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The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or
think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to inc ...
) in the area of
international affairs International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy ...
. Since 1997 its headquarters have been
Arundel House Arundel House was a London town-house or palace located between the Strand and the River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the The Isis, River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including ...

Arundel House
in
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
,
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
. The 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index ranked IISS as the tenth-best think tank worldwide and the second-best Defence and National Security think tank globally, while
Transparify Transparify is an initiative that provides a global rating of the financial transparency of major think tanks A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social polic ...
ranked it third-largest UK think tank by expenditure, but gave it its lowest rating, 'deceptive', on funding transparency.


Overview

The current director-general and chief executive is John Chipman. The chairman of the council is
François Heisbourg François Heisbourg (born 24 June 1949) is currently Senior Advisor for Europe at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) and Special Advisor at the Paris-based ''Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique''. He was director of the ...
, a former director.
Sir Michael Howard Sir Michael Eliot Howard (29 November 1922 – 30 November 2019) was an English military history, military historian, formerly Chichele Professor of the History of War, Honorary Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, All Souls College, Regius Prof ...
, the British military historian, is president
emeritus ''Emeritus'' (; female: ''Emerita''), in its current usage, is an adjective used to designate a retired chair, professor, pastor, bishop, pope, director, president, prime minister, rabbi, emperor, or other person who has been "permitted to retai ...
. Howard founded the institute together with the British Labour MP
Denis Healey Denis Winston Healey, Baron Healey (30 August 1917 – 3 October 2015) was a British Labour Party (UK), Labour Party politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1974 to 1979 and as Secretary of State for Defence from 1964 to 1970 ...

Denis Healey
(
Defence Secretary A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent ...
, 1964–70 and
Chancellor Chancellor ( la, links=no, cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations. The original chancellors were the ''cancellarii Cancelli are lattice-work, placed before a window, a door-way, the tribunal o ...
, 1974–79) and
University of Oxford The University of Oxford is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the List of oldest universit ...
academic
Alastair Francis Buchan Alastair Francis Buchan, (9 September 1918 – 4 February 1976) was a leading writer on defence studies in the 1970s. Career The son of John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir, Alastair Buchan was given the same forename as his father's brother, who ha ...
. The IISS describes itself as a: The Institute claims 2,500 individual members and 450 corporate and institutional members from more than 100 countries. Based in London, the IISS is both a
private company limited by guarantee In British, Irish and Australian company law Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated ...
in UK law and a
registered charity A charitable organization or charity is an organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. educational, Religion, religious or other activities serving the public interest or common good). The legal definitio ...
. It has branches in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk within the National Mall The National Mall is a Landscape architecture, landscape ...
(IISS-US) and in
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
(IISS-Asia), with charitable status in each jurisdiction, and in
Manama Manama ( ar, المنامة ' Bahrani Arabic, Bahrani pronunciation: ) is the capital and largest city of Bahrain, with an approximate population of 200,000 people as of 2020. Long an important trading center in the Persian Gulf, Manama is hom ...
, Bahrain (IISS-Middle East).


Research

The Institute's work is built on the activities of its eleven research programmes. Research includes work under seven thematic programmes: Armed Conflict; Future Conflict and Cyber Security; Defence and Military Analysis; Economic and Energy Security; Geo-economics and Strategy; Non-Proliferation and Nuclear Policy; Security and Development. There are also four active regional security programmes: Asia-Pacific; Middle East and Persian Gulf; South Asia; US Foreign Policy and Transatlantic Affairs. Notable former employees include H. R. McMaster,
United States National Security Advisor The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), commonly referred to as the National Security Advisor (NSA)The National Security Advisor and Staff: p. 1. is a senior aide in the Executive Office of the President The Ex ...
, and diplomat
Rose Gottemoeller Rose Eilene Gottemoeller (born March 24, 1953) is an American diplomat who served as Deputy Secretary General of NATO from October 2016 to October 2019 under Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg. She previously served as Under Secretary of State for ...
, currently
Deputy Secretary General of NATO The secretary general of NATO is the chief civil servant of the NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The officeholder is an international diplomat responsible for coordinating the workings of the alliance, leading NATO's international ...
.
Orwell Prize The Orwell Prize, based at University College London University College London, which Trade name, operates as UCL, is a major public university , public research university located in London, United Kingdom. UCL is a Member institutions of ...
-winning academic and journalist
Anatol Lieven Peter Paul Anatol Lieven is a British author, Orwell Prize The Orwell Prize, based at University College London , mottoeng = Let all come who by merit deserve the most reward , established = , type = Public university, Public research ...
also worked at the institute, as did
James Steinberg James Braidy Steinberg (born May 7, 1953) is an American academic and political advisor, and former United States Deputy Secretary of State The Deputy Secretary of State of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), ...
, former
US Deputy Secretary of State The Deputy Secretary of State of the United States is the principal deputy to the United States Secretary of State, secretary of state. The current deputy Secretary of State is Wendy Ruth Sherman, serving since April 2021 under United States Secret ...
. The institute has worked with governments, defence ministries and global organisations including
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance A military alliance is a formal agreement betwe ...
and the
EU
EU
.


Publications

The IISS publishes ''The Military Balance'', an annual assessment of nations' military capabilities. Since 2017 it has also published ''Military Balance+'', an online database on the same subject. Other publications include the ''Armed Conflict Database''; ''
Survival Survival, or the act of surviving, is the propensity of something to continue existing, particularly when this is done despite conditions that might kill or destroy it. The concept can be applied to humans and other living things (or, hypotheti ...
'', a journal on global politics and strategy; ''Strategic Survey'', the annual review of world affairs; and ''Strategic Comments'', online analysis of topical issues in international affairs. Since its inception the Institute has published the
Adelphi PapersThe Adelphi Papers is a monograph A monograph is a specialist work of writing (in contrast to reference works) or exhibition on a single subject or an aspect of a subject, often by a single author or artist, and usually on a scholarly subject. I ...
series of books, covering topical strategic issues. Recent editions have covered subjects such as Chinese cyber power, conflict in Ukraine, negotiating with armed groups and the Iraq War. In 2011 the Institute published the FARC files—documents captured from the
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army ( es, link=no, Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia—Ejército del Pueblo, FARC–EP and FARC) is a guerrilla group involved in the continuing Colombian conflict The Colom ...
that shed light on the movement's inner workings. It regularly publishes one-off briefing papers and dossiers.


Events

Since 2002 the Institute has hosted the annual IISS Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore, a conference on Asia–Pacific security issues featuring heads of state, defence ministers and security experts from the region and around the world. In 2017 Australian Prime Minister
Malcolm Turnbull Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954) is a former Australian politician who served as the 29th prime minister of Australia The prime minister of Australia is the head of government The head of government is either the highe ...

Malcolm Turnbull
said: "The Shangri-La Dialogue has grown to become one of the world's great strategic gatherings." The 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index ranked the Shangri-La Dialogue as the best Think tank conference worldwide. The annual IISS Manama Dialogue, held in the
Kingdom of Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ar, البحرين, al-Baḥrayn, , locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain ( ar, مملكة البحرين, links=no '), is a country in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Persian Gulf. The Island country, island nation c ...
, sees global heads of state and high-ranking ministers discuss defence and political issues related to the Middle East. In 2015 Egyptian president
Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi; (born 19 November 1954) is an Egyptian politician who is the List of presidents of Egypt, sixth and current President of Egypt, former Director of Military Intelligence and Reconnaissance (Egypt), M ...
described the dialogue as a "major regional event focusing on regional security issues and everything that impacts upon them". In recent years the institute has hosted smaller conferences including the Bahrain Bay Forum and NATO transformation seminar, and regularly holds debates and panel discussions at its offices around the world.


History

Founded in 1958, with its original focus nuclear deterrence and arms control, the IISS has strong establishment links, with former US and British government officials among its members. The institute claims that it "was hugely influential in setting the intellectual structures for managing the
Cold War The Cold War was a period of geopolitical Geopolitics (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loc ...
." Raymond L. Garthoff wrote in 2004: The second issue appeared under the title "The Communist Bloc and the Free World: The Military Balance 1960".


Controversy

In 2016, ''
The Guardian ''The Guardian'' is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as ''The Manchester Guardian'', and changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers ''The Observer ''The Observer'' is a British newspaper published on Sun ...

The Guardian
'' reported that IISS "has been accused of jeopardising its independence after leaked documents showed it has secretly received £25m from the Bahraini royal family", noting that leaked "documents reveal that IISS and Bahrain's rulers specifically agreed to keep the latter's funding for the Manama Dialogues secret". The IISS did not dispute the authenticity of the leaked documents or deny receiving funding from
Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ar, البحرين, al-Baḥrayn, , locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain ( ar, مملكة البحرين, links=no '), is a country in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Persian Gulf. The Island country, island nation c ...

Bahrain
, but issued a response stating that " l IISS contractual agreements, including those with host governments, contain a clause asserting the Institute's absolute intellectual and operational independence as an international organisation that does not participate in any manner of advocacy."
Peter Oborne Peter Alan Oborne (; born 11 July 1957) is a British journalist and broadcaster. He is the former chief political commentator of ''The Daily Telegraph ''The Daily Telegraph'', known online and elsewhere as ''The Telegraph'' (), is a natio ...
in
Middle East Eye Middle East Eye (MEE) is a London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more forma ...
subsequently reported that IISS may have received nearly half of its total income from Bahraini sources in some years.


Directors

*
Alastair Buchan Professor Alastair Buchan (born 16 October 1955) is a neurologist and researcher in stroke medicine. His main research interest is how to make neuroprotection a reality in the clinic. From October 2008 until January 2017, he served as the Dean ...
(1958–1969) * François Duchêne (1969–1974) * Christoph Bertram (1974–1982) * Robert J. O'Neill (1982–1987) *
François Heisbourg François Heisbourg (born 24 June 1949) is currently Senior Advisor for Europe at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) and Special Advisor at the Paris-based ''Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique''. He was director of the ...
(1987–1992) * Bo Huldt (1992–1993) * John Chipman (1993–present)


Council

Council members 2017 are: * Professor
François Heisbourg François Heisbourg (born 24 June 1949) is currently Senior Advisor for Europe at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) and Special Advisor at the Paris-based ''Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique''. He was director of the ...
, Chairman of the IISS and of the
Geneva Centre for Security Policy The Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP) is an international foundation that was established in 1995 under Switzerland, Swiss law to "promote the building and maintenance of peace, security and stability". The GCSP was founded by the Federal ...
* Joanne de Asis, founder and chairperson, Asia Pacific Capital Partners * Fleur de Villiers, journalist * Field Marshal
Charles Guthrie, Baron Guthrie of Craigiebank Charles is a masculine given name A given name (also known as a first name or forename) is the part of a personal name A personal name, or full name, in onomastic Onomastics or onomatology is the study of the etymology, histor ...
* , journalist * , academic * Marillyn A. Hewson, Chairman, President and CEO of Lockheed Martin *
Badr Jafar Badr Jafar ( ar, بدر حميد جعفر) is an Emiratis, Emirati business executive and social entrepreneur based in the United Arab Emirates who leads a number of Emirati oil and gas businesses and conglomerates, including Crescent Enterprise ...
, President of Crescent Petroleum * Bilahari Kausikan, Ambassador-at-Large,
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Singapore) The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA; zh, 新加坡外交部; ms, Kementerian Ehwal Luar Negeri; ta, வெளியுறவு அமைச்சு) is a ministry of the Government of Singapore The Government of Singapore is define ...
* Ellen Laipson, president and CEO, Henry L Stimson Center * Chung Min Lee, Professor of International Relations, Yonsei University * Eric X. Li, founder and managing director, Chengwei Capital * Jean-Claude Mallet, Councillor of State (France) *
Moeletsi Mbeki Moeletsi Goduka Mbeki (born 30 November 1945) is a South African Political economy, political economist and the deputy chairman of the South African Institute of International Affairs, an independent think tank based at the University of the Witw ...
*
Michael D. Rich The RAND Corporation ("research and development") is an American nonprofit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and o ...
*
Charles Powell, Baron Powell of Bayswater Charles David Powell, Baron Powell of Bayswater, (born 6 July 1941) is a British diplomat and businessman who served as a key foreign policy adviser to Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, ...

Charles Powell, Baron Powell of Bayswater
*
George Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen George Islay MacNeill Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen, (born 12 April 1946), is a British politician of the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party who served as the List of NATO Secretaries General, 10th Secretary General of NATO from 1999 to ...
* Ambassador Andrés Rozental Gutman, President, Rozental & Asociados * Thomas Seaman, Fellow and Bursar,
All Souls College, Oxford All Souls College (official name: College of the Souls of All the Faithful Departed) is a Colleges of the University of Oxford, constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Unique to All Souls, all of its members automatically bec ...

All Souls College, Oxford
* Grace Reksten Skaugen, chair of Norwegian Institute of Directors and deputy chair of
Statoil Equinor ASA (formerly Statoil and StatoilHydro) is a Norwegian state-owned State ownership, also called government ownership and public ownership, is the ownership of an Industry (economics), industry, asset, or Business, enterprise by the S ...
* Major-General
Amos Yadlin Aluf ''Aluf'' ( he, אלוף, lit=champion or "First\leader of a group" in Biblical Hebrew; ) is a senior military rank in the Israel Defence Forces The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; he, צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵ ...
, former IAF General * Igor Yurgens, chairman of the management board of the Institute of Contemporary Development


See also

* List of think tanks in the United Kingdom


References


External links


International Institute for Strategic Studies
(official website) {{Authority control Foreign policy and strategy think tanks based in the United Kingdom Private companies limited by guarantee of the United Kingdom