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In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, about 120,000The official WRA record from 1946 states it was 120,000 people. See . This number does not include people held in other camps such as those which were run by the DoJ or the Army. Other sources may give numbers which are slightly more or less than 120,000. people of Japanese ancestry, most of whom lived on the Pacific Coast, were forcibly relocated and
incarcerated A prison (also known as a jail or gaol (dated, British, Australian Australians, colloquially referred to as "Aussies", are the citizens, nationality, nationals and individuals associated with the country of Australia. Between 1788 ...

incarcerated
in
concentration camps Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in war War is an intense armed conflict between states ...
in the western interior of the country. Approximately two-thirds of the internees were
United States citizens Citizenship of the United States is a legal status that entails Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attor ...
. These actions were ordered shortly after
Imperial Japan The was a historical and that existed from the in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II and subsequent formation of modern . It encompassed the and several , s, , and other . Under the slogans of and Japan underwent ...

Imperial Japan
's
attack on Pearl Harbor The Attack on Pearl HarborAlso known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike In the United States Armed Forces, military of the United States, strikes and raids are a group of military operations that, alongside quite ...

attack on Pearl Harbor
. Of the 127,000 Japanese Americans who were living in the
continental United States The contiguous United States or officially the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or Americ ...
at the time of the Pearl Harbor attack, 112,000 resided on the West Coast. About 80,000 were ''
Nisei is a Japanese-language term used in countries in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinen ...
'' (literal translation: 'second generation'; American-born Japanese with U.S. citizenship) and ''
Sansei is a Japanese language, Japanese and North American English term used in parts of the world such as South America and North America to specify the children of children born to ethnic Japanese in a new country of residence. The ''nisei'' are consid ...
'' ('third generation', the children of Nisei). The rest were ''
Issei is a Japanese-language term used by ethnic Japanese in countries in North America and South America to specify the Japanese people are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), ...
'' ('first generation') immigrants born in Japan who were ineligible for U.S. citizenship under U.S. law. Japanese Americans were placed in
concentration camps Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in war War is an intense armed conflict between states ...

concentration camps
based on local population concentrations and regional politics. More than 112,000 Japanese Americans who were living on the West Coast were interned in camps which were located in its interior. However, in
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...
(which was under
martial law Martial law is the temporary imposition of direct military control of normal civil functions or suspension of civil law by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency where civil forces are overwhelmed, or in an military occ ...
), where 150,000-plus Japanese Americans composed over one-third of the territory's population, only 1,200 to 1,800 were also interned.Ogawa, Dennis M. and Fox, Jr., Evarts C. ''Japanese Americans, from Relocation to Redress''. 1991, p. 135. The internment is considered to have been a manifestation of
racism Racism is the belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding to inherited attributes and can be divided based on the superiority Superior may refer to: *Superior (hierarchy), something which is higher in a hie ...
though it was implemented to mitigate a security risk which Japanese Americans were believed to pose, the scale of the internment in proportion to the size of the Japanese American population far surpassed similar measures which were undertaken against
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
and
Italian Americans Italian Americans ( it, italoamericani or ''italo-americani'', ) are Americans Americans are the and of the .; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 (3d Cir. 2018) (" and are not ous. While all citizens are nationals, ...
, who were mostly non-citizens. California defined anyone with 1/16th or more Japanese lineage as a person who should be interned. Colonel
Karl Bendetsen Karl Robin Bendetsen (October 11, 1907 – June 28, 1989) was an American colonel Colonel (; abbreviated as Col., Col or COL) is a senior military Officer (armed forces), officer rank used in many countries. It is also used in some police forc ...
, the architect of the program, went so far as to say that anyone with "one drop of Japanese blood" qualified. Roosevelt authorized
Executive Order 9066 Executive Order 9066 was a United States presidential executive order In the United States, an executive order is a directive Directive may refer to: * Directive (European Union), a legislative act of the European Union * Directive (pr ...
, issued two months after Pearl Harbor, which allowed regional military commanders to designate "military areas" from which "any or all persons may be excluded." Although the executive order did not mention Japanese Americans, this authority was used to declare that all people of Japanese ancestry were required to leave
Alaska Alaska (; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, on the northwest extremity of the country's West Coast of the United State ...
and the military exclusion zones from all of
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
and parts of
Oregon Oregon () is a U.S. state, state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington (state), Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of it ...

Oregon
,
Washington Washington commonly refers to: * Washington (state), United States * Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States ** Federal government of the United States (metonym) ** Washington metropolitan area, the metropolitan area centered on Washingt ...
, and
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States, Southwestern region of the United States. It is also usually considered part of the Mountain States, Mountain states. It is th ...

Arizona
, with the exception of those internees who were being held in government camps. The internees were not only people of Japanese ancestry, they also included a relatively small number—though still totalling well over ten thousand—of people of
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
and
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...
ancestry as well as Germans who were expelled from Latin America and deported to the U.S. Approximately 5,000 Japanese Americans relocated outside the exclusion zone before March 1942, while some 5,500 community leaders had been arrested immediately after the Pearl Harbor attack and thus were already in custody. The
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ...
assisted the internment efforts by providing specific individual census data on Japanese Americans. The Bureau denied its role for decades despite scholarly evidence to the contrary, and its role became more widely acknowledged by 2007. In its 1944 decision ''
Korematsu v. United States ''Korematsu v. United States'', 323 U.S. 214 (1944), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case upholding the exclusion of Japanese Americans from the West Coast Military Area during World War II World War II or the Second World ...
'', the
U.S. Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a coun ...

U.S. Supreme Court
upheld the constitutionality of the removals under the Due Process Clause of the
Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the l ...
. The Court limited its decision to the validity of the exclusion orders, avoiding the issue of the incarceration of U.S. citizens without due process, but ruled on the same day in ''
Ex parte Endo ''Ex parte Endo'', or ''Ex parte Mitsuye Endo'', 323 U.S. 283 (1944), was a United States Supreme Court '' ex parte'' decision handed down on December 18, 1944, in which the Justices unanimously ruled that the U.S. government could not continue to ...
'' that a loyal citizen could not be detained, which began their release.. The day before the ''Korematsu'' and ''Endo'' rulings were made public, the exclusion orders were rescinded.Shiho Imai.
Korematsu v. United States
''Densho Encyclopedia'' (accessed 5 June 2014).
In the 1980s, under mounting pressure from the
Japanese American Citizens League The is an Asian American civil rights charity, headquartered in San Francisco, with regional chapters across the United States. The Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) describes itself as the oldest and largest Asian American civil rights ...
(JACL) and redress organizations, President
Jimmy Carter James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician, businessman, and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Par ...

Jimmy Carter
opened an investigation to determine whether the decision to put Japanese Americans into concentration camps had been justified by the government. He appointed the
Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians The Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC) was a group of nine people appointed by the U.S. Congress in 1980 to conduct an official governmental study into the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II ...
(CWRIC) to investigate the camps. In 1983, the Commission's report, ''Personal Justice Denied,'' found little evidence of Japanese disloyalty at the time and concluded that the incarceration had been the product of racism. It recommended that the government pay
reparations Reparation(s) may refer to: *Reparation (legal), the legal philosophy *Reparations (transitional justice), measures taken by the state to redress gross and systematic violations of human rights law or humanitarian law *Reparations for slavery, prop ...
to the internees. In 1988, President
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of ...

Ronald Reagan
signed into law the
Civil Liberties Act of 1988 The Civil Liberties Act of 1988 (, title I, August 10, 1988, , et seq.) is a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Co ...
which officially apologized for the internment on behalf of the
U.S. government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or U ...
and authorized a payment of $20,000 () to each former internee who was still alive when the act was passed. The legislation admitted that government actions were based on "race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership." By 1992, the U.S. government eventually disbursed more than $1.6 billion () in reparations to 82,219 Japanese Americans who had been interned.


Background


Japanese Americans before World War II

Due in large part to socio-political changes which stemmed from the
Meiji Restoration#REDIRECT Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although t ...
—and a
recession In economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the Branches of science, branch of science devoted to the study of society, societies and the Social relation, relationships among individuals within those societies. ...
which was caused by the abrupt
opening of Japan refers to the final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate Meiji Restoration, ended. Between 1853 and 1867, Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy known as ''sakoku'' and changed from a feudalism, feudal Tokugawa shogunate to t ...
's economy to the
world economy The world economy or the global economy is the economy of all humans of the world, referring to the global economic system which includes all economic activities which are conducted both within and between nations, including production (economics ...
—people started to emigrate from the
Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of Sta ...

Empire of Japan
in 1868 because they needed to get jobs which would enable them to survive.Anderson, Emily.
Immigration
" ''Densho Encyclopedia''. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
From 1869 to 1924 approximately 200,000 immigrated to the islands of Hawaii, mostly laborers expecting to work on the islands' sugar plantations. Some 180,000 went to the U.S. mainland, with the majority of them settling on the West Coast and establishing farms or small businesses. Most arrived before 1908, when the
Gentlemen's Agreement A gentlemen's agreement, or gentleman's agreement, is an informal and legally non-binding agreement Agreement may refer to: Agreements between people and organizations * Gentlemen's agreement, not enforceable by law * Trade agreement, between co ...
between Japan and the United States banned the immigration of unskilled laborers. A loophole allowed the wives of men who were already living in the US to join their husbands. The practice of women marrying by proxy and immigrating to the U.S. resulted in a large increase in the number of "
picture bride The term picture bride refers to the practice in the early 20th century of immigrant Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. I ...
s."Nakamura, Kelli Y.

" ''Densho Encyclopedia''. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
As the Japanese-American population continued to grow,
European Americans European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, nationals of the United States of America.; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney Gene ...

European Americans
who lived on the West Coast resisted the arrival of this ethnic group, fearing competition from it and making the exaggerated claim that hordes of Asians were keen to take over white-owned farmland and businesses. Groups such as the
Asiatic Exclusion League The Asiatic Exclusion League (often abbreviated AEL) was an organization formed in the early twentieth century in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a countr ...
, the California Joint Immigration Committee, and the
Native Sons of the Golden West The Native Sons of the Golden West is a fraternal service organization founded in 1875, dedicated to historic preservation, documentation of historic structures and places in the state, the placement of historic plaques and other charitable functio ...
organized in response to the rise of this "
Yellow Peril #REDIRECT Yellow Peril The Yellow Peril (also the Yellow Fear, Yellow Terror and the Yellow Specter) is a racist color-metaphor that represents East Asian people East Asian people (East Asians) is a racial classification specifier used for ...

Yellow Peril
." They successfully lobbied to restrict the property and citizenship rights of Japanese immigrants, just as similar groups had previously organized against Chinese immigrants.Anderson, Emily.
Anti-Japanese exclusion movement
" ''Densho Encyclopedia''. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
Beginning in the late 19th century, several laws and treaties which attempted to slow immigration from Japan were introduced. The
Immigration Act of 1924 The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson–Reed Act, including the Asian Exclusion Act and National Origins Act (), was a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of whic ...
, which followed the example of the 1882
Chinese Exclusion Act The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States Code, United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. Building on the earlier Page Act of 1875 which banned Chines ...
, effectively banned all immigration from Japan and other "undesirable" Asian countries. The 1924 ban on immigration produced unusually well-defined generational groups within the Japanese-American community. The ''
Issei is a Japanese-language term used by ethnic Japanese in countries in North America and South America to specify the Japanese people are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), ...
'' were exclusively those Japanese who had immigrated before 1924; some of them desired to return to their homeland. Because no more immigrants were permitted, all Japanese Americans who were born after 1924 were, by definition, born in the U.S. and by law, they were automatically considered U.S. citizens. The members of this ''
Nisei is a Japanese-language term used in countries in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinen ...
'' generation constituted a cohort which was distinct from the cohort which their parents belonged to. In addition to the usual generational differences, Issei men were typically ten to fifteen years older than their wives, making them significantly older than the younger children in their often large families. U.S. law prohibited Japanese immigrants from becoming naturalized citizens, making them dependent on their children whenever they rented or purchased property. Communication between English-speaking children and parents who mostly or completely spoke in Japanese was often difficult. A significant number of older Nisei, many of whom were born prior to the immigration ban, had married and already started families of their own by the time the US entered World War II. Despite racist legislation which prevented Issei from becoming naturalized citizens (or owning property, voting, or running for political office), these Japanese immigrants established communities in their new hometowns. Japanese Americans contributed to the agriculture of California and other Western states, by introducing irrigation methods which enabled them to cultivate fruits, vegetables, and flowers on previously inhospitable land. In both rural and urban areas, ''kenjinkai,'' community groups for immigrants from the same Japanese prefecture, and '' fujinkai,'' Buddhist women's associations, organized community events and did charitable work, provided loans and financial assistance and built Japanese language schools for their children. Excluded from setting up shop in white neighborhoods, nikkei-owned small businesses thrived in the ''
Nihonmachi is a term used to refer to historical Japanese communities in Southeast The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that i ...
,'' or Japantowns of urban centers, such as
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; xgf, Tovaangar; es, Los Ángeles, , ), commonly referred to by the initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be u ...

Los Angeles
,
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...

San Francisco
, and
Seattle Seattle ( ) is a seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (where the palm is facing to the front) ...

Seattle
. In the 1930s, the
Office of Naval Intelligence The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) is the military intelligence agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Ins ...
(ONI), concerned as a result of Imperial Japan's rising military power in Asia, began to conduct surveillance in Japanese-American communities in Hawaii. Starting in 1936, at the behest of President Roosevelt, the ONI began to compile a "special list of those Japanese Americans who would be the first to be placed in a
concentration camp Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in war War is an intense armed conflict between state ...

concentration camp
in the event of trouble" between Japan and the United States. In 1939, again by order of the President, the ONI,
Military Intelligence Division The Military Intelligence Division was the military intelligence branch of the United States Army and United States Department of War from May 1917 (as the Military Intelligence Section, then Military Intelligence Branch in February 1918, then Mili ...
, and
FBI The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction, logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, cre ...

FBI
began working together to compile a larger
Custodial Detention Index The FBI Indexes, or Index List, was a system used to track American citizens and other people by the Federal Bureau of Investigation The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United S ...
.Kashima, Tetsuden.
Custodial detention / A-B-C list
" ''Densho Encyclopedia''. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
Early in 1941, Roosevelt commissioned Curtis Munson to conduct an investigation on Japanese Americans living on the West Coast and in Hawaii. After working with FBI and ONI officials and interviewing Japanese Americans and those familiar with them, Munson determined that the "Japanese problem" was nonexistent. His final report to the President, submitted November 7, 1941, "certified a remarkable, even extraordinary degree of loyalty among this generally suspect ethnic group." A subsequent report by Kenneth Ringle (ONI), delivered to the President in January 1942, also found little evidence to support claims of Japanese-American disloyalty and argued against mass incarceration.Niiya, Brian.
Kenneth Ringle
" ''Densho Encyclopedia''. Retrieved August 14, 2014.


After Pearl Harbor

The surprise
attack on Pearl Harbor The Attack on Pearl HarborAlso known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike In the United States Armed Forces, military of the United States, strikes and raids are a group of military operations that, alongside quite ...

attack on Pearl Harbor
on December 7, 1941, led military and political leaders to suspect that
Imperial Japan The was a historical nation-state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of Sta ...
was preparing a full-scale invasion of the United States West Coast. Due to Japan's rapid military conquest of a large portion of Asia and the Pacific including a small portion of the U.S. West Coast (i.e.,
Aleutian Islands Campaign The Aleutian Islands campaign was a military campaign conducted by the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, ...
) between 1937 and 1942, some Americans feared that its military forces were unstoppable. American public opinion initially stood by the large population of Japanese Americans which was living on the West Coast, with the ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a containing written and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as , ...

Los Angeles Times
'' characterizing them as "good Americans, born and educated as such." Many Americans believed that their loyalty to the United States was unquestionable. However, six weeks after the attack, public opinion along the Pacific began to turn against Japanese Americans living on the West Coast, as the press and other Americans became nervous about the potential for
fifth column A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group from within, usually in favor of an enemy group or nation. The activities of a fifth column can be overt or clandestine. Forces gathered in secret can mobilize openly to assist ...
activity. Though the administration (including President
Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt (, ; January 30, 1882April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the De ...

Franklin D. Roosevelt
and FBI Director
J. Edgar Hoover John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was an American law enforcement administrator who served as the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is the head of ...

J. Edgar Hoover
) dismissed all rumors of Japanese-American espionage on behalf of the Japanese war effort, pressure mounted upon the administration as the tide of public opinion turned against Japanese Americans. Although the impact on US authorities is controversial, the Niihau incident immediately followed the attack on Pearl Harbor, when Ishimatsu Shintani, an Issei, and Yoshio Harada, a Nisei, and his Issei wife Irene Harada on the island of Ni'ihau violently freed a downed and captured Japanese naval airman, attacking their fellow Ni'ihau islanders in the process. Several concerns over the loyalty of ethnic Japanese seemed to stem from
racial prejudice Racism is the belief that groups of humans possess different behavioral traits corresponding to physical appearance and can be divided based on the superiority of one race over another.
racial prejudice
rather than any evidence of malfeasance. The
Roberts Commission The Roberts Commission is one of two presidentially-appointed commissions. One related to the circumstances of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and another related to the protection of cultural resources during and after World War II Wo ...
report, which investigated the Pearl Harbor attack, was released on January 25 and accused persons of Japanese ancestry of espionage leading up to the attack. Although the report's key finding was that General
Walter Short Walter Campbell Short (March 30, 1880 – September 3, 1949) was a former Lieutenant General Lieutenant general or lieutenant-general (Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a Three-star rank, three-star military rank (NATO code OF-9) used in many co ...

Walter Short
and Admiral Husband E. Kimmel had been derelict in their duties during the attack on Pearl Harbor, one passage made vague reference to "Japanese consular agents and other... persons having no open relations with the Japanese foreign service" transmitting information to Japan. It was unlikely that these "spies" were Japanese American, as Japanese intelligence agents were distrustful of their American counterparts and preferred to recruit "white persons and Negroes." However, despite the fact that the report made no mention of Americans of Japanese ancestry, national and West Coast media nevertheless used the report to vilify Japanese Americans and inflame public opinion against them.Niiya, Brian.

" ''Densho Encyclopedia''. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
Major
Karl Bendetsen Karl Robin Bendetsen (October 11, 1907 – June 28, 1989) was an American colonel Colonel (; abbreviated as Col., Col or COL) is a senior military Officer (armed forces), officer rank used in many countries. It is also used in some police forc ...
and Lieutenant General John L. DeWitt, head of the
Western Defense Command Western Defense Command (WDC) was established on 17 March 1941 as the command formation of the U.S. Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but ...
, questioned Japanese-American loyalty. DeWitt said: He further stated in a conversation with California's governor, Culbert L. Olson, DeWitt, who administered the internment program, repeatedly told newspapers that "A
Jap ''Jap'' is an English abbreviation of the word "Japanese people, Japanese". Today, it is generally regarded as an list of ethnic slurs, ethnic slur, although English-speaking countries differ in the degree to which they consider the term offens ...
's a Jap" and testified to Congress, DeWitt also sought approval to conduct search and seizure operations which were aimed at preventing alien Japanese from making radio transmissions to Japanese ships.Andrew E. Taslitz, "Stories of Fourth Amendment Disrespect: From Elian to the Internment," 70 ''Fordham Law Review''. 2257, 2306–07 (2002). The Justice Department declined, stating that there was no
probable cause In United States criminal law Responsibility for criminal law and criminal justice in the United States is shared between the State governments of the United States, states and the Federal government of the United States, federal government. So ...
to support DeWitt's assertion, as the FBI concluded that there was no security threat. On January 2, the Joint Immigration Committee of the California Legislature sent a manifesto to California newspapers which attacked "the ethnic Japanese," who it alleged were "totally unassimilable." This manifesto further argued that all people of Japanese heritage were loyal subjects of the
Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch A monarch is a head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state (polity), state#Foakes, Foakes, pp. 110–11 "he head of state He or HE may re ...
; the manifesto contended that Japanese language schools were bastions of racism which advanced doctrines of Japanese racial superiority. The manifesto was backed by the
Native Sons and Daughters of the Golden West The Native Sons of the Golden West is a fraternal service organization founded in 1875, dedicated to historic preservation, documentation of historic structures and places in the state, the placement of historic plaques and other charitable functio ...
and the California Department of the
American Legion The American Legion, commonly known as the Legion, is a nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and ope ...
, which in January demanded that all Japanese with
dual citizenship Multiple/dual citizenship (or multiple/dual nationality) is a legal status Legal status is the position held by something or someone with regard to law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelat ...
be placed in concentration camps. By February,
Earl Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was an American politician and jurist who served as 30th governor of California The governor of California is the head of government of the U.S. state of California. The governor is the command ...

Earl Warren
, the
Attorney General of California The Attorney General of California is the state attorney general of the Government of California. The officer's duty is to ensure that "the laws of the state are uniformly and adequately enforced" (Constitution of California, Article V, Section ...
(and a future Chief Justice of the United States), had begun his efforts to persuade the federal government to remove all people of Japanese ethnicity from the West Coast. Those who were as little as Japanese could be placed in internment camps. Bendetsen, promoted to colonel, said in 1942, "I am determined that if they have one drop of Japanese blood in them, they must go to camp." Upon the bombing of Pearl Harbor and pursuant to the
Alien Enemies Act The Alien and Sedition Acts were four laws passed by the Federalist Party, Federalist-dominated 5th United States Congress and signed into law by President John Adams in 1798.An alien (law), alien in this sense is a person who is not a national o ...
, Presidential Proclamations 2525, 2526 and 2527 were issued designating Japanese, German-American internment, German and Italian-American internment, Italian nationals as enemy aliens. Information gathered by US officials over the previous decade was used to locate and incarcerate thousands of Japanese-American community leaders in the days immediately following Pearl Harbor (see section elsewhere in this article "#Other concentration camps, Other concentration camps"). In Hawaii, under the auspices of martial law, both "enemy aliens" and citizens of Japanese and "German" descent were arrested and interned. Presidential Proclamation 2537 (codified a
7 Fed. Reg. 329
was issued on January 14, 1942, requiring "alien enemies" to obtain a certificate of identification and carry it "at all times". Enemy aliens were not allowed to enter restricted areas. Violators of these regulations were subject to "arrest, detention and internment for the duration of the war." On February 13, the Pacific Coast Congressional subcommittee on aliens and sabotage recommended to the President immediate evacuation of "all persons of Japanese lineage and all others, aliens and citizens alike" who were thought to be dangerous from "strategic areas," further specifying that these included the entire "strategic area" of California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. On February 16 the President tasked Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson with replying. A conference on February 17 of Secretary Stimson with assistant secretary John J. McCloy, Provost Marshal General Allen W. Gullion, Deputy chief of Army Ground Forces Mark W. Clark, and Colonel Bendetsen decided that General DeWitt should be directed to commence evacuations "to the extent he deemed necessary" to protect vital installations.


Development


Executive Order 9066 and related actions

Executive Order 9066, signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942, authorized military commanders to designate "military areas" at their discretion, "from which any or all persons may be excluded." These "exclusion zones," unlike the "alien enemy" roundups, were applicable to anyone that an authorized military commander might choose, whether citizen or non-citizen. Eventually such zones would include parts of both the East and West Coasts, totaling about 1/3 of the country by area. Unlike the subsequent deportation and incarceration programs that would come to be applied to large numbers of Japanese Americans, detentions and restrictions directly under this Individual Exclusion Program were placed primarily on individuals of German-American internment, German or Italian-American internment, Italian ancestry, including American citizens. On March 2, 1942, General John DeWitt, commanding general of the Western Defense Command, publicly announced the creation of two military restricted zones. Military Area No. 1 consisted of the southern half of Arizona and the western half of California, Oregon, and Washington, as well as all of California south of Los Angeles. Military Area No. 2 covered the rest of those states. DeWitt's proclamation informed Japanese Americans they would be required to leave Military Area 1, but stated that they could remain in the second restricted zone. Removal from Military Area No. 1 initially occurred through "voluntary evacuation." Japanese Americans were free to go anywhere outside of the exclusion zone or inside Area 2, with arrangements and costs of relocation to be borne by the individuals. The policy was short-lived; DeWitt issued another proclamation on March 27 that prohibited Japanese Americans from leaving Area 1. A night-time curfew, also initiated on March 27, 1942, placed further restrictions on the movements and daily lives of Japanese Americans. Included in the forced removal was
Alaska Alaska (; ale, Alax̂sxax̂; ; ems, Alas'kaaq; Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, Yup'ik: ''Alaskaq''; tli, Anáaski) is a U.S. state in the Western United States, on the northwest extremity of the country's West Coast of the United State ...
, which, like Hawaii, was an incorporated U.S. territory located in the northwest extremity of the continental United States. Unlike the contiguous West Coast, Alaska was not subject to any exclusion zones due to its small Japanese population. Nevertheless, the Western Defense Command announced in April 1942 that all Japanese people and Americans of Japanese ancestry were to leave the territory for internment camps inland. By the end of the month, over 200 Japanese residents regardless of citizenship were exiled from Alaska, most of them ended up at the Minidoka National Historic Site, Minidoka War Relocation Center in Southern Idaho. Eviction from the West Coast began on March 24, 1942, with Civilian Exclusion Order No. 1, which gave the 227 Japanese American residents of Bainbridge Island, Washington six days to prepare for their "evacuation" directly to Manzanar. Colorado governor Ralph Lawrence Carr was the only elected official to publicly denounce the internment of American citizens (an act that cost his reelection, but gained him the gratitude of the Japanese American community, such that Sakura Square#Bust of Governor Carr, a statue of him was erected in the Denver Japantown's Sakura Square). A total of 108 exclusion orders issued by the Western Defense Command over the next five months completed the removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast in August 1942. In addition to imprisoning those of Japanese descent in the US, the US also interned Japanese (and Germans and Italians) deported from Latin America. Thirteen Latin American countries—Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and Peru—cooperated with the US by apprehending, detaining and deporting to the US 2,264 Japanese Latin American citizens and permanent residents of Japanese ancestry.


Advocates who supported and opposed the establishment of concentration camps in the U.S.


Non-military advocates of exclusion, removal, and detention

The deportation and incarceration of Japanese Americans was popular among many white farmers who resented the Japanese American farmers. "White American farmers admitted that their self-interest required the removal of the Japanese." These individuals saw internment as a convenient means of uprooting their Japanese-American competitors. Austin E. Anson, managing secretary of the Salinas Vegetable Grower-Shipper Association, told the ''Saturday Evening Post'' in 1942: The
Roberts Commission The Roberts Commission is one of two presidentially-appointed commissions. One related to the circumstances of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and another related to the protection of cultural resources during and after World War II Wo ...
Report, prepared at President Franklin D. Roosevelt's request, has been cited as an example of the fear and prejudice informing the thinking behind the internment program. The Report sought to link Japanese Americans with espionage activity, and to associate them with the bombing of Pearl Harbor. Columnist Henry McLemore, who wrote for the William Randolph Hearst, Hearst newspapers, reflected the growing public sentiment that was fueled by this report: Other California newspapers also embraced this view. According to a ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a containing written and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as , ...

Los Angeles Times
'' editorial, State politicians joined the bandwagon that was embraced by Leland Ford of Los Angeles, who demanded that "all Japanese, whether citizens or not, be placed in [inland] concentration camps." Incarceration of Japanese Americans, who provided critical agricultural labor on the West Coast, created a labor shortage which was exacerbated by the induction of many white American laborers into the Armed Forces. This vacuum precipitated a mass immigration of Mexican workers into the United States to fill these jobs, under the banner of what became known as the Bracero Program. Many Japanese internees were temporarily released from their camps – for instance, to harvest Western beet crops – to address this wartime labor shortage.


Non-military advocates who opposed exclusion, removal, and detention

Like many white American farmers, the white businessmen of Hawaii had their own motives for determining how to deal with the Japanese Americans, but they opposed their internment. Instead, these individuals gained the passage of legislation which enabled them to retain the freedom of the nearly 150,000 Japanese Americans who would have otherwise been sent to internment camps which were located in Hawaii. As a result, only 1,200 to 1,800 Japanese Americans in Hawaii were interned. The powerful businessmen of Hawaii concluded that the imprisonment of such a large proportion of the islands' population would adversely affect the economic prosperity of the territory.Takaki, Ronald T. "A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America". Boston: Little, Brown 1993. Print, p. 379. The Japanese represented "over 90 percent of the carpenters, nearly all of the transportation workers, and a significant portion of the agricultural laborers" on the islands. General Delos Carleton Emmons, the military governor of Hawaii, also argued that Japanese labor was "'absolutely essential' for rebuilding the defenses destroyed at Naval Station Pearl Harbor, Pearl Harbor." Recognizing the Japanese-American community's contribution to the affluence of the Hawaiian economy, General Emmons fought against the internment of the Japanese Americans and had the support of most of the businessmen of Hawaii. By comparison, Idaho governor Chase A. Clark, in a Lions Club speech on May 22, 1942, said "Japs live like rats, breed like rats and act like rats. We don't want them ... permanently located in our state." Initially, Oregon's governor Charles A. Sprague opposed the internment, and as a result, he decided not to enforce it in the state and he also discouraged residents from harassing their fellow citizens, the
Nisei is a Japanese-language term used in countries in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinen ...
. He turned against the Japanese by mid-February 1942, days before the executive order was issued, but he later regretted this decision and he attempted to atone for it for the rest of his life. Reaching different conclusions about how the Japanese-American community should be dealt with, both the white farmers of the continental United States and the white businessmen of Hawaii made the protection of their own economic interests a high priority. Even though the internment was a generally popular policy in California, it was not universally supported. R.C. Hoiles, publisher of the ''Orange County Register'', argued during the war that the internment was unethical and unconstitutional:
It would seem that convicting people of disloyalty to our country without having specific evidence against them is too foreign to our way of life and too close akin to the kind of government we are fighting.... We must realize, as Harry Emerson Fosdick, Henry Emerson Fosdick so wisely said, 'Liberty is always dangerous, but it is the safest thing we have.'
Members of some Christian religious groups, particularly those who had formerly sent missionaries to Japan, were among the most tireless opponents of the internment policy. Some Baptist and Methodist churches, among others, also organized relief efforts to the camps, supplying internees with supplies and information.


Statement of military necessity as a justification of internment


Niihau Incident

The Niihau Incident occurred in December 1941, just after the Imperial Japanese Navy's attack on Pearl Harbor. The Imperial Japanese Navy had designated the Hawaiian island of Niihau as an uninhabited island for damaged aircraft to land and await rescue. Three Japanese Americans on Niihau assisted a Japanese pilot, Shigenori Nishikaichi, who crashed there. Despite the incident, the Territorial Governor of Hawaii Joseph Poindexter rejected calls for the mass internment of the Japanese Americans living there.


Cryptography

In ''Magic: The Untold Story of U.S. Intelligence and the Evacuation of Japanese Residents From the West Coast During World War II'', David Lowman (intelligence official), David Lowman, a former National Security Agency (NSA) operative, argues that Magic (cryptography), Magic ("Magic" was the code-name for American code-breaking efforts) intercepts posed "frightening specter of massive espionage nets", thus justifying internment. Lowman contended that incarceration served to ensure the secrecy of U.S. code-breaking efforts, because effective prosecution of Japanese Americans might necessitate disclosure of secret information. If U.S. code-breaking technology was revealed in the context of trials of individual spies, the Japanese Imperial Navy would change its codes, thus undermining U.S. strategic wartime advantage. Some scholars have criticized or dismissed Lowman's reasoning that "disloyalty" among some individual Japanese Americans could legitimize "incarcerating 120,000 people, including infants, the elderly, and the mentally ill". Lowman's reading of the contents of the ''Magic'' cables has also been challenged, as some scholars contend that the cables demonstrate that Japanese Americans were not heeding the overtures of Imperial Japan to spy against the United States. According to one critic, Lowman's book has long since been "refuted and discredited". The controversial conclusions drawn by Lowman were defended by conservative commentator Michelle Malkin in her book ''In Defense of Internment; The Case for 'Racial Profiling' in World War II and the War on Terror'' (2004). Malkin's defense of Japanese internment was due in part to reaction to what she describes as the "constant alarmism from Bush-bashers who argue that every counter-terror measure in America is tantamount to the internment". She criticized academia's treatment of the subject, and suggested that academics critical of Japanese internment had ulterior motives. Her book was widely criticized, particularly with regard to her reading of the "Magic" cables. Daniel Pipes, also drawing on Lowman, has defended Malkin, and said that Japanese American internment was "a good idea" which offers "lessons for today".


Black reaction to the Japanese-American Internment

The American public overwhelmingly approved of the Japanese-American internment measures and as a result, they were seldom opposed, particularly by members of minority groups who felt that they were also being chastised within America. Morton Grodzins writes that "The sentiment against the Japanese was not far removed from (and it was interchangeable with) Racism against Black Americans, sentiments against Negroes and Antisemitism in the United States, Jews." Occasionally, the NAACP and the NCJW spoke out. This sort of shared experience has led some modern Japanese-American leaders to come out in vocal support of Commission to Study and Develop Reparation Proposals for African-Americans Act, HR-40, a bill which calls for Reparations for slavery in the United States, reparations to be paid to African-Americans because they are affected by Slavery in the United States, slavery and subsequent discrimination. Cheryl Greenberg adds "Not all Americans endorsed such racism. Two similarly oppressed groups, African Americans and American Jews, Jewish Americans, had already organized to fight discrimination and bigotry." However, due to the justification of concentration camps by the US government, "few seemed tactile to endorse the evacuation; most did not even discuss it." Greenberg argues that at the time, the internment was not discussed because the government's rhetoric hid the motivations for it behind a guise of military necessity, and a fear of seeming "un-American" led to the silencing of most civil rights groups until years into the policy.


United States District Court opinions

A letter by John L. DeWitt, General DeWitt and Karl Bendetsen, Colonel Bendetsen expressing racist bias against Japanese Americans was circulated and then hastily redacted in 1943–1944. DeWitt's final report stated that, because of their race, it was impossible to determine the loyalty of Japanese Americans, thus necessitating internment. The original version was so offensive – even in the atmosphere of the wartime 1940s – that Bendetsen ordered all copies to be destroyed. In 1980, a copy of the original ''Final Report: Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast – 1942'' was found in the United States National Archives, National Archives, along with notes showing the numerous differences between the original and redacted versions. This earlier, racist and inflammatory version, as well as the FBI and
Office of Naval Intelligence The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) is the military intelligence agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Ins ...
(ONI) reports, led to the ''coram nobis'' retrials which overturned the convictions of Fred Korematsu, Gordon Hirabayashi and Minoru Yasui on all charges related to their refusal to submit to exclusion and internment. The courts found that the government had intentionally withheld these reports and other critical evidence, at trials all the way up to the Supreme Court of the United States, Supreme Court, which proved that there was no military necessity for the exclusion and internment of Japanese Americans. In the words of United States Department of Justice, Department of Justice officials writing during the war, the justifications were based on "willful historical inaccuracies and intentional falsehoods".


The Ringle Report

In May 2011, U.S. Solicitor General Neal Katyal, after a year of investigation, found Charles Fahy had intentionally withheld ''The Ringle Report'' drafted by the Office of Naval Intelligence, in order to justify the Roosevelt administration's actions in the cases of ''Hirabayashi v. United States'' and ''
Korematsu v. United States ''Korematsu v. United States'', 323 U.S. 214 (1944), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case upholding the exclusion of Japanese Americans from the West Coast Military Area during World War II World War II or the Second World ...
''. The report would have undermined the administration's position of the military necessity for such action, as it concluded that most Japanese Americans were not a national security threat, and that allegations of communication espionage had been found to be without basis by the FBI and Federal Communications Commission.


Newspaper editorials

Editorials from major newspapers at the time were generally supportive of the internment of the Japanese by the United States. A ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a containing written and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as , ...

Los Angeles Times
'' editorial dated February 19, 1942, stated that:
Since Dec. 7 there has existed an obvious menace to the safety of this region in the presence of potential saboteurs and fifth columnists close to oil refineries and storage tanks, airplane factories, Army posts, Navy facilities, ports and communications systems. Under normal sensible procedure not one day would have elapsed after Pearl Harbor before the government had proceeded to round up and send to interior points all Japanese aliens and their immediate descendants for classification and possible internment.
An ''The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, Atlanta Constitution'' editorial dated February 20, 1942, stated that:
The time to stop taking chances with Japanese aliens and Japanese-Americans has come. . . . While Americans have an inate [''sic''] distaste for stringent measures, every one must realize this is a total war, that there are no Americans running loose in Japan or Germany or Italy and there is absolutely no sense in this country running even the slightest risk of a major disaster from enemy groups within the nation.
A ''The Washington Post, Washington Post'' editorial dated February 22, 1942, stated that:
There is but one way in which to regard the Presidential order empowering the Army to establish "military areas" from which citizens or aliens may be excluded. That is to accept the order as a necessary accompaniment of total defense.
A ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a containing written and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as , ...

Los Angeles Times
'' editorial dated February 28, 1942, stated that:
As to a considerable number of Japanese, no matter where born, there is unfortunately no doubt whatever. They are for Japan; they will aid Japan in every way possible by espionage, sabotage and other activity; and they need to be restrained for the safety of California and the United States. And since there is no sure test for loyalty to the United States, all must be restrained. Those truly loyal will understand and make no objection.
A ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a containing written and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as , ...

Los Angeles Times
'' editorial dated December 8, 1942, stated that:
The Japs in these centers in the United States have been afforded the very best of treatment, together with food and living quarters far better than many of them ever knew before, and a minimum amount of restraint. They have been as well fed as the Army and as well as or better housed. . . . The American people can go without milk and butter, but the Japs will be supplied.
A ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a containing written and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as , ...

Los Angeles Times
'' editorial dated April 22, 1943, stated that:
As a race, the Japanese have made for themselves a record for conscienceless treachery unsurpassed in history. Whatever small theoretical advantages there might be in releasing those under restraint in this country would be enormously outweighed by the risks involved.


Facilities

While this event is most commonly called the ''internment'' of Japanese Americans, the government operated several different types of camps holding Japanese Americans. The best known facilities were the military-run Wartime Civil Control Administration (WCCA) ''Assembly Centers'' and the civilian-run War Relocation Authority (WRA) ''Relocation Centers,'' which are generally (but unofficially) referred to as "internment camps". Scholars have urged dropping such euphemisms and refer to them as concentration camps and the people as incarcerated. The United States Department of Justice, Department of Justice (DOJ) operated camps officially called ''Internment Camps'', which were used to detain those suspected of crimes or of "enemy sympathies". The government also operated camps for a number of German American internment, German Americans and Italian American internment, Italian Americans, who sometimes were assigned to share facilities with the Japanese Americans. The WCCA and WRA facilities were the largest and the most public. The WCCA Assembly Centers were temporary facilities that were first set up in horse racing tracks, fairgrounds, and other large public meeting places to assemble and organize internees before they were transported to WRA Relocation Centers by truck, bus, or train. The WRA Relocation Centers were semi-permanent camps that housed persons removed from the exclusion zone after March 1942, or until they were able to relocate elsewhere in the United States outside the exclusion zone.


DOJ and Army internment camps

Eight U.S. Department of Justice Camps (in Texas, Idaho, North Dakota, New Mexico, and Montana) held Japanese Americans, primarily non-citizens and their families. The camps were run by the Immigration and Naturalization Service, under the umbrella of the DOJ, and guarded by United States Border Patrol, Border Patrol agents rather than military police. The population of these camps included approximately 3,800 of the 5,500 Buddhist and Christian ministers, school instructors, newspaper workers, fishermen, and community leaders who had been accused of fifth column activity and arrested by the FBI after Pearl Harbor. (The remaining 1,700 were released to WRA relocation centers.) Immigrants and nationals of German-American internment, German and Italian-American internment, Italian ancestry were also held in these facilities, often in the same camps as Japanese Americans. Approximately 7,000 German-American internment, German Americans and 3,000 Italian-American internment, Italian Americans from Hawai'i and the U.S. mainland were interned in DOJ camps, along with 500 German seamen already in custody after being rescued from the ''SS Columbus (1924), SS Columbus'' in 1939. In addition 2,264 ethnic Japanese, 4,058 ethnic Germans, and 288 ethnic Italians were deported from 19 Latin American countries for a later-abandoned hostage exchange program with Axis powers, Axis countries or confinement in DOJ camps. Several U.S. Army internment camps held Japanese, Italian-American internment, Italian, and German-American internment, German American men considered "potentially dangerous". Camp Lordsburg, in New Mexico, was the only site built specifically to confine Japanese Americans. In May 1943, the Army was given responsibility for the detention of prisoners of war and all civilian internees were transferred to DOJ camps.


WCCA Civilian Assembly Centers

Executive Order 9066 authorized the removal of all persons of Japanese ancestry from the West Coast; however, it was signed before there were any facilities completed to house the displaced Japanese Americans. After the voluntary evacuation program failed to result in many families leaving the exclusion zone, the military took charge of the now-mandatory evacuation. On April 9, 1942, the Wartime Civil Control Administration (WCCA)Brian Niiya
"Wartime Civil Control Administration,"
''Densho Encyclopedia'' (accessed March 14, 2014).
was established by the
Western Defense Command Western Defense Command (WDC) was established on 17 March 1941 as the command formation of the U.S. Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but ...
to coordinate the forced removal of Japanese Americans to inland concentration camps. The relocation centers faced opposition from inland communities near the proposed sites who disliked the idea of their new "Jap" neighbors. In addition, government forces were struggling to build what would essentially be self-sufficient towns in very isolated, undeveloped, and harsh regions of the country; they were not prepared to house the influx of over 110,000 internees. Since Japanese Americans living in the restricted zone were considered too dangerous to conduct their daily business, the military decided it had to house them in temporary centers until the relocation centers were completed. Under the direction of Colonel Karl Bendetsen, existing facilities had been designated for conversion to WCCA use in March 1942, and the Army Corps of Engineers finished construction on these sites on April 21, 1942.Konrad Linke
"Assembly centers,"
''Densho Encyclopedia'' (accessed March 14, 2014).
All but four of the 15 confinement sites (12 in California, and one each in Washington, Oregon, and Arizona) had previously been racetracks or fairgrounds. The stables and livestock areas were cleaned out and hastily converted to living quarters for families of up to six, while wood and tarpaper barracks were constructed for additional housing, as well as communal latrines, laundry facilities, and mess halls. A total of 92,193 Japanese Americans were transferred to these temporary detention centers from March to August 1942. (18,026 more had been taken directly to two "reception centers" that were developed as the Manzanar and Poston War Relocation Center, Poston WRA camps.) The WCCA was dissolved on March 15, 1943, when it became the War Relocation Authority and turned its attentions to the more permanent relocation centers.


WRA Relocation Centers

The War Relocation Authority (WRA) was the U.S. civilian agency responsible for the relocation and detention. The WRA was created by President Roosevelt on March 18, 1942, with Executive Order 9102 and it officially ceased to exist on June 30, 1946. Milton S. Eisenhower, then an official of the Department of Agriculture, was chosen to head the WRA. In the 1943 US Government film ''Japanese Relocation'' he said, "This picture tells how the mass migration was accomplished. Neither the Army, not the War Relocation Authority relish the idea of taking men, women and children from their homes, their shops and their farms. So, the military and civilian agencies alike, determined to do the job as a democracy should—with real consideration for the people involved." Dillon S. Myer replaced Eisenhower three months later on June 17, 1942. Myer served as Director of the WRA until the centers were closed. Within nine months, the WRA had opened ten facilities in seven states, and transferred over 100,000 people from the WCCA facilities. The WRA camp at Tule Lake War Relocation Center, Tule Lake was integral to food production in its own camp, as well as other camps. Almost 30 crops were harvested at this site by farmworkers. Despite this, Tule Lake's camp was eventually used as a detention center for people believed to pose a security risk. Tule Lake also served as a "segregation center" for individuals and families who were deemed "disloyal", and for those who were to be deported to Japan.


List of camps

There were three types of camps. ''Civilian Assembly Centers'' were temporary camps, frequently located at horse tracks, where Japanese Americans were sent after they were removed from their communities. Eventually, most of the Japanese Americans were sent to ''Relocation Centers,'' also known as ''internment camps.'' ''Detention camps'' housed Nikkei who the government considered disruptive as well as Nikkei who the government believed were of special interest. When most of the Assembly Centers closed, they became California_during_World_War_II#Military_installations, training camps for US troops.


Civilian Assembly Centers

* Arcadia, California (Santa Anita Racetrack, stables) (Santa Anita assembly center) * Fresno, California (Fresno Fairgrounds, racetrack, stables) Fresno Assembly Center * Marysville, California, Marysville / Arboga, California (migrant workers' camp) Arboga Assembly Center * Mayer, Arizona (Civilian Conservation Corps camp) * Merced, California (Merced County Fairgrounds-Merced Assembly Center) * Owens Valley#History, Owens Valley, California (Manzanar - Owens Valley Reception Center) * Parker Dam, Arizona - (Poston War Relocation Center-Poston assembly center) * Pinedale, California (Pinedale, California, Pinedale Assembly Center, warehouses) * Pomona, California (Fairplex, Los Angeles County Fairgrounds, racetrack, stables) (Pomona assembly center) * Portland, Oregon (Portland Metropolitan Exposition Center, Pacific International Livestock Exposition, including 3,800 housed in the main pavilion building) (Portland Assembly Center) * Puyallup, Washington (fairgrounds racetrack stables, Informally known as "Camp Harmony") * Sacramento, California Camp Kohler (Site of Present-Day Walerga Park) (migrant workers' camp) * Salinas, California (California Rodeo Salinas, fairgrounds, racetrack, stables) Salinas Assembly Center * San Bruno, California (Tanforan racetrack, stables)(Tanforan Assembly Center) * Stockton, California (San Joaquin County Fairgrounds, racetrack, stables) * Tulare, California (fairgrounds, racetrack, stables) Tulare Assembly Center * Turlock, California (Stanislaus County Fairgrounds-Turlock Assembly Center)


Relocation Centers

* Gila River War Relocation Center, Arizona * Granada War Relocation Center, Colorado (AKA "Amache") * Heart Mountain War Relocation Center, Wyoming * Jerome War Relocation Center, Arkansas * Manzanar War Relocation Center, California * Minidoka War Relocation Center, Idaho * Poston War Relocation Center, Arizona * Rohwer War Relocation Center, Arkansas * Topaz War Relocation Center, Utah * Tule Lake War Relocation Center, California


Justice Department detention camps

These camps often held German-American internment, German-American and Italian-American internment, Italian-American detainees in addition to Japanese Americans: * Crystal City Internment Camp, Crystal City, Texas * Fort Lincoln Internment Camp * Fort Missoula Internment Camp, Fort Missoula, Montana * Fort Stanton, New Mexico * Kenedy, Texas * Kooskia Internment Camp, Kooskia, Idaho * Santa Fe, New Mexico * Seagoville, Texas * Forest Park, Georgia


Citizen Isolation Centers

The Citizen Isolation Centers were for those considered to be problem inmates. * Leupp, Arizona * Moab, Utah (AKA Dalton Wells) * Fort Stanton, New Mexico (AKA Old Raton Ranch)


Federal Bureau of Prisons

Detainees convicted of crimes, usually draft resistance, were sent to these sites, mostly federal prisons: * Catalina Federal Honor Camp, Catalina, Arizona * Fort Leavenworth, Kansas * McNeil Island, Washington


U.S. Army facilities

These camps often held German-American internment, German and Italian-American internment, Italian detainees in addition to Japanese Americans: * Angel Island (California), Fort McDowell/Angel Island, California * Camp Blanding, Florida * Camp Forrest, Tennessee * Camp Livingston, Louisiana * Camp Lordsburg, New Mexico * Camp McCoy, Wisconsin * Florence, Arizona * Fort Bliss, New Mexico and Texas * Fort Howard (Maryland), Fort Howard, Maryland * Fort Lewis (Washington), Fort Lewis, Washington * Fort Meade, Maryland * Fort Richardson (Alaska), Fort Richardson, Alaska * Fort Sam Houston, Texas * Fort Sill, Oklahoma * Griffith Park, California * Honouliuli Internment Camp, Hawaiʻi * Sand Island, Hawaii, Sand Island, Hawaiʻi * Stringtown, Oklahoma


Immigration and Naturalization Service facilities

These immigration detention stations held the roughly 5,500 men arrested immediately after Pearl Harbor, in addition to several thousand German and Italian detainees, and served as processing centers from which the men were transferred to DOJ or Army camps: * East Boston Immigration Station * Ellis Island * Cincinnati, Ohio * San Pedro, Los Angeles *
Seattle Seattle ( ) is a seaport The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Barcola The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position (where the palm is facing to the front) ...

Seattle
, Washington * Pacifica, California, Sharp Park, California * Sunland-Tujunga, Los Angeles, Tuna Canyon, Los Angeles


Exclusion, removal, and detention

Somewhere between 110,000 and 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry were subject to this mass exclusion program, of whom about 80,000 ''
Nisei is a Japanese-language term used in countries in North America North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinen ...
'' (second generation) and ''
Sansei is a Japanese language, Japanese and North American English term used in parts of the world such as South America and North America to specify the children of children born to ethnic Japanese in a new country of residence. The ''nisei'' are consid ...
'' (third generation) were U.S. citizens. The rest were ''
Issei is a Japanese-language term used by ethnic Japanese in countries in North America and South America to specify the Japanese people are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), ...
'' (first generation) who were subject to internment under the Alien Enemies Act; many of these "resident aliens" had been inhabitants of the United States for decades, but had been deprived by law of being able to become naturalized citizens. Also part of the West Coast removal were Manzanar Children's Village, 101 orphaned children of Japanese descent taken from orphanages and foster homes within the exclusion zone. Internees of Japanese descent were first sent to one of 17 temporary "Civilian Assembly Centers", where most awaited transfer to more permanent relocation centers being constructed by the newly formed War Relocation Authority (WRA). Some of those who reported to the civilian assembly centers were not sent to relocation centers, but were released under the condition that they remain outside the prohibited zone until the military orders were modified or lifted. Almost 120,000 Japanese Americans and resident Japanese aliens were eventually removed from their homes on the West Coast and Southern Arizona as part of the single largest forced relocation in History of the United States, U.S. history. Most of these camps/residences, gardens, and stock areas were placed on Native American reservations, for which the Native Americans were formally compensated. The Native American councils disputed the amounts negotiated in absentia by US government authorities. They later sued to gain relief and additional compensation for some items of dispute. Under the National Student Council Relocation Program (supported primarily by the American Friends Service Committee), students of college age were permitted to leave the camps to attend institutions willing to accept students of Japanese ancestry. Although the program initially granted leave permits to a very small number of students, this eventually included 2,263 students by December 31, 1943.


Conditions in the camps

In 1943, Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes wrote "the situation in at least some of the Japanese internment camps is bad and is becoming worse rapidly." The quality of life in the camps was heavily influenced by which government entity was responsible for them. INS Camps were regulated by international treaty. The legal difference between interned and relocated had significant effects on those locked up. INS camps were required to provide food quality and housing at the minimum equal to that experienced by the lowest ranked person in the military. According to a 1943 War Relocation Authority report, internees were housed in "tar paper-covered barracks of simple frame construction without plumbing or cooking facilities of any kind". The spartan facilities met international laws, but left much to be desired. Many camps were built quickly by civilian contractors during the summer of 1942 based on designs for military barracks, making the buildings poorly equipped for cramped family living. Throughout many camps, twenty-five people were forced to live in space built to contain four, leaving no room for privacy.Sandler, Martin. Imprisoned: The Betrayal of Japanese Americans during World War II. New York: Walker of Bloomsbury, 2013. The Heart Mountain War Relocation Center in northwestern Wyoming was a barbed-wire-surrounded enclave with unpartitioned toilets, cots for beds, and a budget of 45 cents daily per capita for food rations. Armed guards were posted at the camps, which were all in remote, desolate areas far from population centers. Internees were typically allowed to stay with their families. There are documented instances of guards shooting internees who reportedly attempted to walk outside the fences. One such shooting, that of James Wakasa at Topaz, led to a re-evaluation of the security measures in the camps. Some camp administrations eventually allowed relatively free movement outside the marked boundaries of the camps. Nearly a quarter of the internees left the camps to live and work elsewhere in the United States, outside the exclusion zone. Eventually, some were authorized to return to their hometowns in the exclusion zone under supervision of a sponsoring American family or agency whose loyalty had been assured. The phrase "''shikata ga nai''" (loosely translated as "it cannot be helped") was commonly used to summarize the interned families' resignation to their helplessness throughout these conditions. This was noticed by their children, as mentioned in the well-known memoir ''Farewell to Manzanar'' by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston and James D. Houston. Further, it is noted that parents may have internalized these emotions to withhold their disappointment and anguish from affecting their children. Nevertheless, children still were cognizant of this emotional repression.


Medical care

Before the war, 87 physicians and surgeons, 137 nurses, 105 dentists, 132 pharmacists, 35 optometrists, and 92 lab technicians provided healthcare to the Japanese American population, with most practicing in urban centers like Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Seattle. As the eviction from the West Coast was carried out, the Wartime Civilian Control Administration worked with the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) and many of these professionals to establish infirmaries within the temporary assembly centers. An Issei doctor was appointed to manage each facility, and additional healthcare staff worked under his supervision, although the USPHS recommendation of one physician for every 1,000 inmates and one nurse to 200 inmates was not met. Overcrowded and unsanitary conditions forced assembly center infirmaries to prioritize inoculations over general care, obstetrics, and surgeries; at Manzanar, for example, hospital staff performed over 40,000 immunizations against typhoid and smallpox. Food poisoning was common and also demanded significant attention. Those who were interned in Topaz, Minidoka, and Jerome experienced outbreaks of dysentery. Facilities in the more permanent "relocation centers" eventually surpassed the makeshift assembly center infirmaries, but in many cases, these hospitals were incomplete when inmates began to arrive and were not fully functional for several months. Additionally, vital medical supplies such as medications and surgical and sterilization equipment were limited. The staff shortages suffered in the assembly centers continued in the WRA camps. The administration's decision to invert the management structure and demote Japanese American medical workers to positions below white employees, while capping their pay rate at $20/month, further exacerbated this problem. (At Heart Mountain, for example, Japanese American doctors received $19/month compared to white nurses' $150/month.) The war had caused a shortage of healthcare professionals across the country, and the camps often lost potential recruits to outside hospitals that offered better pay and living conditions. When the WRA began to allow some Japanese Americans to leave camp, many Nikkei people, Nikkei medical professionals resettled outside the camp. Those who remained had little authority in the administration of the hospitals. Combined with the inequitable payment of salaries between white and Japanese American employees, conflicts arose at several hospitals, and there were two Japanese American walk-outs at Heart Mountain in 1943. Despite a shortage of healthcare workers, limited access to equipment, and tension between white administrators and Japanese American staff, these hospitals provided much-needed medical care in camp. The extreme climates of the remote incarceration sites were hard on infants and elderly prisoners. The frequent dust storms of the high desert locations led to increased cases of asthma and coccidioidomycosis, while the swampy, mosquito-infested Arkansas camps exposed residents to malaria, all of which were treated in camp. Almost 6,000 live deliveries were performed in these hospitals, and all mothers received pre- and postnatal care. The WRA recorded 1,862 deaths across the ten camps, with cancer, heart disease, tuberculosis, and vascular disease accounting for the majority.


Education

File:San Francisco, California. Flag of allegiance pledge at Raphael Weill Public School, Geary and Buch . . . - NARA - 536053.jpg, Flag of allegiance pledge at Raphael Weill Public School, Geary and Buchanan Streets, San Francisco, April 20, 1942 File:Rohwer Relocation Center, McGehee, Arkansas. Lily Namimoto, teacher. Student teachers in second gr . . . - NARA - 538958.jpg, Teacher Lily Namimoto and her second grade class File:Rohwer Relocation Center, McGehee, Arkansas. Fourth Grade School in Barracks 3-4-B. - NARA - 538953.jpg, Fourth grade class in barracks 3-4-B at Rohwer File:Rohwer Relocation Center, McGehee, Arkansas. General Office in the High School. - NARA - 538966.jpg, General office in the high school at Rohwer File:Rohwer Relocation Center, McGehee, Arkansas. D. L. Cook. Senior Physics Class in Barracks 11-F at . . . - NARA - 538981.jpg, Senior physics class in barracks 11-F at the temporary high school quarters File:Rohwer Relocation Center, McGehee, Arkansas. A part of the brass section of the High School Band, . . . - NARA - 539378.jpg, A part of the brass section of the high school band Of the 110,000 Japanese Americans detained by the United States government during World War II, 30,000 were children. Most were school-age children, so educational facilities were set up in the camps. Allowing them to continue their education, however, did not erase the potential for traumatic experiences during their overall time in the camps. The government had not adequately planned for the camps, and no real budget or plan was set aside for the new camp educational facilities.Hui Wu, "Writing and Teaching Behind Barbed Wire: An Exiled Composition Class in a Japanese Internment Camp", ''College Composition and Communication'', Vol. 59, No. 2, December 2007 Camp schoolhouses were crowded and had insufficient materials, books, notebooks, and desks for students. Not only that the education/instruction was all in English, the schools in Japanese internment camps also didn't have any books or supplies to go on as they opened. The state decided to issue a few books only a month after the opening. Wood stoves were used to heat the buildings, and instead of using separate rooms for different kinds of activities only partitions were used to accomplish that. Japanese internment camps also did not have any libraries (and consequently no library books), writing arm chairs or desks, and no science equipment. These 'schoolhouses' were essentially prison blocks that contained few windows. In the Southwest, when temperatures rose and the schoolhouse filled, the rooms would be sweltering and unbearable. Class sizes were immense. At the height of its attendance, the Rohwer Camp of Arkansas reached 2,339, with only 45 certified teachers. The student to teacher ratio in the camps was 48:1 in elementary schools and 35:1 for secondary schools, compared to the national average of 28:1. This was due to a few things. One of them was that there was a general teacher shortage in the US at the moment, and the fact that the teachers were required to live in those poor conditions in the camps themselves. "There was persistent mud or dust, heat, mosquitoes, poor food and living conditions, inadequate instructional supplies, and a half mile or more walk each day just to and from the school block". Despite the triple salary increase in the internment camps, they were still unable to fill in all the needed teacher positions with certified personnel, and so in the end they had to hire non-certified teacher detainees to help out the teachers as assistants. The rhetorical curriculum of the schools was based mostly on the study of "the democratic ideal and to discover its many implications". English compositions researched at the Jerome and Rohwer camps in Arkansas focused on these 'American ideals', and many of the compositions pertained to the camps. Responses were varied, as schoolchildren of the Topaz camp were patriotic and believed in the war effort, but could not ignore the fact of their incarceration. To build patriotism, the Japanese language was banned in the camps, forcing the children to learn English and then go home and teach their Issei parents.


Sports

File:Ansel Adams, Baseball game at Manzanar, 1943.jpg, A baseball game at Manzanar. Picture by Ansel Adams, c. 1943. File:Smithsonian photo of softball from Heart Mountain Relocation Center.jpg, Smithsonian photo of softball from the Heart Mountain Relocation Center File:Rohwer Relocation Center, McGehee, Arkansas. A basketball game between the Roywl Dukes, which is a . . . - NARA - 539539.jpg, A basketball game at the Rohwer Relocation Center File:Rohwer Relocation Center, McGehee, Arkansas. A group of girls who are residents at this center, and . . . - NARA - 538915.jpg, A group of girls around a puppy at a football game File:Rohwer Relocation Center, McGehee, Arkansas. A tense moment in a football game between Stockton and . . . - NARA - 539139.jpg, A tense moment in a football game between the Stockton Assembly Center, Stockton and Santa Anita assembly center, Santa Anita teams File:Rohwer Relocation Center, McGehee, Arkansas. A Judo class. Classes are held every afternoon and ev . . . - NARA - 538945.jpg, A judo class at Rohwer. Classes were held every afternoon and evening. Although life in the camps was very difficult, Japanese Americans formed many different sports teams, including baseball and football teams. In January 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued what came to be known as the "Green Light Letter" to MLB Commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis, which urged him to continue playing Major League Baseball games despite the ongoing war. In it Roosevelt said that "baseball provides a recreation", and this was true for Japanese American incarcerees as well. Over 100 baseball teams were formed in the Manzanar camp so that Japanese Americans could have some recreation, and some of the team names were carry-overs from teams formed before the incarceration. Both men and women participated in the sports. In some cases, the Japanese American baseball teams from the camps traveled to outside communities to play other teams. Incarcerees from Idaho competed in the state tournament in 1943, and there were games between the prison guards and the Japanese American teams. Branch Rickey, who would be responsible for bringing Jackie Robinson into Major League Baseball in 1947, sent a letter to all of the WRA camps expressing interest in Scout (sport), scouting some of the Nisei players. In the fall of 1943, three players tried out for the Brooklyn Dodgers in front of MLB scout George Sisler, but none of them made the team.


Tule Lake Agricultural Program

The Tule Lake agricultural program was constructed with the purpose of growing crops in order to feed both internees in their camp and in the other camps. It is said that any extras would be sold on the open market. The agricultural program was a way for internees to be employed while at the center, as well as a way for some to learn farming skills. A 4-H program was established to pave a way for children to help the agricultural process at the center. From 1942 through 1945, Tule Lake produced 29 different crops, including Japanese vegetables like daikon, gobo, and nappa.


Student leave to attend Eastern colleges

Although most Nisei college students followed their families into camp, a small number tried to arrange for transfers to schools outside the exclusion zone in order to continue their education. Their initial efforts expanded as sympathetic college administrators and the American Friends Service Committee began to coordinate a larger student relocation program. The Friends petitioned WRA Director Milton Eisenhower to place college students in Eastern and Midwestern academic institutions. The National Japanese American Student Relocation Council was formed on May 29, 1942, and the AFSC administered the program. By September 1942, after the initial roundup of Japanese Americans, 250 students from assembly centers and WRA camps were back at school. Their tuition, book costs, and living expenses were absorbed by the U.S. government, private foundations, and church scholarships, in addition to significant fundraising efforts led by Issei parents in camp. Outside camp, the students took on the role of "ambassadors of good will", and the NJASRC and WRA promoted this image to soften anti-Japanese prejudice and prepare the public for the resettlement of Japanese Americans in their communities. At Earlham College, President William Dennis helped institute a program that enrolled several dozen Japanese-American students in order to spare them from incarceration. While this action was controversial in Richmond, IN, Richmond, Indiana, it helped strengthen the college's ties to Japan and the Japanese-American community. At Oberlin College, about 40 evacuated Nisei students were enrolled. One of them, Kenji Okuda, was elected as student council president. In total, over 600 institutions east of the exclusion zone opened their doors to more than 4,000 college-age youth who had been placed behind barbed wire, many of whom were enrolled in West Coast schools prior to their removal. The NJASRC ceased operations on June 7, 1946.


Loyalty questions and segregation

In early 1943, War Relocation Authority officials, working with the War Department and the Office of Naval Intelligence,Cherstin M. Lyon
"Loyalty questionnaire,"
''Densho Encyclopedia'' (accessed March 14, 2014).
circulated a questionnaire in an attempt to determine the loyalty of incarcerated Nisei men they hoped to recruit into military service. The "Statement of United States Citizen of Japanese Ancestry" was initially given only to Nisei who were eligible for service (or would have been, but for the 4-C classification imposed on them at the start of the war). Authorities soon revised the questionnaire and required all adults in camp to complete the form. Most of the 28 questions were designed to assess the "Americanness" of the respondent — had they been educated in Japan or the U.S.? were they Buddhist or Christian? did they practice ''judo'' or play on a baseball team? The final two questions on the form, which soon came to be known as the "loyalty questionnaire", were more direct: Across the camps, people who answered No to both questions became known as "No Nos". While most camp inmates simply answered "yes" to both questions, several thousand — 17 percent of the total respondents, 20 percent of the NiseiCherstin M. Lyon
"Segregation,"
''Densho Encyclopedia'' (accessed March 14, 2014).
— gave negative or qualified replies out of confusion, fear or anger at the wording and implications of the questionnaire. In regard to Question 27, many worried that expressing a willingness to serve would be equated with volunteering for combat, while others felt insulted at being asked to risk their lives for a country that had imprisoned them and their families. An affirmative answer to Question 28 brought up other issues. Some believed that renouncing their loyalty to Japan would suggest that they had at some point been loyal to Japan and disloyal to the United States. Many believed they were to be deported to Japan no matter how they answered; they feared an explicit disavowal of the Emperor would become known and make such resettlement extremely difficult. On July 15, 1943, Tule Lake, the site with the highest number of "no" responses to the questionnaire, was designated to house inmates whose answers suggested they were "disloyal". During the remainder of 1943 and into early 1944, more than 12,000 men, women and children were transferred from other camps to the maximum-security Tule Lake Segregation Center. Afterward, the government passed the Renunciation Act of 1944, a law that made it possible for Nisei and Kibei to Renunciation of United States citizenship, renounce their American citizenship. A total of 5,589 internees opted to do so; 5,461 of these were sent to Tule Lake. Of those who renounced US citizenship, 1,327 were repatriated to Japan. Those persons who stayed in the US faced discrimination from the Japanese-American community, both during and after the war, for having made that choice of renunciation. At the time, they feared what their futures held were they to remain American, and remain interned. These renunciations of American citizenship have been highly controversial, for a number of reasons. Some apologists for internment have cited the renunciations as evidence that "disloyalty" or anti-Americanism was well represented among the interned peoples, thereby justifying the internment. Many historians have dismissed the latter argument, for its failure to consider that the small number of individuals in question had been mistreated and persecuted by their own government at the time of the "renunciation":Niiya, Brian. ''Japanese American History''. 1993, p. 293
[T]he renunciations had little to do with "loyalty" or "disloyalty" to the United States, but were instead the result of a series of complex conditions and factors that were beyond the control of those involved. Prior to discarding citizenship, most or all of the renunciants had experienced the following misfortunes: forced removal from homes; loss of jobs; government and public assumption of disloyalty to the land of their birth based on race alone; and incarceration in a "segregation center" for "disloyal" ISSEI or NISEI...
Minoru Kiyota, who was among those who renounced his citizenship and soon came to regret the decision, has said that he wanted only "to express my fury toward the government of the United States", for his internment and for the mental and physical duress, as well as the intimidation, he was made to face.Ngai, Mae M. ''Impossible Subjects''. 2004, p. 192 Civil rights attorney Wayne M. Collins successfully challenged most of these renunciations as invalid, owing to the conditions of duress and intimidation under which the government obtained them. Many of the deportees were
Issei is a Japanese-language term used by ethnic Japanese in countries in North America and South America to specify the Japanese people are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), ...
(first generation) or Kibei, who often had difficulty with English and often did not understand the questions they were asked. Even among those Issei who had a clear understanding, Question 28 posed an awkward dilemma: Japanese immigrants were denied U.S. citizenship at the time, so when asked to renounce their Japanese citizenship, answering "Yes" would have made them Statelessness, stateless persons. When the government began seeking army volunteers from among the camps, only 6% of military-aged male inmates volunteered to serve in the U.S. Armed Forces. Most of those who refused tempered that refusal with statements of willingness to fight if they were restored their rights as American citizens. Eventually 33,000 Japanese-American men and many Japanese-American women served in the U.S. military during World War II, of which 20,000 served in the U.S. Army. The 100th Infantry Battalion, which was formed in June 1942 with 1,432 men of Japanese descent from the Hawaii National Guard, was sent to Camps McCoy and Shelby for advanced training. Because of the 100th's superior training record, the War Department authorized the formation of the 442nd Infantry Regiment (United States), 442nd Regimental Combat Team. When the call was made, 10,000 young men from Hawaii volunteered with eventually 2,686 being chosen along with 1,500 from the continental U.S. The 100th Infantry Battalion landed in Salerno, Italy in September 1943 and became known as the Purple Heart Battalion. This legendary outfit was joined by the 442nd RCT in June 1944, and this combined unit became the most highly decorated U.S. military unit of its size and duration in Military history of the United States, U.S. military history. The 442nd's 442nd Infantry Regiment (United States)#522nd Field Artillery Battalion, Nisei segregated field artillery battalion, then on detached service within the U.S. Army in Bavaria, Dachau concentration camp#Satellite camps liberation, liberated at least one of the satellite labor camps of the Nazis' original Dachau concentration camp on April 29, 1945, and only days later, on May 2, halted Death marches (Holocaust)#Dachau to the Austrian border, a death march in southern Bavaria.


Proving commitment to the United States

Many Nisei worked to prove themselves as loyal American citizens. Of the 20,000 Japanese Americans who served in the Army during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, "many Japanese-American soldiers had gone to war to fight racism at home" and they were "proving with their blood, their limbs, and their bodies that they were truly American". Some one hundred Nisei women volunteered for the WAC (Women's Army Corps), where, after undergoing rigorous basic training, they had assignments as typists, clerks, and drivers. A smaller number of women also volunteered to serve as nurses for the ANC (United States Army Nurse Corps, Army Nurse Corps). Satoshi Ito, an internment camp internee, reinforces the idea of the immigrants' children striving to demonstrate their patriotism to the United States. He notes that his mother would tell him, "'you're here in the United States, you need to do well in school, you need to prepare yourself to get a good job when you get out into the larger society'". He said she would tell him, "'don't be a dumb farmer like me, like us'" to encourage Ito to successfully assimilate into American society. As a result, he worked exceptionally hard to excel in school and later became a professor at the College of William & Mary. His story, along with the countless Japanese Americans willing to risk their lives in war, demonstrate the lengths many in their community went to prove their American patriotism.


Other concentration camps

As early as September 1931, with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, US officials began to compile lists of individuals, lists which were particularly focused on the Issei. This data was eventually included in the Custodial Detention index (CDI). Agents in the Department of Justice's Special Defense Unit classified the subjects into three groups: A, B, and C, with A being the "most dangerous", and C being "possibly dangerous". After the Pearl Harbor attack, Roosevelt authorized his attorney general to put into motion a plan for the arrest of thousands of individuals on the potential enemy alien lists, most of them were Japanese-American community leaders. Armed with a blanket arrest warrant, the FBI seized these men on the eve of December 8, 1941. These men were held in municipal jails and prisons until they were moved to Department of Justice detention camps, separate from those of the Wartime Relocation Authority (WRA). These camps operated under far more stringent conditions and were subject to heightened criminal-style guards, despite the absence of criminal proceedings. Memoirs about the camps include those by Keiho Soga and Toru Matsumoto. Crystal City, Texas, was one such camp where Japanese Americans, German-American internment, German Americans, Italian-American internment, Italian Americans, and a large number of U.S.-seized, Axis powers, Axis-descended nationals from several Latin-American countries were interned. The Canadian government also confined Japanese Canadians, its citizens with Japanese ancestry during World War II (see Japanese-Canadian internment, Japanese Canadian internment), for many reasons which were also based on fear and prejudice. Some Latin American countries on the Pacific Coast, such as Peru, interned ethnic Japanese or sent them to the United States for internment. Brazil also Japanese Brazilian#Prejudice and forced assimilation, restricted its Japanese Brazilians, Japanese Brazilian population.Agence France-Presse/Jiji Press, "Peru sorry for WWII internments", ''Japan Times'', June 16, 2011, p. 2.


Hawaii

Although Japanese in Hawaii, Japanese Americans in Hawaii comprised more than one-third of Hawaii's population, businessmen resisted their internment or deportation to the concentration camps which were located on the mainland, because they recognized their contributions to Hawaii's economy. In the hysteria of the time, some mainland Congressmen (Hawaii was only an Territories of the United States#Incorporated and unincorporated territories, incorporated U.S. territory at the time, and despite being fully part of the U.S., did not have a voting representative or senator in Congress) promoted that all Japanese Americans and Japanese immigrants should be removed from Hawaii but were unsuccessful. An estimated 1,200 to 1,800 Japanese nationals and American-born Japanese from Hawaii were interned, either in five camps on the islands or in one of the mainland internment camps, but this represented well-under two percent of the total Japanese American residents in the islands. "No serious explanations were offered as to why ... the internment of individuals of Japanese descent was necessary on the mainland, but not in Hawaii, where the large Japanese-Hawaiian population went largely unmolested." The vast majority of Japanese Americans and their immigrant parents in Hawaii were not interned because the government had already declared
martial law Martial law is the temporary imposition of direct military control of normal civil functions or suspension of civil law by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency where civil forces are overwhelmed, or in an military occ ...
in Hawaii and this allowed it to significantly reduce the supposed risk of espionage and sabotage by residents of Japanese ancestry.Jane L. Scheiber, Harry N. Scheiber
"Martial law in Hawaii,"
''Densho Encyclopedia''. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
Also, Japanese Americans comprised over 35% of the territory's population, with 157,905 of Hawaii's 423,330 inhabitants at the time of the 1940 census, making them the largest ethnic group at that time; detaining so many people would have been enormously challenging in terms of logistics. Additionally, the whole of Hawaiian society was dependent on their productivity. According to intelligence reports at the time, "the Japanese, through a concentration of effort in select industries, had achieved a virtual stranglehold on several key sectors of the economy in Hawaii," and they "had access to virtually all jobs in the economy, including high-status, high-paying jobs (e.g., professional and managerial jobs)". To imprison such a large percentage of the islands' work force would have crippled the Hawaiian economy. Thus, the unfounded fear of Japanese Americans turning against the United States was overcome by the reality-based fear of massive economic loss. Lieutenant General Delos C. Emmons, commander of the Hawaii Department, promised the local Japanese-American community that they would be treated fairly so long as they remained loyal to the United States. He succeeded in blocking efforts to relocate them to the outer islands or mainland by pointing out the logistical difficulties. Among the small number interned were community leaders and prominent politicians, including territorial legislators Thomas Sakakihara and Sanji Abe. A total of five internment camps operated in the territory of Hawaii, referred to as the "Hawaiian Island Detention Camps". One camp was located at Sand Island (Hawaii), Sand Island at the mouth of Honolulu Harbor. This camp was prepared in advance of the war's outbreak. All prisoners held here were "detained under military custody... because of the imposition of martial law throughout the Islands". Another Hawaiian camp was the Honouliuli Internment Camp, near Ewa, on the southwestern shore of Oahu; it was opened in 1943 to replace the Sand Island camp. Another was located on the island of Maui in the town of Haiku-Pauwela, Hawaii, Haiku, in addition to the Kilauea Military Camp, Kilauea Detention Center on Hawaii (island), Hawaii and Camp Kalaheo on Kauai.


Japanese Latin Americans

During World War II, over 2,200 Japanese from Latin America were held in internment camps run by the Immigration and Naturalization Service, part of the Department of Justice. Beginning in 1942, Latin Americans of Japanese ancestry were rounded up and transported to American internment camps run by the INS and the U.S. Justice Department. Most of these internees, approximately 1,800, came from Peru. An additional 250 were from Panama, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. The first group of Japanese Latin Americans arrived in San Francisco on April 20, 1942, on board the ''Etolin'' along with 360 ethnic Germans and 14 ethnic Italians from Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia.C. Harvey Gardiner. ''Pawns in a Triangle of Hate: The Peruvian Japanese and the United States'' (University of Washington Press: Seattle, 1981), 25–29. The 151 men — ten from Ecuador, the rest from Peru — had volunteered for deportation believing they were to be repatriated to Japan. They were denied visas by U.S. Immigration authorities and then detained on the grounds they had tried to enter the country illegally, without a visa or passport. Subsequent transports brought additional "volunteers", including the wives and children of men who had been deported earlier. A total of 2,264 Japanese Latin Americans, about two-thirds of them from Peru, were interned in facilities on the U.S. mainland during the war. The United States originally intended to trade these Latin American internees as part of a hostage exchange program with Japan and other Axis nations. A thorough examination of the documents shows at least one trade occurred. Over 1,300 persons of Japanese ancestry were exchanged for a like number of non-official Americans in October 1943, at the port of Marmagao, Marmagao, India. Over half were Japanese Latin Americans (the rest being ethnic Germans and Italians) and of that number one-third were Japanese Peruvians. On September 2, 1943, the Swedish ship ''MS Gripsholm'' departed the U.S. with just over 1,300 Japanese nationals (including nearly a hundred from Canada and Mexico) en route for the exchange location, Marmagao, the main port of the Portuguese colony of Goa on the west coast of India. After two more stops in South America to take on additional Japanese nationals, the passenger manifest reached 1,340. Of that number, Latin American Japanese numbered 55 percent of the Gripsholm's travelers, 30 percent of whom were Japanese Peruvian. Arriving in Marmagao on October 16, 1943, the Gripsholm's passengers disembarked and then boarded the Japanese ship ''MS Aramis, Teia Maru.'' In return, "non-official" Americans (secretaries, butlers, cooks, embassy staff workers, etc.) previously held by the Japanese Army boarded the ''Gripsholm'' while the ''Teia Maru'' headed for Tokyo. Because this exchange was done with those of Japanese ancestry officially described as "volunteering" to return to Japan, no legal challenges were encountered. The U.S. Department of State was pleased with the first trade and immediately began to arrange a second exchange of non-officials for February 1944. This exchange would involve 1,500 non-volunteer Japanese who were to be exchanged for 1,500 Americans. The US was busy with Pacific Naval activity and future trading plans stalled. Further slowing the program were legal and political "turf" battles between the State Department, the Roosevelt administration, and the DOJ, whose officials were not convinced of the legality of the program. The completed October 1943 trade took place at the height of the Enemy Alien Deportation Program. Japanese Peruvians were still being "rounded up" for shipment to the U.S. in previously unseen numbers. Despite logistical challenges facing the floundering prisoner exchange program, deportation plans were moving ahead. This is partly explained by an early-in-the-war revelation of the overall goal for Latin Americans of Japanese ancestry under the Enemy Alien Deportation Program. The goal: that the hemisphere was to be free of Japanese. Secretary of State Cordell Hull wrote an agreeing President Roosevelt, "[that the US must] continue our efforts to remove all the Japanese from these American Republics for internment in the United States." "Native" Peruvians expressed extreme animosity toward their Japanese citizens and expatriates, and Peru refused to accept the post-war return of Japanese Peruvians from the US. Although a small number asserting special circumstances, such as marriage to a non-Japanese Peruvian, did return, the majority were trapped. Their home country refused to take them back (a political stance Peru would maintain until 1950), they were generally Spanish speakers in the Anglo US, and in the postwar U.S., the Department of State started expatriating them to Japan. Civil rights attorney Wayne M. Collins, Wayne Collins filed injunctions on behalf of the remaining internees,Densho, The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University
"Japanese Latin Americans,"
c. 2003, accessed April 12, 2009.
helping them obtain "parole" relocation to the labor-starved Seabrook, New Jersey, Seabrook Farms in New Jersey. He started a legal battle that would not be resolved until 1953, when, after working as undocumented immigrants for almost ten years, those Japanese Peruvians remaining in the U.S. were finally offered citizenship.


Internment ends

On December 18, 1944, the Supreme Court of the United States, Supreme Court handed down two decisions on the legality of the incarceration under Executive Order 9066. ''
Korematsu v. United States ''Korematsu v. United States'', 323 U.S. 214 (1944), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case upholding the exclusion of Japanese Americans from the West Coast Military Area during World War II World War II or the Second World ...
'', a 6–3 decision upholding a Nisei's conviction for violating the military exclusion order, stated that, in general, the removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast was constitutional. However, ''
Ex parte Endo ''Ex parte Endo'', or ''Ex parte Mitsuye Endo'', 323 U.S. 283 (1944), was a United States Supreme Court '' ex parte'' decision handed down on December 18, 1944, in which the Justices unanimously ruled that the U.S. government could not continue to ...
'' unanimously declared on that same day that loyal citizens of the United States, regardless of cultural descent, could not be detained without cause. In effect, the two rulings held that, while the eviction of American citizens in the name of military necessity was legal, the subsequent incarceration was not—thus paving the way for their release. Having been alerted to the Court's decision, the Roosevelt administration issued Public Proclamation No. 21 the day before the ''Korematsu'' and ''Endo'' rulings were made public, on December 17, 1944, rescinding the exclusion orders and declaring that Japanese Americans could return to the West Coast the next month. Although War Relocation Authority, WRA Director Dillon Myer and others had pushed for an earlier end to the incarceration, the Japanese Americans were not allowed to return to the West Coast until January 2, 1945, being postponed until after the November 1944 election, so as not to impede Roosevelt's reelection campaign. Many younger internees had already "resettled" in Midwest or Eastern cities to pursue work or educational opportunities. (For example, 20,000 were sent to Lake View, Chicago, Lake View in Chicago.) The remaining population began to leave the camps to try to rebuild their lives at home. Former inmates were given $25 and a train ticket to their pre-war places of residence, but many had little or nothing to return to, having lost their homes and businesses. When Japanese Americans were sent to the camps they could only take a few items with them and while incarcerated they could only work for meager jobs with a small monthly salary of $12-$19. So when internment ended Japanese Americans not only couldn't return to their homes and businesses but they had little to nothing to survive on, let alone enough to start a new life. Some emigrated to Japan, although many of these individuals were "repatriated" against their will. The camps remained open for residents who were not ready to return (mostly elderly Issei and families with young children), but the WRA pressured stragglers to leave by gradually eliminating services in camp. Those who had not left by each camp's close date were forcibly removed and sent back to the West Coast. Nine of the ten WRA camps were shut down by the end of 1945, although Tule Lake, which held "renunciants" slated for deportation to Japan, was not closed until March 20, 1946. Japanese Latin Americans brought to the U.S. from Peru and other countries, who were still being held in the DOJ camps at Santa Fe and Crystal City, took legal action in April 1946 in an attempt to avoid deportation to Japan.


Aftermath


Hardship and material loss

Many internees lost irreplaceable personal property due to restrictions that prohibited them from taking more than they could carry into the camps. These losses were compounded by theft and destruction of items placed in governmental storage. Leading up to their incarceration, Japanese_diaspora#Terminology, Nikkei were prohibited from leaving the Military Zones or traveling more than from home, forcing those who had to travel for work, like truck farmers and residents of rural towns, to quit their jobs. Many others were simply fired for their Japanese heritage. Many Japanese Americans encountered continued housing injustice after the war. Alien land laws in California, Oregon, and Washington barred the Issei from owning their pre-war homes and farms. Many had cultivated land for decades as tenant farmers, but they lost their rights to farm those lands when they were forced to leave. Other Issei (and Nisei who were renting or had not completed payments on their property) had found families willing to occupy their homes or tend their farms during their incarceration. However, those unable to strike a deal with caretakers had to sell their property, often in a matter of days and at great financial loss to predatory land speculators, who made huge profits. In addition to these monetary and property losses, there were seven who were shot and killed by sentries: Kanesaburo Oshima, 58, during an escape attempt from Fort Sill, Oklahoma; Lordsburg Killings, Toshio Kobata, 58, and Hirota Isomura, 59, during transfer to Lordsburg, New Mexico; James Ito, 17, and Katsuji James Kanegawa, 21, during the December 1942 Manzanar#Resistance, Manzanar Riot; James Hatsuaki Wakasa, 65, while walking near the perimeter wire of Topaz; and Shoichi James Okamoto, 30, during a verbal altercation with a sentry at the Tule Lake Segregation Center. Psychological injury was observed by Dillon S. Myer, director of the WRA camps. In June 1945, Myer described how the Japanese Americans had grown increasingly depressed, and overcome with feelings of helplessness and personal insecurity."The WRA says Thirty," ''New Republic'' 112, pp. 867–68. Author Betty Furuta explains that the Japanese used ''Gaman (term), gaman,'' loosely meaning "perseverance", to overcome hardships; this was mistaken by non-Japanese as being introverted and lacking initiative. Japanese Americans also encountered hostility and even violence when they returned to the West Coast. Concentrated largely in rural areas of Central California, there were dozens of reports of gunshots, fires, and explosions aimed at Japanese American homes, businesses, and places of worship, in addition to non-violent crimes like vandalism and the defacing of Japanese graves. In one of the few cases to go to trial, four men were accused of attacking the Doi family of Placer County, California, setting off an explosion, and starting a fire on the family's farm in January 1945. Despite a confession from one of the men that implicated the others, the jury accepted their defense attorney's framing of the attack as a justifiable attempt to keep California "a white man's country" and acquitted all four defendants. To compensate former internees for their property losses, Congress passed the Japanese-American Claims Act on July 2, 1948, allowing Japanese Americans to apply for compensation for property losses which occurred as "a reasonable and natural consequence of the evacuation or exclusion". By the time the Act was passed, the Internal Revenue Service, IRS had already destroyed most of the internees' 1939–42 tax records. Due to the time pressure and strict limits on how much they could take to the camps, few were able to preserve detailed tax and financial records during the evacuation process. Therefore, it was extremely difficult for claimants to establish that their claims were valid. Under the Act, Japanese American families filed 26,568 claims totaling $148 million in requests; about $37 million was approved and disbursed. The different placement for the interned had significant consequences for their lifetime outcomes. A 2016 study finds, using the random dispersal of internees into camps in seven different states, that the people assigned to richer locations did better in terms of income, education, socioeconomic status, house prices, and housing quality roughly fifty years later.


Reparations and redress

Beginning in the 1960s, a younger generation of Japanese Americans, inspired by the civil rights movement, began what is known as the "Redress Movement", an effort to obtain an official apology and reparations from the federal government for incarcerating their parents and grandparents during the war. They focused not on documented property losses but on the broader injustice and mental suffering caused by the internment. The movement's first success was in 1976, when President Gerald Ford proclaimed that the internment was "wrong", and a "national mistake" which "shall never again be repeated". President Ford signed a proclamation formally terminating Executive Order 9066 and apologized for the internment, stating: "We now know what we should have known then—not only was that evacuation wrong but Japanese-Americans were and are loyal Americans. On the battlefield and at home the names of Japanese-Americans have been and continue to be written in history for the sacrifices and the contributions they have made to the well-being and to the security of this, our common Nation." The campaign for redress was launched by Japanese Americans in 1978. The
Japanese American Citizens League The is an Asian American civil rights charity, headquartered in San Francisco, with regional chapters across the United States. The Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) describes itself as the oldest and largest Asian American civil rights ...
(JACL), which had cooperated with the administration during the war, became part of the movement. It asked for three measures: $25,000 to be awarded to each person who was detained, an apology from Congress acknowledging publicly that the U.S. government had been wrong, and the release of funds to set up an educational foundation for the children of Japanese-American families. In 1980, under the Presidency of Jimmy Carter, Carter administration, Congress established the
Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians The Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians (CWRIC) was a group of nine people appointed by the U.S. Congress in 1980 to conduct an official governmental study into the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II ...
(CWRIC) to study the matter. On February 24, 1983, the commission issued a report entitled ''Personal Justice Denied'', condemning the internment as unjust and motivated by racism and xenophobic ideas rather than factual military necessity. Internment camp survivors sued the federal government for $24 million in property loss, but lost the case. However, the Commission recommended that $20,000 in reparations be paid to those Japanese Americans who had suffered internment. The
Civil Liberties Act of 1988 The Civil Liberties Act of 1988 (, title I, August 10, 1988, , et seq.) is a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Co ...
exemplified the Japanese American redress movement that impacted the large debate about the reparation bill. There was question over whether the bill would pass during the 1980s due to the poor state of the federal budget and the low support of Japanese Americans covering 1% of the United States. However, four powerful Japanese-American Democrats and Republicans who had war experience, with the support of Democratic congressmen Barney Frank, sponsored the bill and pushed for its passage as their top priority. On August 10, 1988, U.S. President
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the and of the . The president directs the of ...

Ronald Reagan
signed the Civil Liberties Act of 1988, which had been sponsored by several representatives including Barney Frank, Norman Mineta, and Bob Matsui in the House and by Spark Matsunaga who got 75 co-sponsors in the Senate, provided financial redress of $20,000 for each former internee who was still alive when the act was passed, totaling $1.2 billion. The question of to whom reparations should be given, how much, and even whether monetary reparations were appropriate were subjects of sometimes contentious debate within the Japanese American community and Congress. On September 27, 1992, the Civil Liberties Act Amendments of 1992, appropriating an additional $400 million to ensure all remaining internees received their $20,000 redress payments, was signed into law by President George H. W. Bush. He issued another formal apology from the U.S. government on December 7, 1991, on the 50th anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack, saying:
In remembering, it is important to come to grips with the past. No nation can fully understand itself or find its place in the world if it does not look with clear eyes at all the glories and disgraces of its past. We in the United States acknowledge such an injustice in our history. The internment of Americans of Japanese ancestry was a great injustice, and it will never be repeated.
Over 81,800 people qualified by 1998 and $1.6 billion was distributed among them. Under the 2001 budget of the United States, Congress authorized that the ten detention sites are to be preserved as historical landmarks: "places like Manzanar, Tule Lake, Heart Mountain, Topaz, Amache, Jerome, and Rohwer will forever stand as reminders that this nation failed in its most sacred duty to protect its citizens against prejudice, greed, and political expediency". President Bill Clinton awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States, to Korematsu in 1998, saying, "In the long history of our country's constant search for justice, some names of ordinary citizens stand for millions of souls: Homer Plessy, Plessy, Oliver Brown (plaintiff), Brown, Rosa Parks, Parks ... to that distinguished list, today we add the name of Fred Korematsu." That year, Korematsu served as the Grand marshal, Grand Marshal of San Francisco's annual Cherry Blossom Festival parade. On January 30, 2011, California first observed an annual "Fred Korematsu Day, Fred Korematsu Day of Civil Liberties and the Constitution", the first such ceremony ever to be held in commemoration of an Asian American in the United States. On June 14, 2011, Peruvian President Alan García apologized for his country's internment of Japanese immigrants during World War II, most of whom were transferred to the U.S.


Terminology debate


The misuse of the term "internment"

The legal term "internment" has been used in regards to the mass incarceration of Japanese Americans. This term, however, derives from international conventions regarding the treatment of enemy nationals during wartime and specifically limits internment to those (noncitizen) enemy nationals who threaten the security of the detaining power. The internment of selected enemy alien belligerents, as opposed to mass incarceration, is legal both under US and international law. UCLA Asian American studies professor Lane Hirabayashi has pointed out that the history of the term internment, to mean the arrest and holding of non-citizens, could only be correctly applied to Issei, Japanese people who were not legal citizens. These people were a minority during Japanese incarceration and thus Roger Daniels, emeritus professor of history at the University of Cincinnati, has concluded that this terminology is wrongfully used by any government that wishes to include groups other than the Issei.


Which term to use

During World War II, the camps were referred to both as relocation centers and concentration camps by government officials and in the press. Roosevelt himself referred to the camps as concentration camps on different occasions, including at a press conference held on October 20, 1942. In 1943, his attorney general Francis Biddle lamented that "The present practice of keeping loyal American citizens in concentration camps for longer than is necessary is dangerous and repugnant to the principles of our government." Following World War II, other government officials made statements suggesting that the use of the term "relocation center" had been largely euphemistic. In 1946, former Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, Harold Ickes wrote "We gave the fancy name of 'relocation centers' to these dust bowls, but they were concentration camps nonetheless." In a 1961 interview, Harry S. Truman stated "They were concentration camps. They called it relocation but they put them in concentration camps, and I was against it. We were in a period of emergency, but it was still the wrong thing to do." In subsequent decades, debate has arisen over the terminology used to refer to camps in which Japanese Americans, Americans of Japanese ancestry and their immigrant parents, were incarcerated by the US government during the war. These camps have been referred to as "war relocation centers", "relocation camps", "relocation centers", "internment camps", and "concentration camps", and the controversy over which term is the most accurate and appropriate continues.


Towards a consensus

In 1998, the use of the term "concentration camps" gained greater credibility prior to the opening of an exhibit about the American camps at Ellis Island. Initially, the American Jewish Committee (AJC) and the National Park Service, which manages Ellis Island, objected to the use of the term in the exhibit. However, during a subsequent meeting held at the offices of the AJC in New York City, leaders representing Japanese Americans and Jewish Americans reached an understanding about the use of the term. After the meeting, the Japanese American National Museum and the AJC issued a joint statement (which was included in the exhibit) that read in part:''The New York Times'' published an unsigned editorial supporting the use of "concentration camp" in the exhibit. An article quoted Jonathan Mark, a columnist for ''The Jewish Week'', who wrote, "Can no one else speak of slavery, gas, trains, camps? It's Jewish malpractice to monopolize pain and minimize victims." AJC Executive Director David A. Harris stated during the controversy, "We have not claimed Jewish exclusivity for the term 'concentration camps.'", while also stating "Since the Second World War, these terms have taken on a specificity and a new level of meaning that deserves protection. A certain care needs to be exercised." Deborah Schiffrin has written that at the opening of the exhibition, entitled 'America's Concentration Camps: Remembering the Japanese-American experience', 'some Jewish groups' had been offended at the use of the term as after the horrors of the Holocaust some survivors feel an ownership over the semantics. However, Schiffrin also notes that a compromise was reached when an appropriate footnote was added to the exhibit brochure.


On the rejection of euphemisms

On July 7, 2012, at its annual convention, the National Council of the
Japanese American Citizens League The is an Asian American civil rights charity, headquartered in San Francisco, with regional chapters across the United States. The Japanese American Citizens League (JACL) describes itself as the oldest and largest Asian American civil rights ...
unanimously ratified the ''Power of Words Handbook,'' calling for the use of "...truthful and accurate terms, and retiring the misleading euphemisms created by the government to cover up the denial of Constitutional and human rights, the force, oppressive conditions, and racism against 120,000 innocent people of Japanese ancestry locked up in America's World War II concentration camps."


Comparisons

The internment of Japanese Americans has been compared to Internment of Japanese Canadians, Canada's internment of Japanese-Canadians, the Deportation of the Volga Germans, internal deportation of ethnically Volga German Soviet citizens from the western USSR to Soviet Central Asia, and the persecutions, Deportation, expulsions, and dislocations of other ethnic minority groups which occurred during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, both in European theatre of World War II, Europe and Pacific War, Asia.Maxim Shrayer (2007). "
Waiting for America: a story of emigration
'". Syracuse University Press. p. 30.
Michael Rywkin (1994). "
Moscow's lost empire
'". M.E. Sharpe. p. 66. .
Mohit Kumar Ray, Rama Kundu, Pradip Kumar Dey (2005). "
Widening horizons: essays in honour of Professor Mohit K. Ray
'". Sarup & Sons. p. 150.
Michael Mann (2005). "
The dark side of democracy: explaining ethnic cleansing
'". Cambridge University Press. p. 328.


Notable individuals who were interned

*George Takei, American actor famed for his role in the cult classic ''Star Trek: The Original Series, Star Trek'', was interned at a camp between the ages of 5 and 8. He reflected these experiences in the 2019 series ''The Terror (TV series), The Terror: Infamy''. Takei has also recounted his time in an internment camp in a graphic novel titled ''They Called Us Enemy''.


Legacy


Cultural legacy


Exhibitions and collections

* The Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History has more than 800 artifacts from its "A More Perfect Union" collection available online. Archival photography, publications, original manuscripts, artworks, and handmade objects comprise the collection of items related to the Japanese American experience. * On October 1, 1987, the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History opened an exhibition called, "A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution". The exhibition examined the Constitutional process by considering the experiences of Americans of Japanese ancestry before, during, and after World War II. On view were more than 1,000 artifacts and photographs relating to the experiences of Japanese Americans during World War II. The exhibition closed on January 11, 2004. On November 8, 2011, the National Museum of American History launched an online exhibition of the same name with shared content. * Following recognition of the injustices done to Japanese Americans, in 1992 Manzanar Japanese internment camp, Manzanar camp was designated a National Historic Sites (United States), National Historic Site to "provide for the protection and interpretation of historic, cultural, and natural resources associated with the relocation of Japanese Americans during World War II" (Public Law 102-248). In 2001, the site of the Minidoka War Relocation Center in Idaho was designated the Minidoka National Historic Site. * Poston Elementary School, Unit 1, Colorado River Relocation Center, The elementary school at Poston Camp Unit 1, the only surviving school complex at one of the camps and the only major surviving element of the Poston camp, was designated a National Historic Landmark District in 2012. * On April 16, 2013, the Japanese American Internment Museum was opened in McGehee, Arkansas regarding the history of two internment camps. * In January 2015, the Topaz War Relocation Center#Remembrance, Topaz Museum opened in Delta, Utah. Its stated mission is "to preserve the Topaz site and the history of the internment experience during World War II; to interpret its impact on the internees, their families, and the citizens of Millard County; and to educate the public in order to prevent a recurrence of a similar denial of American civil rights". * On June 29, 2017, in Chicago, Illinois, the Alphawood Gallery, in partnership with the Japanese American Service Committee, opened "Then They Came for Me", the largest exhibition on Japanese American incarceration and postwar resettlement ever to open in the Midwest. This exhibit was scheduled to run until November 19, 2017.


=Sculpture

= Nina Akamu, a
Sansei is a Japanese language, Japanese and North American English term used in parts of the world such as South America and North America to specify the children of children born to ethnic Japanese in a new country of residence. The ''nisei'' are consid ...
, created the sculpture entitled ''Golden Cranes'' of two red-crowned cranes, which became the center feature of the Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism During World War II. The U.S. Department of Defense described the November 9, 2000, dedication of the Memorial: "Drizzling rain was mixed with tears streaming down the faces of Japanese American World War II heroes and those who spent the war years imprisoned in isolated internment camps." Akamu's family's connection to the internment camps based on the experience of her maternal grandfather, who was interned and later died in an internment camp in Hawaii—combined with the fact that she grew up in Hawaii for a time, where she fished with her father at Pearl Harbor—and the erection of a Japanese American war memorial near her home in Massa, Tuscany, Massa, Italy, inspired a strong connection to the Memorial and its creation. United States Attorney General Janet Reno also spoke at the dedication of the Memorial, where she shared a letter from Bill Clinton, President Clinton stating: "We are diminished when any American is targeted unfairly because of his or her heritage. This Memorial and the internment sites are powerful reminders that stereotyping, discrimination, hatred and racism have no place in this country." According to the National Japanese American Memorial Foundation, the memorial:
...is symbolic not only of the Japanese American experience, but of the extrication of anyone from deeply painful and restrictive circumstances. It reminds us of the battles we've fought to overcome our ignorance and prejudice and the meaning of an integrated culture, once pained and torn, now healed and unified. Finally, the monument presents the Japanese American experience as a symbol for all peoples.


Films

Dozens of movies were filmed about and in the internment camps; these relate the experiences of interns or were made by former camp interns. Examples follow. * The film ''Bad Day at Black Rock'' (1955) is about the wartime bias against Japanese Americans. * In ''The Karate Kid'' (1984), Ralph Macchio's character, Daniel LaRusso, Daniel, discovers a box containing references to the deaths of Mr. Miyagi's wife and child in the Manzanar camp, and to Mr. Miyagi (Pat Morita's character) being awarded the Medal of Honor while serving with the 442nd Infantry Regiment. * The movie ''Come See The Paradise'' (1990), written and directed by Alan Parker, tells the story of a European American man who elopes with a Japanese American woman and their subsequent internment following the outbreak of war. * The documentary ''Days of Waiting: The Life & Art of Estelle Ishigo, Days of Waiting'' (1990), by Steven Okazaki, is about a Caucasian artist who went voluntarily to an internment camp, Estelle Ishigo. Inspired by Ishigo's book ''Lone Heart Mountain'', it won an Academy Award for Best Documentary (Short Subject), Academy Award for Best Documentary and a Peabody Award. * The film
Looking for Jiro
' (2011), by visual studies scholar and performance artist Tina Takemoto, explores queerness and homosexual desire in internment camps, focusing on Jiro Onuma, a gay bachelor from San Francisco interned at the Topaz War Relocation Center. The collection of Onuma's photographs and personal belongings is held by GLBT Historical Society, the GLBT Historical Society in San Francisco. * Greg Chaney's documentary film ''The Empty Chair'' (2014) recounts the forced removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans from Juneau, Alaska and how the community stood in quiet defiance against such policies. * The documentary ''The Legacy of Heart Mountain'' (2014) explores the experience of life at the Heart Mountain internment camp in Cody, Wyoming. * The documentary film ''To Be Takei'' (2014) chronicles the early life of actor George Takei, who spent several years in an internment camp. * The feature film ''Under the Blood Red Sun#Film adaptation, Under the Blood Red Sun'' (2014), by Japanese-American director Tim Savage and based on Graham Salisbury's Under the Blood Red Sun, novel of the same name, examines the life of a 13-year-old Japanese-American boy living in Hawaii whose father is interned after the Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor. * Vivienne Schiffer's documentary film ''Relocation, Arkansas'' (2015) explores the aftermath of incarceration in the Rohwer and Jerome internment camps in Arkansas.


Literature

Many books and novels were written by and about Japanese Americans' experience during and after their residence in concentration camps among them can be mentioned the followed: * Isabel Allende's novel ''The Japanese Lover'' (2017) presents the lifelong love affair between two immigrants, one of whom is Japanese American and who is sent along with his whole family to an internment camp. * Jamie Ford's novel ''Hotel on the Corner of Bitter and Sweet'' (2009) tells of a Chinese man's search for an Oscar Holden jazz record bought in his childhood with a Japanese friend in Seattle and left behind during World War II, when she and her family were sent to a Japanese American internment camp. * David Guterson's novel ''Snow Falling on Cedars'' (1994) and its Snow Falling on Cedars (film), 1999 film adaptation refer to the internment of the Imada family in Manzanar. * Cynthia Kadohata's historical novel ''Weedflower'' (2006) is told from the perspective of the twelve-year-old Japanese-American protagonist, and received many awards and recognition. * Florence Crannell Means' novel ''The Moved-Outers'' (1945) centers on a high school senior and her family's treatment during the internment of Japanese Americans. It was a Newbery Medal, Newbery Honor recipient in 1946. * John Okada's novel ''No-No Boy'' (1956) features a protagonist from Seattle, who was interned with his family and imprisoned for answering "no" to the last two questions on the loyalty questionnaire. It explores the postwar environment in the Pacific Northwest. * Julie Otsuka's novel ''The Buddha in the Attic'' (2011), winner of the PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction, tells the story of Japanese female immigrants in California, and ends on the story of the internment camps and the reaction of neighbors left behind. * Julie Otsuka's novel ''When the Emperor was Divine'' (2002) tells the story of an unnamed Japanese-American family incarcerated at the Topaz War Relocation Center in Utah. The novel is based on Otsuka's own family's experiences. * Kermit Roosevelt III's historical nove
''Allegiance''
(2015) takes readers inside the US government and Supreme Court to examine the legal and moral debates and the little-known facts surrounding the detention of Japanese Americans. A Harper Lee Prize finalist, the novel is based on a true story. * Vivienne Schiffer's novel ''Camp Nine'' (2013) is set in and near the Rohwer Japanese American internment camp in Arkansas. * Toyoko Yamasaki wrote about the conflicting allegiances of Japanese Americans during the war in ''Futatsu no Sokoku'' (1983). University of Hawai'i Press published an English language translation by V. Dixon Morris under the title ''Two Homelands'' in 2007. It was dramatized into a limited series of the same name by TV Tokyo in 2019. * George Takei published a graphic novel titled ''They Called Us Enemy'' (2019) about his time in internment camps, the plight of Japanese-Americans during the war, and the social & legal ramifications following the closure of the camps. It was co-written b
Justin Eisinger
an
Steven Scott
and illustrated b
Harmony Becker
The book was awarded th
Asian/Pacific American Librarians Association (APLA)-Literature
Eisner Award, and American Book Awards, American Book Award in 2020.


Music

* Fort Minor's "Kenji (song), Kenji" (2005) tells the story of Mike Shinoda's grandfather and his experience in the camps. * Jake Shimabukuro's solo album ''Peace Love Ukulele'' (2011) includes the song "Go For Broke" inspired by the World War II all-Japanese American 442nd US Army unit. * Kishi Bashi's 2019 album ''Omoiyari'' uses the internment program as its central theme. * Mia Doi Todd's 2020 song ''Take What You Can Carry (Scientist Dub One)'' is about the camp's impact on her mother and grandmother. It was released on February 20, 2020 when California lawmakers passed a resolution to formally apologize to Japanese-Americans for the Legislature's role in their incarceration.


Spoken word

* George Carlin, during his monologues on individual rights and criticism towards the American government, spoke about the relocation of Japanese American citizens to the designated camps.


Television

* ''Hawaii Five-0 (2010 TV series), Hawaii Five-0'' Hawaii Five-0 (2010 TV series, season 4)#ep81, Episode 81, "Honor Thy Father" (December 2013), is dedicated to solving a cold case murder at the Honouliuli Internment Camp, some 70 years earlier. * Much of ''The Terror: Infamy'' (2019) takes place at a fictional WRA camp in
Oregon Oregon () is a U.S. state, state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington (state), Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of it ...

Oregon
. * Toyoko Yamasaki's Japanese language novel, ''Futatsu no Sokoku'', addressesing the conflicting allegiances of Japanese Americans in the camps, was dramatized into a limited series of the same name by TV Tokyo in 2019.


Theater

* The musical ''Allegiance (musical), Allegiance'' (2013), which premiered in San Diego, California, was inspired by the camp experiences of its star, George Takei.


Legal legacy

Several significant legal decisions arose out of Japanese-American internment, relating to the powers of the government to detain citizens in wartime. Among the cases which reached the US Supreme Court were ''Ozawa v. United States'' (1922), ''Yasui v. United States'' (1943), ''Hirabayashi v. United States'' (1943), ''ex parte Endo'' (1944), and ''
Korematsu v. United States ''Korematsu v. United States'', 323 U.S. 214 (1944), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case upholding the exclusion of Japanese Americans from the West Coast Military Area during World War II World War II or the Second World ...
'' (1944). In ''Ozawa,'' the court established that peoples defined as 'white' were specifically of Caucasian descent; In ''Yasui'' and ''Hirabayashi,'' the court upheld the constitutionality of curfews based on Japanese ancestry; in ''Korematsu,'' the court upheld the constitutionality of the exclusion order. In ''Endo'', the court accepted a petition for a writ of habeas corpus and ruled that the WRA had no authority to subject a loyal citizen to its procedures. Korematsu's and Hirabayashi's convictions were vacated in a series of ''coram nobis'' cases in the early 1980s. In the ''coram nobis'' cases, federal district and appellate courts ruled that newly uncovered evidence revealed an unfairness which, had it been known at the time, would likely have changed the Supreme Court's decisions in the Yasui, Hirabayashi, and Korematsu cases. These new court decisions rested on a series of documents recovered from the National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives showing that the government had altered, suppressed, and withheld important and relevant information from the Supreme Court, including the Final Report by General DeWitt justifying the internment program. The Army had destroyed documents in an effort to hide alterations that had been made to the report to reduce their racist content. The ''coram nobis'' cases vacated the convictions of Korematsu and Hirabayashi (Yasui died before his case was heard, rendering it moot), and are regarded as part of the impetus to gain passage of the
Civil Liberties Act of 1988 The Civil Liberties Act of 1988 (, title I, August 10, 1988, , et seq.) is a United States federal law The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Co ...
. The rulings of the US Supreme Court in the Korematsu and Hirabayashi cases were criticized in Dictum in the 2018 majority opinion of ''Trump v. Hawaii'' upholding a ban on immigration of nationals from several Muslim majority countries but not overruled as it fell outside the case-law applicable to the lawsuit. Regarding the Korematsu case, John Roberts, Chief Justice Roberts wrote: "The forcible relocation of U.S. citizens to concentration camps, solely and explicitly on the basis of race, is objectively unlawful and outside the scope of Presidential authority."''Trump v. Hawaii''
585 U.S. ___
(2018)
Former Supreme Court Justice Tom C. Clark, who represented the US Department of Justice in the "relocation", writes in the epilogue to the book ''Executive Order 9066: The Internment of 110,000 Japanese Americans'' (1992):


References


Further reading

* * Drinnon, Richard. ''Keeper of Concentration Camps: Dillon S. Meyer and American Racism.'' Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989. * * * * * * * * * *


External links

{{NARA Internment of Japanese Americans, Anti-Japanese sentiment in the United States Internments in the United States, Japanese Americans Japanese-American history Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt Human rights abuses in the United States United States home front during World War II Civil detention in the United States World War II sites in the United States Articles containing video clips Persecution of Buddhists Collective punishment Political repression in the United States