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Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, online radio) is a
digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital audio, the sound wave of the audio signal is typically encoded as numerical Sampling (signal processing), sa ...
service transmitted via the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
. Broadcasting on the Internet is usually referred to as
webcasting A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media Streaming media is multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, or ...
since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means. It can either be used as a stand-alone device running through the internet, or as a software running through a single computer. Internet radio is generally used to communicate and easily spread messages through the form of talk. It is distributed through a wireless communication network connected to a switch packet network (the internet) via a disclosed source. Internet radio involves
streaming media Streaming media is multimedia that is delivered and consumed in a continuous manner from a source, with little or no intermediate storage in network elements. ''Streaming'' refers to the delivery method of content, rather than the content its ...
, presenting listeners with a continuous stream of audio that typically cannot be paused or replayed, much like traditional broadcast media; in this respect, it is distinct from on-demand file serving. Internet radio is also distinct from
podcast A podcast is an episodic series of digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital audio, the sound wave of the audio signal is typical ...

podcast
ing, which involves
downloading In computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital signal, digital interconnections for the purpose of sharing resources located on or provided by the Node (networki ...
rather than streaming. Internet radio services offer news, sports, talk, and various genres of music—every format that is available on traditional
broadcast radio , Sweden , Norway Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio signal, audio (sound), sometimes with related metadata Metadata is " data" that provides information about other data". In other words, it is "data about data". Many distinct type ...
stations. Many Internet radio services are associated with a corresponding traditional (terrestrial) radio station or
radio network There are two types of radio network currently in use around the world: the one-to-many (simplex communication) broadcast network commonly used for public information and mass media, mass-media entertainment, and the two-way radio (Duplex (telecommu ...

radio network
, although low start-up and ongoing costs have allowed a substantial proliferation of independent Internet-only radio stations. The first Internet radio service was launched in 1993. As of 2017, the most popular internet radio platforms and applications in the world include (but are not limited to)
TuneIn Radio TuneIn is an American audio streaming service delivering live news, radio, sports, music, and podcasts to over 60 million monthly active users. As of 2019, TuneIn has more than 75 million monthly active users. TuneIn is operated by the company Tun ...
,
iHeartRadio iHeartRadio is an American free broadcast, podcast and streaming radio platform Platform may refer to: Technology * Computing platform, a framework on which applications may be run * Platform game, a genre of video games * Car platform, a ...
, and
Sirius XM Sirius XM Holdings Inc. is an American broadcasting Broadcasting is the distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics) Distributions, also known as Schwartz distributions or generalized functions, a ...
. In the U.S., unlike over-the-air broadcast radio, a FCC license is not required to operate an Internet radio service.


Internet radio technology

Internet radio services are usually accessible from anywhere in the world with a suitable internet connection available; one could, for example, listen to an Australian station from Europe and America. This has made internet radio particularly suited to and popular among
expatriate An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term often refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, eit ...
listeners. Nevertheless, some major networks like
TuneIn Radio TuneIn is an American audio streaming service delivering live news, radio, sports, music, and podcasts to over 60 million monthly active users. As of 2019, TuneIn has more than 75 million monthly active users. TuneIn is operated by the company Tun ...
,
Entercom Audacy, Inc. is a publicly traded American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as t ...
,
Pandora Radio Pandora is a subscription-based music streaming service The following is a list of on-demand music streaming services. The services offer streaming of full-length content via the Internet as a part of their service, without the listener necessaril ...
,
iHeartRadio iHeartRadio is an American free broadcast, podcast and streaming radio platform Platform may refer to: Technology * Computing platform, a framework on which applications may be run * Platform game, a genre of video games * Car platform, a ...
and
Citadel Broadcasting Citadel Broadcasting Corporation was a Las Vegas Las Vegas (; Spanish language, Spanish for "The Meadows"), officially the City of Las Vegas and often known simply as Vegas, is the List of United States cities by population, 28th-most pop ...
(except for news/talk and sports stations) in the United States, and
Chrysalis '' A pupa ( la, pupa, "doll"; plural: ''pupae'') is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation between immature and mature stages. Insects that go through a pupal stage are Holometabolism, holometabolous: they go through four distin ...
in the United Kingdom, restrict listening to in-country due to music licensing and advertising issues. Internet radio is also suited to listeners with special interests, allowing users to pick from a multitude of different stations and genres less commonly represented on traditional radio.


Listening

Internet radio is typically listened to on a standard home PC or similar device, through an embedded player program located on the respective station's website. In recent years, dedicated devices that resemble and offer the listener a similar experience to a traditional
radio receiver radio in the 1940s. During the golden age of radio, 1925–1955, families gathered to listen to the home radio receiver in the evening In radio, radio communications, a radio receiver, also known as a receiver, a wireless, or simply a radio, is ...

radio receiver
have arrived on the market.


Streaming

Streaming Streaming media is multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, or video into a single presentation, in contrast to traditional mass media, such as printed ...
technology is used to distribute Internet radio, typically using a
lossy In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data encoding methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content. These techniques are used to reduce data size f ...
audio codecAn audio codec is a device or computer program capable of encoding or decoding a digital data stream (a codec A codec is a device or computer program which encodes or Decoding methods, decodes a data stream or signal. ''Codec'' is a portmanteau of ...
. Streaming audio formats include
MP3 MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is a coding format for digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal processing), digital form. In digital a ...

MP3
,
Ogg Vorbis Vorbis is a free and open-source software Free and open-source software (FOSS) is software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in co ...
, Ogg Opus,
Windows Media Audio Windows Media Audio (WMA) is a series of audio codecAn audio codec is a device or computer program capable of encoding or decoding a digital data stream (a codec A codec is a device or computer program A computer program is a collection of ins ...
,
RealAudio RealAudio is a proprietary audio format developed by RealNetworks RealNetworks, Inc. is a provider of Internet streaming media delivery software and services based in Seattle, Washington (state), Washington, United States. The company also prov ...
,
AAC AAC may refer to: Aviation * Advanced Aircraft Advanced Aircraft Corporation is an aircraft manufacturer based in Carlsbad, California. History AAC bought out Riley Aircraft in 1983 in aviation, 1983. Products The firm has specialised in conve ...
and
HE-AAC High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding (HE-AAC) is an audio coding format An audio coding format (or sometimes audio compression format) is a content representation format for storage or transmission of digital audio Digital audio is a ...
(or
aacPlus File:AAC profiles.svg, 250px, Evolution from MPEG-2 AAC-LC (Low Complexity) Profile and MPEG-4 AAC-LC MPEG-4 Part 3#MPEG-4 Audio Object Types, Object Type to AAC-HE v2 Profile. High-Efficiency Advanced Audio Coding (AAC-HE) is an audio coding f ...
). Audio data is continuously transmitted serially (streamed) over the local network or internet in TCP or
UDP UDP may refer to: Political parties * Ulster Democratic Party, in Northern Ireland * ''União Democrática Popular'' (People's Democratic Union (Portugal)) * ''Unidad Democrática y Popular'' (Democratic and Popular Union), a former Bolivian umbr ...
packets, then reassembled at the receiver and played a second or two later. The delay is called
lag In online gaming, lag is a noticeable delay ( latency) between the action of players (input) and the reaction of the server supporting the game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 & ...
, and is introduced at several stages of digital audio broadcasting.


Simulation

A local tuner simulation program includes all the online radios that can also be heard in the air in the city.


Popularity

In 2003, revenue from online streaming music radio was US$49 million. By 2006, that figure rose to US$500 million. A February 21, 2007 "survey of 3,000 Americans released by consultancy Bridge Ratings & Research" found that " much as 19% of U.S. consumers 12 and older listen to Web-based radio stations." In other words, there were "some 57 million weekly listeners of Internet radio programs. More people listen to online radio than to satellite radio, high-definition radio, podcasts, or cell-phone-based radio combined." An April 2008 Arbitron survey showed that, in the US, more than one in seven persons aged 25–54 years old listen to online radio each week. In 2008, 13 percent of the American population listened to the radio online, compared to 11 percent in 2007. Internet radio functionality is also built into many dedicated
Internet radio device An Internet radio device, also called network music player is a hardware device that is capable of receiving and playing streamed media from either Internet radio Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, o ...
s, which give an FM like receiver user experience. In the fourth quarter (Q4) of 2012, Pandora, TuneIn Radio, iHeart Radio, and other subscription-based and free Internet radio services accounted for nearly one quarter (23 percent) of the average weekly music listening time among consumers between the ages of 13 and 35, an increase from a share of 17 percent the previous year.Streaming Music is Gaining on Traditional Radio Among Younger Music Listeners
by The
NPD Group The NPD Group, Inc. (NPD; formerly National Purchase Diary Panel Inc. and NPD Research Inc.) is an American market research Market research is an organized effort to gather information about target markets and customers: know about them, startin ...
As Internet-radio listening rose among the 13-to-35 age group, listening to AM/FM radio, which now accounts for 24 percent of music-listening time, declined 2 percentage points. In the 36-and-older age group, by contrast, Internet radio accounted for just 13 percent of music listening, while AM/FM radio dominated listening methods with a 41 percent share. As of 2017, 47% of all Americans ages 12 and older—an estimated 124 million people—said they have listened to online radio in the last month, while 36% (94 million people) have listened in the last week. These figures are up from 45% and 33%, respectively, in 2013. The average amount of time spent listening increased from 11 hours, 56 minutes per week in 2013 to 13 hours 19 minutes in 2014. As might be expected, usage numbers are much higher for teens and younger adults, with 75% of Americans ages 12–24 listening to online radio in the last month, compared to 50% of Americans ages 25–54 and 21% of Americans 55+. The weekly figures for the same age groups were 64%, 37% and 13%, respectively. In 2015, it was recorded that 53% of Americans, or 143 million people, ages 12 and up currently listen to internet radio.


Broadcasting freedoms

Some stations, such as Primordial Radio, use Internet radio as a platform as opposed to other means such as FM or
DAB DAB, dab, dabs, or dabbing may refer to: Brands and enterprises * Da Afghanistan Bank, the central bank of Afghanistan * Dabs.com, a defunct British e-commerce retailer * Danish Automobile Building, a former Danish bus manufacturer * Deutsch-A ...

DAB
, as it gives greater freedom to broadcast as they see fit, without being subject to regulatory bodies such as
Ofcom The Office of Communications ( cy, Y Swyddfa Gyfathrebiadau), commonly known as Ofcom, is the government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of inform ...
in the UK. For example, Ofcom has very strict rules about presenters endorsing products and product placement; being an Internet radio station they are free of this constraint.


History

Internet radio was pioneered by
Carl Malamud Carl Malamud (born 2 July 1959) is an Americans, American technologist, author, and public domain advocate, known for his foundation Public.Resource.Org. He founded the Internet Multicasting Service. During his time with this group, he was responsi ...

Carl Malamud
. In 1993, Malamud launched " Internet Talk Radio", which was the "first computer-radio talk show, each week interviewing a computer expert". The first Internet concert was broadcast on June 24, 1993, by the band Severe Tire Damage. In March 1994, an unofficial automated rebroadcast of Irish radio news was setup as the RTE To Everywhere Project, allowing Irish people across the World daily access to radio news from home until it was rendered obsolete in 1998. In November 1994, a Rolling Stones concert was the "first major cyberspace multicast concert." Mick Jagger opened the concert by saying, "I want to say a special welcome to everyone that's, uh, climbed into the Internet tonight and, uh, has got into the . And I hope it doesn't all collapse." On November 7, 1994,
WXYC WXYC (89.3 FM) is an American radio station , Sweden , Norway Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio signal, audio (sound), sometimes with related metadata, by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. In terrestrial radio broadcas ...
(89.3
Chapel Hill, North Carolina Chapel Hill is a town in Orange County, North Carolina, Orange, Durham County, North Carolina, Durham and Chatham County, North Carolina, Chatham counties in the U.S. state of North Carolina. Its population was 57,233 in the 2010 United States Ce ...
, USA) became the first traditional radio station to announce broadcasting on the Internet. WXYC used an FM radio connected to a system at SunSite, later known as
Ibiblio ibiblio (formerly SunSITE.unc.edu and MetaLab.unc.edu) is a "collection of collections", and hosts a diverse range of publicly available information and Open-source model, open source content, including software, music, literature, art, history, ...
, running Cornell's
CU-SeeMe CU-SeeMe (also written as CUseeMe or CUSeeMe depending on the source) is an Internet videoconferencing client. CU-SeeMe can make point to point video calls without a server or make multi-point calls through server software first called a "reflec ...
software. WXYC had begun test broadcasts and bandwidth testing as early as August 1994.
WREK WREK ("Wreck", from the Ramblin' Wreck The Ramblin' Wreck from Georgia Tech is the 1930 Ford Motor Company, Ford Ford Model A (1927), Model A Sport coupe that serves as the official mascot of the student body at the Georgia Institute of Te ...
(91.1 FM,
Atlanta Atlanta () is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. With an estimated 2019 population of 506,811, it is also the List of United ...

Atlanta
, GA USA) started streaming on the same day using their own custom software called CyberRadio1. However, unlike WXYC, this was WREK's beta launch and the stream was not advertised until a later date. On December 3, 1994, KJHK 90.7 FM, a campus radio station located in
Lawrence, Kansas Lawrence is the county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a ...
, at the
University of Kansas The University of Kansas (KU) is a with its main campus in , United States, and several satellite campuses, research and educational centers, medical centers, and classes across the state of Kansas. Two branch campuses are in the on the Kans ...
, became one of the first radio stations in the world to broadcast a live and continuous stream over Internet radio. ''Time'' magazine said that RealAudio took "advantage of the latest advances in digital compression" and delivered "AM radio-quality sound in so-called real time." Eventually, companies such as Nullsoft and Microsoft released streaming audio players as free downloads. As the software audio players became available, "many Web-based radio stations began springing up." In 1995, Scott Bourne founded NetRadio.com as the world's first Internet-only radio network. NetRadio.com was a pioneer in Internet radio. It was the first Internet-only network to be licensed by ASCAP. NetRadio eventually went on to an IPO in October 1999. Most of the current Internet radio providers followed the path that NetRadio.com carved out in digital media. In March 1996, Virgin Radio – London became the first European radio station to broadcast its full program live on the Internet. It broadcast its FM signal, live from the source, simultaneously on the Internet 24 hours a day. On May 1, 1997, Radio306.com (now Pure Rock Radio) launched in Saskatoon, Canada. The internet-only station purerockradio.net celebrated 20 years on air in 2017 as the longest-running Canadian internet station. Internet radio also provided new opportunities to mix music with advocacy messages. In February 1999, Zero24-7 Web Radio was launched. It was the first internet radio station to be crowdsourced and programmed by professional broadcasters and crowdfunded by a unique partnership of people, charities and businesses. Out of Washington DC, the station mixed progressive music and green messages. It was created by BBC and WHFS veteran . Internet radio attracted significant media and investor attention in the late 1990s. In 1998, the initial public stock offering for Broadcast.com set a record at the time for the largest jump in price in stock offerings in the United States. The offering price was US$18 and the company's shares opened at US$68 on the first day of trading. The company was losing money at the time and indicated in a prospectus filed with the Securities Exchange Commission that they expected the losses to continue indefinitely. Yahoo! purchased Broadcast.com on July 20, 1999, for US$5.7 billion. With the advent of streaming RealAudio over HTTP, streaming became more accessible to a number of radio shows. One such show, '' TechEdge Radio'' in 1997, was broadcast in three formats – live on the radio, live from a RealAudio server and streamed from the web over HTTP.In 1998, the longest running internet radio show, ''The Vinyl Lounge'', began netcasting from Sydney, Australia, from Australia's first Internet radio station, NetFM (www.netfm.net). In 1999, Australian telco "Telstra" launched The Basement Internet Radio Station but it was later shut down in 2003 as it was not a viable business for the company. From 2000 onwards, most Internet radio stations increased their stream quality as bandwidth became more economical. Today, most stations stream between 64 kbit/s and 128 kbit/s providing near CD quality audio. As of 2017 the
mobile app A mobile application, also referred to as a mobile app or simply an app, is a computer program In imperative programming In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses Statement (computer science), statements t ...
Radio Garden, a research project of the
Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...
, was streaming approximately 8,000 radio stations to a global audience.


US royalty controversy

In October 1998, the US Congress passed the
Digital Millennium Copyright Act The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a 1998 United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North Americ ...
(DMCA), one result of which is that performance royalties are to be paid for
satellite radio Satellite radio is defined by the International Telecommunication Union 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autono ...
and Internet radio broadcasts in addition to publishing royalties. In contrast, traditional radio broadcasters pay only publishing royalties and no performance royalties.Michael Roberts (May 2, 2002)
"Digital Dilemma: Will new royalty fees kill Web radio?"
Westword ''Westword'' is a free digital and print media publication based in Denver, Colorado. ''Westword'' publishes daily online coverage of local news, restaurants, music and arts, as well as longform narrative journalism. A weekly print issue circ ...
. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
A rancorous dispute ensued over how performance royalties should be assessed for Internet broadcasters.
Doc Searls David "Doc" Searls (born July 29, 1947), is an American journalist, columnist, and a widely read blog A blog (a truncation In mathematics and computer science, truncation is limiting the number of numerical digit, digits right of the deci ...

Doc Searls
, (July 17, 2002
"Why Are So Many Internet Radio Stations Still on the Air?"
''
Linux Journal ''Linux Journal'' (''LJ'') is a monthly technology magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally published ...
''. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
Some observers said that royalty rates that were being proposed were overly burdensome and intended to disadvantage independent Internet-only stations—that "while Internet giants like AOL may be able to afford the new rates, many smaller Internet radio stations will have to shut down."Gray, Hiawatha (March 14, 2007)
Royalty hike could mute Internet radio: Smaller stations say rise will be too much
''
The Boston Globe ''The Boston Globe'' is an American daily newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published, publications that ...

The Boston Globe
''.
The Digital Media Association (DiMA) said that even large companies, like Yahoo! Music, might fail due to the proposed rates.Olga Kharif
The Last Days of Internet Radio?
March 7, 2007. Retrieved on March 7, 2007.
Some observers said that some U.S.-based Internet broadcasts might be moved to foreign jurisdictions where US royalties do not apply.Michael Geist (April 9, 2007)
Web radio may stream north to Canada
''
The Toronto Star The ''Toronto Star'' is a Canadian English-language broadsheet daily newspaper. As of 2015, it was Canada's list of newspapers in Canada by circulation, highest-circulation newspaper in overall weekly circulation: although a close second to '' ...
''.
Many of these critics organized SaveNetRadio.org, "a coalition of listeners, artists, labels and webcasters" that opposed the proposed royalty rates. To focus attention on the consequences of the impending rate hike, many US Internet broadcasters participated in a "Day of Silence" on June 26, 2007. On that day, they shut off their audio streams or streamed ambient sound, sometimes interspersed with brief
public service announcement A public service announcement (PSA) is a message in the public interest disseminated by the media without charge to raise public awareness and change behavior. In the UK, they are generally called 'public information films' (PIFs); in Hong Kong ...
s voiced, written and produced by popular voiceover artist Dave Solomon. Notable participants included Rhapsody,
Live365 LIVE365 is an Internet radio Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, online radio) is a digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal ...
,
MTV MTV (originally an initialism of Music Television) is an American cable channel that launched on August 1, 1981. Based in New York City, it serves as the flagship property of the ViacomCBS Domestic Media Networks division of ViacomCBS. Prio ...

MTV
,
Pandora In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myth Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the tradition A tradition is a belief A bel ...
,
Digitally Imported DI.FM (also known as Digitally Imported) is an Internet radio Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, online radio) is a digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or conver ...
and SHOUTcast. Some broadcasters did not participate, such as Last.fm, which had just been purchased for US$280 million by CBS Music Group. According to a Last.fm employee, they were unable to participate because participation "may compromise ongoing license negotiations."
SoundExchange SoundExchange is a non-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in co ...
, representing supporters of the increase in royalty rates, pointed out that the rates were flat from 1998 through 2005 (see above), without being increased to reflect cost-of-living increases. They also declared that if Internet radio is to build businesses from the product of recordings, the performers and owners of those recordings should receive fair compensation. On May 1, 2007, SoundExchange came to an agreement with certain large webcasters regarding the minimum fees that were modified by the determination of the
Copyright Royalty BoardThe Copyright Royalty Board (CRB) is a United States, U.S. system of three copyright royalty judges who determine rates and terms for copyright statutory licenses and make determinations on distribution of statutory license royalties collected by the ...
. While the CRB decision imposed a $500 per station or channel minimum fee for all webcasters, certain webcasters represented through DiMA negotiated a $50,000 "cap" on those fees with SoundExchange. However, DiMA and SoundExchange continue to negotiate over the per song, per listener fees. SoundExchange has also offered alternative rates and terms to certain eligible small webcasters, that allow them to calculate their royalties as a percentage of their revenue or expenses, instead of at a per performance rate. To be eligible, a webcaster had to have revenues of less than US$1.25 million a year and stream less than 5 million "listener hours" a month (or an average of 6830 concurrent listeners). These restrictions would disqualify independent webcasters like
AccuRadio AccuRadio is an independent, multichannel Internet radio Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, online radio) is a digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted in ...
,
Digitally Imported DI.FM (also known as Digitally Imported) is an Internet radio Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, online radio) is a digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or conver ...
, Club977 and others from participating in the offer, and therefore many small commercial webcasters continue to negotiate a settlement with SoundExchange. An August 16, 2008 ''Washington Post'' article reported that although Pandora was "one of the nation's most popular Web radio services, with about 1 million listeners daily...the burgeoning company may be on the verge of collapse" due to the structuring of performance royalty payment for webcasters. "Traditional radio, by contrast, pays no such fee. Satellite radio pays a fee but at a less onerous rate, at least by some measures." The article indicated that "other Web radio outfits" may be "doomed" for the same reasons. On September 30, 2008, the
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, comprising a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, t ...

United States Congress
passed "a bill that would put into effect any changes to the royalty rate to which ecord labels and web castersagree while lawmakers are out of session."Miller, Cain Claire (Oct.27, 2008
Even If Royalties for Web Radio Fall, Revenue Remains Elusive
''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won List of Pulitzer Prizes awarded to The New York Times, 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of a ...

The New York Times
''.
Although royalty rates are expected to decrease, many webcasters nevertheless predict difficulties generating sufficient revenue to cover their royalty payments. In January 2009, the US Copyright Royalty Board announced that "it will apply royalties to streaming net services based on revenue." Since then, websites like
Pandora Radio Pandora is a subscription-based music streaming service The following is a list of on-demand music streaming services. The services offer streaming of full-length content via the Internet as a part of their service, without the listener necessaril ...
, AccuRadio, Mog, 8tracks and recently
Google Music Google Play Music is a discontinued Comparison of music streaming services, music and podcast streaming service and an Comparison of online music lockers, online music locker operated by Google as part of its Google Play line of services. The ser ...
have changed the way people discover and listen to music. The Webcaster Settlement Act of 2009 expired in January 2016, ending a 10-year period in which smaller online radio stations,
Live365 LIVE365 is an Internet radio Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, online radio) is a digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (signal ...
among them, could pay reduced royalties to labels. On January 31, 2016, webcasters who are governed by rules adopted by the Copyright Royalty Board were required to pay to SoundExchange an annual, nonrefundable minimum fee of $500 for each channel and station, the fee for services with greater than 100 stations or channels being $50,000 annually.


See also

*
Comparison of streaming media systems This is a comparison of streaming media Streaming media is multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, or video into a single presentation, in contrast t ...
*
Electronic commerce E-commerce (electronic commerce) is the activity of electronically The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons using electronic devices. Electronic ...
* Internet radio audience measurement *
TuneIn Radio TuneIn is an American audio streaming service delivering live news, radio, sports, music, and podcasts to over 60 million monthly active users. As of 2019, TuneIn has more than 75 million monthly active users. TuneIn is operated by the company Tun ...
*
Internet radio device An Internet radio device, also called network music player is a hardware device that is capable of receiving and playing streamed media from either Internet radio Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, o ...
* Internet radio licensing * Internet talk radio *
List of Internet radio stations This is a list of Internet radio Internet radio (also web radio, net radio, streaming radio, e-radio, IP radio, online radio) is a digital audio Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, Digital signal (s ...
*
List of streaming media systems This is a list of streaming media Streaming media is multimedia Multimedia is a form of communication that combines different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, or video into a single presentation, in contrast to trad ...
*
Mbone Mbone (short for "multicast 250px In computer networking, multicast is group communication where data transmission is addressed to a group of destination computers simultaneously. Multicast can be one-to-many or many-to-many distribution. Mul ...

Mbone
, experimental "multicast backbone" *
Radio music ripping The term ripping Ripping is extracting all or parts of digital contents from a container. Originally, it meant to rip music out of Amiga The Amiga is a family of personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer ...
*
Radio over IP Radio over Internet Protocol, or RoIP, is similar to Voice over IP Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), also called IP telephony, is a method and group of technologies for the delivery of speech, voice communications and multimedia sessions over I ...
*
Simulcast Simulcast (a portmanteau A portmanteau (, ) or portmanteau word (from "portmanteau (luggage) A portmanteau is a piece of luggage Baggage or luggage consists of bags, cases, and containers which hold a travel Travel is the movemen ...

OnlineDJRadio


References


Further reading



(2006) * * * * {{Authority control Media formats Streaming
Radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). They are generated by an electronic device ...