or Kefalonia ( el, Κεφαλονιά or ), formerly also known as Kefallinia or Kephallenia (), is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country lo ...
, Zakynthos, Lefkada, and
Ithaca
Ithaca
. There are
ferry A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo, across a body of water. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi. Ferries form a part ...
routes between Patras and Igoumenitsa, Greece, and Brindisi and Ancona, Italy, that cross the east and north of the Ionian Sea, and from Piraeus westward. Calypso Deep, the deepest point in the Mediterranean at , is in the Ionian Sea, at . The sea is one of the most Earthquake, seismically active areas in the world.


Etymology

The name ''Ionian'' comes from the Greek language . Its etymology is unknown. Ancient Greek writers, especially Aeschylus, linked it to the myth of Io (mythology), Io. In ancient Greek the adjective ''Ionios'' () was used as an epithet for the sea because Io swam across it. According to the ''Oxford Classical Dictionary'', the name may derive from Ionians who sailed to the West. There were also narratives about other eponymic legendary figures; according to one version, ''Ionius'' was a son of ''Adrias'' (eponymic for the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest a ...
); according to another, ''Ionius'' was a son of ''Dyrrhachus''. When Dyrrhachus was attacked by his own brothers, Heracles, who was passing through the area, came to his aid, but in the fight the hero killed his ally's son by mistake. The body was cast into the water, and thereafter was called the Ionian Sea.


Geography


Extent

The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Ionian Sea as follows: ::''On the North.'' A line running from the mouth of the Butrint, Butrinto River (39°44'N) in
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, Adriatic and Ionian Sea within the Mediter ...
, to Cape Karagol in
Corfu Corfu (, ) or Kerkyra ( el, Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra, ), ; ; la, Corcyra. is a Greek islands, Greek island in the Ionian Sea, of the Ionian Islands, and, including its small satellite islands, forms the margin of the northwestern frontier of Gr ...
(39°45'N), along the North Coast of Corfu to Cape Kephali (39°45'N) and from thence to Santa Maria di Leuca, Cape Santa Maria di Leuca in Italy. ::''On the East.'' From the mouth of the Butrinto River in Albania down the coast of the mainland to Cape Matapan. ::''On the South.'' A line from Cape Matapan to Cape Passero, the Southern point of
Sicily (masculine) it, Siciliana (feminine) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , de ...
. ::''On the West.'' The East coast of Sicily and the Southeast coast of Italy to Cape Santa Maria di Leuca.


Places

From south to north in the west, then north to south in the east: *Syracuse, Sicily, Syracuse, port, W *Catania, port, W *Messina, port, W *Taranto, port N *Himara, small port, NE *Saranda, port and a beach, NE *Kerkyra, port, E *Igoumenitsa, port, E *Parga, small port, E *Preveza, port, E *Astakos, port, E *Argostoli, port, E *Patras, Patra, port, E *Kyparissia, port, E *Pylos, port, E *Methoni, Messenia, Methoni, small port and a beach *


Gulfs and straits

*Strait of Messina, W *Gulf of Catania, W *Gulf of Augusta, W *Gulf of Taranto, NW *Gulf of Squillace, NW *Ambracian Gulf, E *Gulf of Patras, connecting the Gulf of Corinth, ESE *Gulf of Kyparissia, SE *Messenian Gulf, SE *Laconian Gulf, ESE


Islands

*
Corfu Corfu (, ) or Kerkyra ( el, Κέρκυρα, Kérkyra, ), ; ; la, Corcyra. is a Greek islands, Greek island in the Ionian Sea, of the Ionian Islands, and, including its small satellite islands, forms the margin of the northwestern frontier of Gr ...
* Cephalonia, Kefalonia * * Zakynthos * Lefkada * Paxi * Kythira


Islets

* Antikythera * Antipaxos, Antipaxi * Arkoudi * Atokos * Kalamos Island, Kalamos * Kastos * Ksamil Islands * Kravia * Kythros * Lazareto (Ithaca) * Lazaretto Island, Lazaretto (Corfu) * Meganisi * Navtilos (Antikythera), Navtilos * Pontikonisi * Proti Island, Proti * Sphacteria * Skorpios * Sparti (Lefkada) * Strofades * Vido


History

The Sea was the location of the famous Naval Warfare, naval battle between Octavian and Marc Antony known as Battle of Actium, The Battle of Actium, a war fought in 31 BC.https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Actium-ancient-Roman-history


See also

*Calypso Deep


References


External links


The Ionian-Puglia Network of Ground Meteorological Stations (real-time weather observations)
{{Authority control Ionian Sea, Seas of Italy Seas of Greece Seas of Albania Albania–Greece border Marginal seas of the Mediterranean European seas Landforms of Corfu (regional unit) Landforms of the Ionian Islands (region) Landforms of Thesprotia Landforms of Epirus (region) Landforms of Preveza (regional unit) Landforms of Aetolia-Acarnania Landforms of Western Greece Landforms of Cephalonia Landforms of Achaea Landforms of Messenia Landforms of Peloponnese (region)