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The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an
international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Alimentarius in food, the World Health Organization Guidelines in health, or ITU Recommendations in ICT and being publicly funded, are ...
-setting body composed of representatives from various national
standards organization A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary function is developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpre ...
s. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial, and commercial
standards Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined relationship to a unit of m ...
. It is headquartered in
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge, Chêne-Bougeries, Cologny, Lancy, Grand-Saconnex, Pregny-Chambésy, Vernier, Veyrier , website = ville-geneve.ch Geneva ( ; french: Genève ; frp, Genèva ; german: link=no, Genf ; it, Ginevra ; rm, Genevra ...
, Switzerland, and works in 165 countries. It was one of the first organizations granted
general consultative status#REDIRECT Consultative status {{R from move ...
with the
United Nations Economic and Social Council The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; french: Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, ) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic and social fields of the organ ...

United Nations Economic and Social Council
.


Overview

The International Organization for Standardization is an independent, non-governmental organization, the members of which are the standards organizations of the 165 member countries. It is the world's largest developer of voluntary international standards and it facilitates world trade by providing common standards among nations. More than twenty thousand standards have been set, covering everything from manufactured products and technology to food safety, agriculture, and healthcare. Use of the standards aids in the creation of products and services that are safe, reliable, and of good quality. The standards help businesses increase productivity while minimizing errors and waste. By enabling products from different markets to be directly compared, they facilitate companies in entering new markets and assist in the development of global trade on a fair basis. The standards also serve to safeguard consumers and the end-users of products and services, ensuring that certified products conform to the minimum standards set internationally.


History

The organization began in the 1920s as the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA). It was suspended in 1942 during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing mi ...
, but after the war ISA was approached by the recently formed United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee (UNSCC) with a proposal to form a new global standards body. In October 1946, ISA and UNSCC delegates from 25 countries met in London and agreed to join forces to create the new International Organization for Standardization. The new organization officially began operations in February 1947.


Language use

The three official languages of the ISO are
English English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * ''English'', an adjective for something of, from, or related to England ** English national identity, an identity and ...

English
,
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France ** French language, a French language which originated in France, and its various dialects ** French people, a nation and ethnic group identified with Fr ...
, and
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...

Russian
.


Name and abbreviations

The name of the organization in French is ', and in Russian, ('). ''ISO'' is not an
acronym An acronym is a word or name formed from the initial components of a longer name or phrase, usually using individual initial letters, as in NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) or EU (European Union), but sometimes using syllables, as in B ...
. ISO gives this explanation of the name: "Because 'International Organization for Standardization' would have different acronyms in different languages (IOS in English, OIN in French), our founders decided to give it the short form ''ISO''. ''ISO'' is derived from the Greek word ' (, meaning "equal"). Whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of our name is always ''ISO''." During the founding meetings of the new organization, the Greek word explanation was not invoked, so this meaning may have been made public later, making it a
backronym A backronym, or bacronym, is an acronym formed from a word that existed prior to the invention of the backronym. Unlike a typical acronym, in which a new word is constructed from a phrase, the phrase corresponding to the backronym is selected to fit ...
. (page 20) Both the name ''ISO'' and the ISO logo are registered trademarks and their use is restricted.


Structure

ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized authorities on standards, each one representing one country. Members meet annually at a General Assembly to discuss the strategic objectives of ISO. The organization is coordinated by a central secretariat based in
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge, Chêne-Bougeries, Cologny, Lancy, Grand-Saconnex, Pregny-Chambésy, Vernier, Veyrier , website = ville-geneve.ch Geneva ( ; french: Genève ; frp, Genèva ; german: link=no, Genf ; it, Ginevra ; rm, Genevra ...
. A council with a rotating membership of 20 member bodies provides guidance and governance, including setting the annual budget of the central secretariat. The technical management board is responsible for more than 250 technical committees, who develop the ISO standards.


IEC joint committees

ISO has formed two joint committees with the
International Electrotechnical Commission The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: ''Commission électrotechnique internationale'') is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic and rela ...
(IEC) to develop standards and terminology in the areas of electrical and electronic related technologies.


ISO/IEC JTC 1

ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) was created in 1987 to "develop, maintain, promote and facilitate IT standards", where IT refers to information technology.


ISO/IEC JTC 2

ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 2 (JTC 2) was created in 2009 for the purpose of " andardization in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources".


Membership

ISO has 165 national members. ISO has three membership categories, * ''Member bodies'' are national bodies considered the most representative standards body in each country. These are the only members of ISO that have voting rights. * ''Correspondent members'' are countries that do not have their own standards organization. These members are informed about the work of ISO, but do not participate in standards promulgation. * ''Subscriber members'' are countries with small economies. They pay reduced membership fees, but can follow the development of standards. Participating members are called "P" members, as opposed to observing members, who are called "O" members.


Financing

ISO is funded by a combination of: * Organizations that manage the specific projects or loan experts to participate in the technical work * Subscriptions from member bodies, whose subscriptions are in proportion to each country's
gross national product The Gross National Income (GNI), previously known as Gross National Product (GNP), is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign re ...
and trade figures * Sale of standards


International Standards and other publications

International standards are the main products of ISO. It also publishes technical reports, technical specifications, publicly available specifications, technical
corrigendaAn erratum or corrigendum (plurals: errata, corrigenda) (comes from la, errata corrige) is a correction of a published text. As a general rule, publishers issue an erratum for a production error (i.e., an error introduced during the publishing proces ...
, and guides.The ISO directives are published in two distinct parts: * * International standards : These are designated using the format ''ISO IEC
ASTM ASTM International, formerly known as American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and ...
Snnnnn p yyyTitle'', where ''nnnnn'' is the number of the standard, ''p'' is an optional part number, ''yyyy'' is the year published, and ''Title'' describes the subject. ''IEC'' for ''
International Electrotechnical Commission The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: ''Commission électrotechnique internationale'') is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic and rela ...
'' is included if the standard results from the work of ISO/IEC JTC1 (the ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee). ''ASTM'' (American Society for Testing and Materials) is used for standards developed in cooperation with
ASTM International ASTM International, formerly known as American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and ...
. ''yyyy'' and ''IS'' are not used for an incomplete or unpublished standard and, under some circumstances, may be left off the title of a published work. Technical reports : These are issued when a technical committee or subcommittee has collected data of a different kind from that normally published as an International Standard, such as references and explanations. The naming conventions for these are the same as for standards, except ''TR'' prepended instead of ''IS'' in the report's name. For example: * ISO/IEC TR 17799:2000 Code of Practice for Information Security Management * ISO/TR 19033:2000 Technical product documentation — Metadata for construction documentation Technical and publicly available specifications : Technical specifications may be produced when "the subject in question is still under development or where for any other reason there is the future but not immediate possibility of an agreement to publish an International Standard". A publicly available specification is usually "an intermediate specification, published prior to the development of a full International Standard, or, in IEC may be a 'dual logo' publication published in collaboration with an external organization". By convention, both types of specification are named in a manner similar to the organization's technical reports. For example: * ISO/TS 16952-1:2006 Technical product documentation — Reference designation system — Part 1: General application rules * ISO/PAS 11154:2006 Road vehicles — Roof load carriers Technical corrigenda : ISO also sometimes issues "technical corrigenda" (where "corrigenda" is the plural of
corrigendumAn erratum or corrigendum (plurals: errata, corrigenda) (comes from la, errata corrige) is a correction of a published text. As a general rule, publishers issue an erratum for a production error (i.e., an error introduced during the publishing proces ...
). These are amendments made to existing standards due to minor technical flaws, usability improvements, or limited-applicability extensions. They are generally issued with the expectation that the affected standard will be updated or withdrawn at its next scheduled review. ISO guides :These are meta-standards covering "matters related to international standardization". They are named using the format ''"ISO IECGuide N:yyyy: Title"''. For example: * ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004 Standardization and related activities — General vocabulary * ISO/IEC Guide 65:1996 General requirements for bodies operating product certification


Document copyright

ISO documents have strict copyright restrictions and ISO charges for most copies. , a single copy of an ISO standard cost at least $120. It does not, however, charge for most draft copies of documents in electronic format. Although they are useful, care must be taken using these drafts as there is the possibility of substantial change before they become finalized as standards. Some standards by ISO and its official U.S. representative (and, via the U.S. National Committee, the
International Electrotechnical Commission The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: ''Commission électrotechnique internationale'') is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic and rela ...
) are made freely available.


Standardization process

A standard published by ISO/IEC is the last stage of a long process that commonly starts with the proposal of new work within a committee. Some abbreviations used for marking a standard with its status are: * PWI – Preliminary Work Item * NP or NWIP – New Proposal / New Work Item Proposal (e.g., ISO/IEC NP 23007) * AWI – Approved new Work Item (e.g., ISO/IEC AWI 15444-14) * WD – Working Draft (e.g., ISO/IEC WD 27032) * CD – Committee Draft (e.g., ISO/IEC CD 23000-5) * FCD – Final Committee Draft (e.g., ISO/IEC FCD 23000-12) * DIS – Draft International Standard (e.g., ISO/IEC DIS 14297) * FDIS – Final Draft International Standard (e.g., ISO/IEC FDIS 27003) * PRF – Proof of a new International Standard (e.g., ISO/IEC PRF 18018) * IS – International Standard (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007) Abbreviations used for amendments are: * NP Amd – New Proposal Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004/NP Amd 3) * AWI Amd – Approved new Work Item Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 14492:2001/AWI Amd 4) * WD Amd – Working Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO 11092:1993/WD Amd 1) * CD Amd / PDAmd – Committee Draft Amendment / Proposed Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/CD Amd 6) * FPDAmd / DAM (DAmd) – Final Proposed Draft Amendment / Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003/FPDAmd 1) * FDAM (FDAmd) – Final Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/FDAmd 4) * PRF Amd – (e.g., ISO 12639:2004/PRF Amd 1) * Amd – Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/Amd 1:2007) Other abbreviations are: * TR – Technical Report (e.g., ISO/IEC TR 19791:2006) * DTR – Draft Technical Report (e.g., ISO/IEC DTR 19791) * TS – Technical Specification (e.g., ISO/TS 16949:2009) * DTS – Draft Technical Specification (e.g., ISO/DTS 11602-1) * PAS – Publicly Available Specification * TTA – Technology Trends Assessment (e.g., ISO/TTA 1:1994) * IWA – International Workshop Agreement (e.g., IWA 1:2005) * Cor – Technical Corrigendum (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/Cor 1:2008) * Guide – a guidance to technical committees for the preparation of standards International Standards are developed by ISO technical committees (TC) and subcommittees (SC) by a process with six steps: * Stage 1: Proposal stage * Stage 2: Preparatory stage * Stage 3: Committee stage * Stage 4: Enquiry stage * Stage 5: Approval stage * Stage 6: Publication stage The TC/SC may set up
working groupWorking Group may refer to: *Working group, an interdisciplinary group of researchers; or *Working Group (dogs), kennel club designation for certain purebred dog breeds; or *The Working Group, an underground resistance group in the Slovak State whic ...
s (WG) of experts for the preparation of a working drafts. Subcommittees may have several working groups, which may have several Sub Groups (SG). It is possible to omit certain stages, if there is a document with a certain degree of maturity at the start of a standardization project, for example, a standard developed by another organization. ISO/IEC directives also allow the so-called "Fast-track procedure". In this procedure a document is submitted directly for approval as a draft International Standard (DIS) to the ISO member bodies or as a final draft International Standard (FDIS), if the document was developed by an international standardizing body recognized by the ISO Council. The first step—a proposal of work (New Proposal) is approved at the relevant subcommittee or technical committee (e.g., SC29 and JTC1 respectively in the case of
Moving Picture Experts Group The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is an alliance of working groups of ISO and IEC that sets standards for media coding, including compression coding of audio, video, graphics and genomic data, and transmission and file formats for various ...
– ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11). A working group (WG) of experts is set up by the TC/SC for the preparation of a working draft. When the scope of a new work is sufficiently clarified, some of the working groups (e.g., MPEG) usually make open request for proposals—known as a "call for proposals". The first document that is produced, for example, for audio and video coding standards is called a verification model (VM) (previously also called a "simulation and test model"). When a sufficient confidence in the stability of the standard under development is reached, a working draft (WD) is produced. This is in the form of a standard, but is kept internal to working group for revision. When a working draft is sufficiently solid and the working group is satisfied that it has developed the best technical solution to the problem being addressed, it becomes a committee draft (CD). If it is required, it is then sent to the P-members of the TC/SC (national bodies) for ballot. The committee draft becomes final committee draft (FCD) if the number of positive votes exceeds the quorum. Successive committee drafts may be considered until consensus is reached on the technical content. When consensus is reached, the text is finalized for submission as a draft International Standard (DIS). Then the text is submitted to national bodies for voting and comment within a period of five months. It is approved for submission as a final draft International Standard (FDIS) if a two-thirds majority of the P-members of the TC/SC are in favour and if not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative. ISO will then hold a ballot with National Bodies where no technical changes are allowed (yes/no ballot), within a period of two months. It is approved as an International Standard (IS) if a two-thirds majority of the P-members of the TC/SC is in favour and not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative. After approval, only minor editorial changes are introduced into the final text. The final text is sent to the ISO central secretariat, which publishes it as the International Standard.


International Workshop Agreements

International Workshop Agreements (IWAs) follow a slightly different process outside the usual committee system but overseen by the ISO, allowing "key industry players to negotiate in an open workshop environment" in order to shape the IWA standard.ATG Access Ltd.
What is IWA 14?
published 11 March 2020, accessed 18 August 2020


Products named after ISO

On occasion, the fact that many of the ISO-created standards are ubiquitous has led to common use of "ISO" to describe the product that conforms to a standard. Some examples of this are: *
Disk images A disk image, in computing, is a computer file containing the contents and structure of a disk volume or of an entire data storage device, such as a hard disk drive, tape drive, floppy disk, optical disc, or USB flash drive. A disk image is usuall ...
end in the
file extension A filename extension, file extension or file type is an identifier specified as a suffix to the name of a computer file. The extension indicates a characteristic of the file contents or its intended use. A filename extension is typically delimited ...
"
ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide p ...
" to signify that they are using the
ISO 9660 ISO 9660 is a file system for optical disc media. Being sold by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) the file system is considered an international technical standard. Since the specification is available for anybody to purch ...
standard file system as opposed to another file system—hence disc images commonly being referred to as "ISOs". * The sensitivity of a photographic film to light (its "
film speed Film speed is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system. A closely related ISO system is used to describe the relationship ...
") is described by
ISO 6 Film speed is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system. A closely related ISO system is used to describe the relationship ...
,
ISO 2240 Film speed is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system. A closely related ISO system is used to describe the relationship ...
and ISO 5800. Hence, the speed of the film often is referred to by its ISO number. * As it was originally defined in ISO 518, the flash
hot shoe Canon EOS 350D Hot shoe Proprietary hot shoe used by Minolta and older Sony cameras (Konica Minolta Maxxum 7D">Sony.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Minolta and older Sony">Minolta and older Sony cameras (Kon ...
found on cameras often is called the "ISO shoe". *
ISO 11783 ISO 11783, known as Tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry—Serial control and communications data network (commonly referred to as "ISO Bus" or "ISOBUS") is a communication protocol for the agriculture industry based on the SAE J1939 ...
, which is marketed as ISOBUS. *
ISO 13216 The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide p ...
, which is marketed as ISOFIX.


Criticism and laments

With the exception of a small number of isolated standards, normally ISO standards are not available free of charge, but for a purchase fee, which has been seen by some as unaffordable by small
open source#REDIRECT Open source#REDIRECT Open source {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
projects. The
ISO/IEC JTC1 ISO/IEC JTC 1 is a joint technical committee (JTC) of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Its purpose is to develop, maintain and promote standards in the fields of info ...
fast-track procedures ("Fast-track" as used by
OOXML Office Open XML (also informally known as OOXML) is a zipped, XML-based file format developed by Microsoft for representing spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents. The format was initially standardized by Ecma (as ECMA- ...
and "PAS" as used by
OpenDocument The Open Document Format for Office Applications (ODF), also known as OpenDocument, is a ZIP-compressed XML-based file format for spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents. It was developed with the aim of provid ...
) have garnered criticism in relation to the
standardization of Office Open XML The Office Open XML file formats were standardised between December 2006 and November 2008, first by the Ecma International consortium (where they became ECMA-376), and subsequently, after a contentious standardization process, by the ISO/IEC's Joi ...
(ISO/IEC 29500). Martin Bryan, outgoing convenor of
ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34 ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 34, Document description and processing languages is a subcommittee of the ISO/IEC JTC1 joint technical committee, which is a collaborative effort of both the International Organization for Standardization and the International Elec ...
WG1, is quoted as saying:
I would recommend my successor that it is perhaps time to pass WG1’s outstanding standards over to OASIS, where they can get approval in less than a year and then do a PAS submission to ISO, which will get a lot more attention and be approved much faster than standards currently can be within WG1. The disparity of rules for PAS, Fast-Track and ISO committee generated standards is fast making ISO a laughing stock in IT circles. The days of open standards development are fast disappearing. Instead we are getting "standardization by corporation".
The computer security entrepreneur and
Ubuntu Ubuntu ( ) is a Linux distribution based on Debian and composed mostly of free and open-source software. Ubuntu is officially released in three editions: ''Desktop'', ''Server'', and ''Core'' for Internet of things devices and robots. All the e ...
founder,
Mark Shuttleworth Mark Richard Shuttleworth (born 18 September 1973) is a South African-British entrepreneur who is the founder and CEO of Canonical, the company behind the development of the Linux-based Ubuntu operating system. In 2002, Shuttleworth became the f ...
, commented on the
Standardization of Office Open XML The Office Open XML file formats were standardised between December 2006 and November 2008, first by the Ecma International consortium (where they became ECMA-376), and subsequently, after a contentious standardization process, by the ISO/IEC's Joi ...
process by saying: "I think it de-values the confidence people have in the standards setting process", and alleged that ISO did not carry out its responsibility. He also noted that
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports, and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related s ...

Microsoft
had intensely lobbied many countries that traditionally had not participated in ISO and stacked technical committees with Microsoft employees, solution providers, and resellers sympathetic to Office Open XML:
When you have a process built on trust and when that trust is abused, ISO should halt the process... ISO is an engineering old boys club and these things are boring so you have to have a lot of passion … then suddenly you have an investment of a lot of money and lobbying and you get artificial results. The process is not set up to deal with intensive corporate
lobbying In politics, lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of lawfully attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of government officials, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies. Lobbying, which ...
and so you end up with something being a standard that is not clear.


See also

* * * * * * for sustainability information and linking up with reporting on their 17# GlobalGoals indicators * , a set of technical standards maintained by the Euro-Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology, and Certification * * * , the Interface Marketing Supplier Integration Institute * * * * * * * * * * * ISO divisions ** "Terminology and other language and content resources", a fundamental ISO standardization committee ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** **


References


Further reading

* *
''MIT Innovations and Entrepreneurship Seminar Series''


External links

* *

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