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The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted
convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Convention (meeting), meeting of a (usually large) group of individuals and/or companies in a ...
in
zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is usually regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the Animal, animal kingdom, including the anatomy, structure, embryology, evolution, Biological class ...
that rules the formal scientific naming of
organisms In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological me ...

organisms
treated as
animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular A multicellular organism is an organism In biology, an organism () is any organic, life, living system that functions as an individual entity. All organisms are composed of cells ...

animal
s. It is also informally known as the ICZN Code, for its publisher, the
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals". Founded in 1895, it currently comprises 24 commissioners from 18 countries. Organ ...
(which shares the acronym "ICZN"). The rules principally regulate: * How names are correctly established in the frame of
binominal nomenclature In taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only ...
* Which name must be used in case of name conflicts * How scientific literature must cite names Zoological nomenclature is independent of other systems of nomenclature, for example
botanical nomenclature Botanical nomenclature is the formal, scientific naming of plants. It is related to, but distinct from taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such ...
. This implies that animals can have the same generic names as plants (e.g. there is a genus '' Abronia'' in both animals and plants). The rules and recommendations have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals, except where
taxonomic Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only about biological ...
judgment dictates otherwise. The code is meant to guide only the nomenclature of animals, while leaving zoologists freedom in classifying new
taxa In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...
. In other words, while
species conceptsThe species problem is the set of questions that arises when biologist Francesco Redi, the founder of biology, is recognized to be one of the greatest biologists of all time A biologist is a professional who has specialized knowledge in the fiel ...
(and thus the definition of species) are arbitrary to some degree, the rules for names are not. The code applies only to names. A new animal name published without adherence to the code may be deemed simply "unavailable" if it fails to meet certain criteria, or fall entirely out of the province of science (e.g., the "scientific name" for the
Loch Ness Monster The Loch Ness Monster, or Nessie ( gd, Uilebheist Loch Nis), is a creature in Scottish folkloreScottish folklore encompasses the folklore Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses th ...

Loch Ness Monster
). The rules in the code determine what names are valid for any taxon in the
family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same Politic ...
group,
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
group, and
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
group. It has additional (but more limited) provisions on names in higher
ranks Rank is the relative position, value, worth, complexity, power, importance, authority, level, etc. of a person or object within a ranking, such as: Level or position in a hierarchical organization * Academic rank * Diplomatic rank * Hierarchy * Hi ...
. The code recognizes no
case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by courts and similar tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is calle ...
. Any dispute is decided first by applying the code directly, and not by reference to precedent. The code is also retroactive or
retrospective A retrospective (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...

retrospective
, which means that previous editions of the code, or previous other rules and conventions have no force any more today, and the nomenclatural acts published earlier must be evaluated only under the present edition of the code. In cases of disputes a case can be brought to the commission who has the right to publish a final decision.


Principles

In regulating the names of animals it holds by six central principles, which were first set out (as principles) in the third edition of the code (1985):


Principle of binominal nomenclature

This is the principle that the scientific name of a species, and not of a taxon at any other rank, is a combination of two names; the use of a
trinomen In zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is a ...
for the name of a subspecies and of uninominal names for taxa above the species group is in accord with this principle.ICZN Code Glossary
/ref> This means that in the system of nomenclature for animals, the name of a species is composed of a combination of a generic name and a
specific nameSpecific name may refer to: * in Database management systems, a system-assigned name that is unique within a particular database In Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy, either of these two meanings, each with its own set of rules: * Specific name (botany), ...
; together they make a "
binomen In taxonomy, binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, bot ...
". No other rank can have a name composed of two names. Examples: :Species ''
Giraffa camelopardalis The giraffe is a tall African even-toed ungulate, mammal belonging to the genus ''Giraffa''. Specifically, It is an even-toed ungulate. It is the Largest mammals#Even-toed Ungulates (Artiodactyla), tallest living terrestrial animal and the lar ...

Giraffa camelopardalis
'' * Subspecies have a name composed of three names, a "trinomen": generic name,
specific nameSpecific name may refer to: * in Database management systems, a system-assigned name that is unique within a particular database In Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy, either of these two meanings, each with its own set of rules: * Specific name (botany), ...
,
subspecific name In zoological nomenclature, a subspecific name is the third part of a trinomen. In zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is typically regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the an ...
: :Subspecies ''
Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi Rothschild's giraffe (''Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi'') is a subspecies of the Northern giraffe:''See Giraffe The giraffe (''Giraffa'') is an African artiodactyl mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a gro ...

Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi
'' * Taxa at a rank above species have a name composed of one name, a "uninominal name". :Genus ''
Giraffa The giraffe (''Giraffa'') is an African artiodactyl The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulate Ungulates (pronounced ) are members of a diverse clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monoph ...

Giraffa
'', family
Giraffidae The Giraffidae are a family In , family (from la, familia) is a of people related either by (by recognized birth) or (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of societ ...
In botanical nomenclature, the equivalent for "binominal nomenclature" is "binary nomenclature" (or sometimes "
binomial nomenclature In taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only ...
").


Principle of priority

This is the principle that the correct formal scientific name for an animal
taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechani ...
, the '' valid name'', correct to use, is the oldest
available nameIn zoological Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is typically regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatom ...
that applies to it. It is the most important principle—the fundamental guiding precept that preserves zoological nomenclature stability. It was first formulated in 1842 by a committee appointed by the
British Association The British Science Association (BSA) is a Charitable organization, charity and learned society founded in 1831 to aid in the promotion and development of science. Until 2009 it was known as the British Association for the Advancement of Scienc ...
to consider the rules of zoological nomenclature.
Hugh Edwin Strickland Hugh Edwin Strickland (2 March 1811 – 14 September 1853) was an English geologist A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid, liquid, and gaseous matter that constitutes the Earth and other terrestrial planets, as well as the processe ...
wrote the committee's report. Example: :Nunneley 1837 established '' Limax maculatus'' (Gastropoda), Wiktor 2001 classified it as a junior synonym of ''
Limax maximus ''Limax maximus'' (literally, "biggest slug"), known by the common names great grey slug and leopard slug, is a species of slug in the family Limacidae, the keeled slugs.Marshall, B. (2014). Limax maximus Linnaeus, 1758. Accessed through: World R ...

Limax maximus
'' Linnaeus, 1758 from S and W Europe. ''Limax maximus'' was established first, so if Wiktor's 2001 classification is accepted, ''Limax maximus'' takes precedence over ''Limax maculatus'' and must be used for the species. There are approximately 2-3 million cases of this kind for which this principle is applied in zoology.


Principle of coordination

The ''principle of coordination'' is that within the family group, genus group and species group, a name established for a taxon at any rank in the group is simultaneously established with the same author and date for taxa based on the same name-bearing type at other ranks in the corresponding group. In other words, publishing a new zoological name automatically and simultaneously establishes all corresponding names in the relevant other ranks with the same type. In the species-group, publishing a species name (the
binomen In taxonomy, binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, bot ...
) ''
Giraffa camelopardalis The giraffe is a tall African even-toed ungulate, mammal belonging to the genus ''Giraffa''. Specifically, It is an even-toed ungulate. It is the Largest mammals#Even-toed Ungulates (Artiodactyla), tallest living terrestrial animal and the lar ...

Giraffa camelopardalis
'' Linnaeus, 1758 also establishes the subspecies name (the
trinomen In zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is a ...
) ''Giraffa camelopardalis camelopardalis'' Linnaeus, 1758. The same applies to the name of a subspecies; this establishes the corresponding species name. In the genus-group, similarly, publishing the name of a genus also establishes the corresponding name of a subgenus (or vice versa): genus ''
Giraffa The giraffe (''Giraffa'') is an African artiodactyl The even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla , ) are ungulate Ungulates (pronounced ) are members of a diverse clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monoph ...

Giraffa
'' Linnaeus, 1758 and subgenus ''Giraffa'' (''Giraffa'') Linnaeus, 1758. In the family-group, publication of the name of a family, subfamily, superfamily (or any other such rank) also establishes the names in all the other ranks in the family group (family Giraffidae, superfamily Giraffoidea, subfamily Giraffinae). Author citations for such names (for example a subgenus) are the same as for the name actually published (for example a genus). It is immaterial if there is an actual taxon to which the automatically established name applies; if ever such a taxon is recognised, there is a name available for it.


Principle of the first reviser

This is the principle that in cases of conflicts between simultaneously published divergent acts, the first subsequent author can decide which has precedence. It supplements the ''
principle of priority 270px, '' valid name. Priority is a fundamental principle of modern botanical nomenclature and zoological nomenclature. Essentially, it is the principle of recognising the first valid application of a name to a plant or animal. There are two aspec ...
'', which states that the first published name takes precedence. The principle of the first reviser deals with situations that cannot be resolved by priority. These items may be two or more different names for the same taxon, two or more names with the same spelling used for different taxa, two or more different spellings of a particular name, etc. In such cases, the first subsequent author who deals with the matter and chooses and publishes the decision in the required manner is the first reviser, and is to be followed. Example: Linnaeus 1758 established ''Strix scandiaca'' and ''Strix noctua'' (Aves), for which he gave different descriptions and referred to different types, but both taxa later turned out to refer to the same species, the
snowy owl The snowy owl (''Bubo scandiacus''), also known as the polar owl, the white owl and the Arctic owl, is a large, white owl Owls are bird Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of ani ...

snowy owl
. The two names are subjective synonyms. Lönnberg 1931 acted as first reviser, cited both names and selected ''Strix scandiaca'' to have precedence.


Principle of homonymy

This is the principle that the name of each taxon must be unique. Consequently, a name that is a junior homonym of another name must not be used as a valid name. It means that any one animal name, in one particular spelling, may be used only once (within its group). This is usually the first-published name; any later name with the same spelling (a
homonym In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which are homographs (words that share the same spelling, regardless of pronunciation) or homophones (words that share the same pronunciation, regardless of spelling), or both. For example, acco ...
) is barred from being used. The principles of priority and first reviser apply here. For family-group names the termination (which is rank-bound) is not taken into account. Genera are homonyms only if exactly the same — a one-letter difference is enough to distinguish them. Examples: :''Argus'' Bohadsch, 1761 (Gastropoda) (was made available for homonymy by ICZN in Opinion 429, Bohadsch 1761 was non-binominal - this had the effect that no other one of the various following names ''Argus'' can be used for a taxon) :''Argus'' Scopoli, 1763 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatinae) :''Argus'' Scopoli, 1777 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) :''Argus'' Poli, 1791 (Bivalvia) :''Argus'' Temminck, 1807 (Aves) :''Argus'' Lamarck, 1817 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) :''Argus'' Walckenaer, 1836 (Araneae) :''Argus'' Gerhard, 1850 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclinae) :Homonyms of ''Argus'' are not: :'' Argua'' Walker, 1863 (Lepidoptera), '' Argusa'' Kelham, 1888 (Aves), '' Argusina'' Hebard, 1927 (Dermaptera), †'' Arcus'' Hong, 1983 (Diptera), ''
Argas ''Argas'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses. In ...
'' Latreille, 1795 (Araneae), ''
Argulus ''Argulus'' is a genus of fish lice in the family Argulidae The family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationsh ...

Argulus
'' Müller, 1785 (Crustacea). :Not homonyms of each others: '' Isomya'' Cutler & Cutler, 1985 (Sipunculida), '' Isomyia'' Walker, 1859 (Diptera). :Not homonyms of each others: '' Adelomya'' Mulsant & Verreaux, 1866 (Aves), '' Adelomyia'' Bonaparte, 1854 (Aves), †'' Adelomys'' Gervais, 1853 (Mammalia), †'' Adolomys'' Shevyreva, 1989 (Mammalia), '' Adulomya'' Kuroda, 1931 (Bivalvia). In species, there is a difference between primary and secondary homonyms. There can also be double homonyms (same genus and species). A slight difference in spelling is tolerated if Article 58 applies. ''Primary homonyms'' are those with the same genus and same species in their original combination. The difference between a primary junior homonym and a subsequent use of a name is undefined, but it is commonly accepted that if the name referred to another species or form, and if there is in addition no evidence the author knew that the name was previously used, it is considered as a junior homonym. Examples: :Drury (1773) established '' Cerambyx maculatus'' (Coleoptera) for a species from
Jamaica Jamaica (; ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or ...

Jamaica
. Fueßlin (1775) established '' Cerambyx maculatus'' for a different species from Switzerland, and did not refer to Drury's name. Fueßlin's name is a junior primary homonym. :Scopoli (1763) established '' Curculio fasciatus'' (Coleoptera) for a species from Slovenia. Strøm (1768) established '' Curculio fasciatus'' for another species from Norway. De Geer (1775) established '' Curculio fasciatus'' for a 3rd species from Sweden. Müller (1776) established '' Curculio fasciatus'' for a 4th species from Denmark. Fourcroy (1785) established '' Curculio fasciatus'' for a 5th species from France. Olivier (1790) established '' Curculio fasciatus'' for a 6th species from France. Marsham (1802) established '' Curculio fasciatus'' for a 7th species from Britain. All these names had descriptions that clarified that different species were meant, and that their authors did not know that the name had been established by a previous author. ''Secondary homonyms'' can be produced if taxa with the same specific name but different original genus are later classified in the same genus (Art. 57.3, 59). A secondary synonym is only a temporary state, it is only effective in this classification. If another classification is applied, the secondary homonymy may not be produced, and the involved name can be used again (Art. 59.1). A name does not become unavailable or unusable if it was once in the course of history placed in such a genus where it produced a secondary homonymy with another name. This is one of the rare cases where a zoological species does not have a stable specific name and a unique species-author-year combination, it can have two names at the same time. Example: :Nunneley (1837) established '' Limax maculatus'' (Gastropoda), Wiktor (2001) classified it as a junior synonym of '''' Linnaeus, 1758 from S and W Europe. Kaleniczenko, 1851 established '' Krynickillus maculatus'' for a different species from Ukraine. Wiktor, 2001 classified both ''Limax maximus'' Linnaeus, 1758 and ''Krynickillus maculatus'' Kaleniczenko, 1851 in the genus ''
Limax ''Limax'' is a genus of air-breathing land slugs in the terrestrial molluscs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk family Limacidae. The generic name ''Limax'' literally means "slug". Some species, such as the limax maximus, leopard slug ('' ...
''. This meant that ''L. maculatus'' Nunneley, 1837 and ''K. maculatus'' Kaleniczenko, 1851 were classified in the same genus, so both names were secondary homonyms in the genus
Limax ''Limax'' is a genus of air-breathing land slugs in the terrestrial molluscs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk family Limacidae. The generic name ''Limax'' literally means "slug". Some species, such as the limax maximus, leopard slug ('' ...
, and the younger name (from 1851) could not be used for the Ukrainian species. This made it necessary to look for the next younger available name that could be used for the Ukrainian species. This was '' Limax ecarinatus'' Boettger, 1881, a junior synonym of ''K. maculatus'' Kaleniczenko, 1851. :For Wiktor (2001) and those authors who follow Wiktor's system the name of the Ukrainian species must be '' Limax ecarinatus'' Boettger, 1881. For the others who classify '' Limacus'' as a separate genus, the name of the Ukrainian species must be '' Limacus maculatus'' (Kaleniczenko, 1851). :So the Ukrainian species can have two names, depending from its generic classification. '' Limax ecarinatus'', '' Limacus maculatus'', the same species. Article 59.3 states that in exceptional cases, junior secondary homonyms replaced before 1961 by substitute names can become invalid, "...unless the substitute name is not in use," an exception of the exception. However, the ICZN Code does not give an example for such a case. It seems that this passage in the ICZN Code is widely ignored. It also does not define what the expression "is not in use" should mean. Example: :'' Glischrus caelata'' Studer, 1820 (Gastropoda) was once classified in the genus ''
Helix A helix (), plural helixes or helices (), is a shape like a corkscrew or spiral staircase. It is a type of smooth Smooth may refer to: Mathematics * Smooth function is a smooth function with compact support. In mathematical analysis, the ...
'', and became a junior secondary homonym of '' Helix caelata'' allot 1801. Locard (1880) established a replacement name '' Helix glypta'', which has very rarely been used. The species is now known as '' Trochulus caelatus'' (Studer, 1820), and Art. 59.3 is commonly ignored. ''Double homonymy'' (genus and species) is no homonymy: if the genera are homonyms and belong to different animal groups, the same specific names can be used in both groups. Examples: :The name '' Noctua'' Linnaeus, 1758 was established for a lepidopteran subgenus. In 1764 he established a genus ''Noctua'' Linné ,1764 for birds, ignoring that he had already used this name a few years ago in Lepidoptera. ''Noctua'' Linné, 1764 (Aves) is a junior homonym of ''Noctua'' Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera). : Garsault (1764) used ''Noctua'' for a bird and established a name
Noctua caprimulgus
' Garsault, 1764 (Aves). Fabricius (1775) established a name '' Noctua caprimulgus'' Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera), thus creating a double homonym. Double homonymy is no homonymy, both names are available. :The same happened with '' Noctua variegata'' Jung, 1792 (Lepidoptera) and '' Noctua variegata'' Quoy & Gaimard, 1830 (Aves). For ''disambiguating'' one genus-group name from its homonym, it is important to cite author and year. Citing the author alone is often not sufficient. Examples: : ''
Echidna Echidnas (), sometimes known as spiny anteaters, are quill-covered monotremes Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituti ...

Echidna
'' Forster, 1777 (Actinopterygii), not ''
Echidna Echidnas (), sometimes known as spiny anteaters, are quill-covered monotremes Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituti ...

Echidna
'' Cuvier, 1797 (Mammalia) : '' Ansa'' Walker, 1858 (Lepidoptera), not ''Ansa'' Walker, 1868 (Hemiptera) : '' Helix balcanica'' Kobelt, 1876, not '' Helix balcanica'' Kobelt, 1903 (both Gastropoda) : '' Conus catenatus'' Sowerby, 1850, not '' Conus catenatus'' Sowerby, 1875 (both Gastropoda) The name ''Ansa'' can only be used for a lepidopteran taxon. If that name cannot be used (for example because an older name established prior to 1858 takes precedence), this does not mean that the 1868 name can be used for a hemipteran genus. The only option to use the 1868 name for the hemipteran taxon is to get the 1858 name officially suppressed by the
commission Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for services rendered ** Commission (art), the purchase or the creation of a piece of art most often on behalf of another ...
. In some cases, the same genus-group or species-group name was published in the same year by the same author. In these cases it is useful to cite the page where the name was established. :'' Amydona'' Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) (p. 1110), not '' Amydona'' Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) (p. 1413) :'' Betousa'' Walker, 1865 (Lepidoptera: Thyridae) (p. 1111), not '' Betousa'' Walker, 1865 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (p. 1208). :'' Cicada variegata'' Fabricius, 1775 (p. 684), not '' Cicada variegata'' Fabricius, 1775 (p. 686) (both Auchenorrhyncha). :'' Noctua marginata'' Fabricius, 1775 (p. 597), not '' Noctua marginata'' Fabricius, 1775 (p. 610) (both Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). :''Clausilia (Albinaria) oertzeni'' Boettger, 1889 (p. 42), not ''Clausilia (Albinaria) schuchi'' var. ''oertzeni'' Boettger, 1889 (p. 52) (both Gastropoda: Clausiliidae). There are cases where two homonyms were established by the same author in the same year on the same page: :''Zonites verticillus'' var. ''graeca'' Kobelt, 1876 (Gastropoda) (p. 48), not ''Zonites albanicus'' var. ''graeca'' Kobelt, 1876 (p. 48). Animal, plant, and fungi nomenclature are entirely independent from each other. The most evident shortcoming of this situation (for their use in
biodiversity informaticsBiodiversity Informatics is the application of informatics (academic field), informatics techniques to biodiversity, biodiversity information, such as Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy, biogeography or ecology. Modern computer techniques can yield new way ...
) is that the same generic name can be used simultaneously for animals and plants. For this kind of homonym the expression "hemihomonym" is sometimes used. Far more than 1000 such names are known. Examples: : The generic name '' Dryas'' L. (1753) represents a genus of magnoliophytan plants (family Rosaceae), and at the same time '''' Hübner, 1807 is also a lepidopteran insect genus (family Nymphalidae). : The genus ''Tandonia'' was established in animals (Gastropoda: '' Tandonia''), in plants (Euphorbiaceae) and in Fungi (Ascomycetes). : Other examples for sometimes well known plant names with zoological equivalents are ''Aotus'' (Fabaceae and Mammalia), ''Arenaria'' (Caryophyllaeceae and Aves), ''Betula''(Betulaceae and Hymenoptera), ''Chloris'' (Cactaceae and Aves), ''Dugesia'' (Asteraceae and Plathelminthes), ''Erica'' (Ericaceae and Araneae), ''Hystrix'' (Poaceae and Mammalia), ''Iris'' (Asparagales and Orthoptera), ''Liparis'' (Orchidaceae and Actinopterygii), ''Phalaenopsis'' (Asparagales and Aves), ''Pinus'' (Pinaceae and Mollusca), ''Prunella'' (Lamiaceae and Aves), ''Ricinus'' (Fabaceae and Acari), ''Taxus'' (Taxaceae and Mammalia), ''Typha'' (Typhaceae and Porifera), ''Ulva'' (Ulvophyceae and Lepidoptera), ''Viola'' (Violaceae and Lepidoptera). For names above the family level, the principle of homonymy does not apply. Examples: : Pulmonata is usually used for a very prominent group in
Gastropoda The gastropods (), commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may ...

Gastropoda
, but the name is also (rarely) used for a group in
Arachnida Arachnida () is a class of joint-legged invertebrate Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a ''backbone'' or ''spine''), derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart fr ...

Arachnida
. : Reticulata is used as an order in
Foraminifera Foraminifera (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the ...
, and as an undefined higher group in . Homonyms occur relatively rarely in families (only if generic names are identical or very similar and adding an ending "-idae" produces identical results). Discovering such a homonymy usually produces the same problems as if there were no rules: conflicts between entirely independent and unconnected groups of taxonomists working in different animal groups. Very often the Commission must be asked to take a decision. Examples: : '' Bulimina'' (Foraminifera) and '' Buliminus'' (Gastropoda) give both Buliminidae, and both families were used since the 1880s. When the homonymy was discovered 110 years later in the 1990s, the younger (gastropod) taxon had to receive a new family name, and the commission needed was asked for a solution (Opinion 2018). : '' Claria'' (Rotifera) and ''
Clarias ''Clarias'' is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a ...
'' (Actinopterygii) give both Clariidae, but only the actinopterygian fish name was used since 1845. Shortly after Clariidae had been proposed in Rotifera in 1990, the homonymy was discovered and the commission had to decide that the Rotiferan family had to be amended to Clariaidae (Opinion 2032).


Principle of typification

This is the principle that each nominal taxon in the family group, genus group, or species group has—actually or potentially—a name-bearing type fixed that provides the objective standard of reference that determines what the name applies to. This means that any named
taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechani ...
has a
name-bearing typeUnder the ''International Code of Zoological Nomenclature'' (''Code''), the name-bearing type is the biological type that determines the application of a name. Each animal taxon regulated by the ''Code'' at least potentially has a name-bearing type.' ...
, which allows the objective application of that name. Any family-group name must have a type genus, any genus-group name must have a type species, and any species-group name can (not must) have one or more type specimens (holotype, lectotype, neotype, syntypes, or others), usually deposited in a museum collection. The
type genus In biological taxonomy the type genus is the genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumsc ...
for a ''family-group name'' is simply the genus that provided the stem to which was added the ending "-idae" (for families). Example: :The family name
Spheniscidae Penguins (order (biology), order Sphenisciformes , family (biology), family Spheniscidae ) are a group of Water bird, aquatic flightless bird, flightless birds. They live almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere, with only one species, t ...
has as its type genus the genus ''
Spheniscus The banded penguins are penguins that belong to the genus ''Spheniscus''. There are four living species of penguin Penguins (order Order or ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is associated with other qualities such ...
'' Brisson, 1760. The
type species In zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is al ...
for a ''genus-group name'' is more complicated and follows exactly defined provisions in articles 67–69. Type species are very important, and no general zoological database has recorded the type species for all genera. Except in fishes and some minor groups, type species are rarely reliably recorded in online animal databases. In 60% of the cases the type species can be determined in the original publication. The type species is always the original name of the taxon (and not the currently used combination). Example: :The correctly cited type species of ''Locusta'' Linnaeus, 1758 (Caelifera) is '' Gryllus migratorius'' Linnaeus, 1758, not ''
Locusta migratoria The migratory locust (''Locusta migratoria'') is the most widespread locust species, and the only species in the genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or ...

Locusta migratoria
'' (Linnaeus, 1758). Designation and fixation have different meanings. A designation is the proposal of the type species. It is not necessary to have spelled the name of the genus or species correctly with correct authors (articles 67.2.1, 67.6, 67.7), type species are always the correctly spelled name. If the designation is valid, the type species is fixed. A designation can also be invalid and ineffective—for example—if the genus had already a previously fixed type species, or if a type species was proposed that was not originally included, or contradicted the description or figure for a genus for which no species had originally been included. There are various possible modes of type species designation. This is their order of legal importance, with approximate proportions of occurrence and examples: * Superior type fixation: ::Designation by ICZN under the plenary powers (3 %) :::Example: :::''
Galba Galba (; born Servius Sulpicius Galba; 24 December 3 BC – 15 January AD 69) was a Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν ...

Galba
'' Schrank, 1803 (Gastropoda) was established with one species included, '' Galba pusilla'' Schrank, 1803. This would be the type species by monotypy. In Opinion 1896 (published in 1998) this type fixation was set aside and '' Buccinum truncatulum'' Müller, 1774 was fixed as type species under the plenary power(s) (now ''''). ::Designation under Art. 70.3 (misidentified type species) (1 %) :::Examples: :::'' Bollingeria'' Forcart, 1940 (Gastropoda) was established with its type species '' Chondrus pupoides'' Krynicki, 1833 proposed by original designation. But Forcart 1940 misidentified the type species and meant ''Bulimus lamelliferus'' Rossmässler, 1858. It would be convenient to designate ''Bulimus lamelliferus'' as type species under Art. 70.3. :::''Helisoma'' Swainson, 1840 (Gastropoda) was established with one species included, cited by Swainson as "''Helisoma bicarinata, H. bicarinata'' Sow. Gen. f. 4". This suggested that the type species was misidentified, and that ''Planorbis campanulatus'' Say, 1821 and not ''Planorbis bicarinatus'' Say, 1819 was meant. But since the incorrect type species ''Planorbis bicarinatus'' has been regarded as type, it would be convenient to fix this as type under Art. 70.3. * Type fixation in the original work: ::Original designation (31 %) :::Examples: :::Montfort 1810 established the genus ''Theodoxus'' (Gastropoda) and designated ''Theodoxus lutetianus'' Montfort 1810 as type species (now ''Theodoxus fluviatilis''). :::Vest 1867 established the subgenus ''Clausilia (Isabellaria)'' (Gastropoda) and designated ''Clausilia isabellina'' Pfeiffer, 1842 as type species (now ''Isabellaria isabellina''). :::Riedel 1987 established the genus ''Turcozonites'' (Gastropoda) and designated ''Zonites wandae'' Riedel, 1982 as type species (now ''Turcozonites wandae''). ::Monotypy (28 %) :::Examples: :::''Anodonta'' Lamarck, 1799 (Bivalvia) was originally established with one included nominal species, ''Mytilus cygneus'' Linnaeus, 1758. This is the type species fixed by monotypy (now ''Anodonta cygnea''). :::''Microcondylaea'' Vest 1866 (Bivalvia) was originally established with two included nominal species, ''Unio bonellii'' Férussac, 1827 and with doubts ''Anodonta lata'' Rafinesque, 1820. Doubtfully included species do not count, type species is ''Unio bonellii'' fixed by monotypy (now ''Microcondylaea bonellii''). ::Absolute tautonymy (2 %) :::Examples: :::Kobelt 1871 established the gastropod genus-group name ''Candidula'' and included 23 species. Among these was ''Glischrus candidula'' Studer 1820. ''Glischrus candidula'' is type species fixed by absolute tautonymy (now ''Candidula unifasciata''). :::Draparnaud 1801 established the gastropod genus ''Succinea'' and included two species, ''Succinea amphibia'' Draparnaud 1801 and ''Succinea oblonga'' Draparnaud 1801. Among the synonyms of ''Succinea amphibia, S. amphibia'', Draparnaud listed a name ''Helix succinea'' Müller 1774. Synonyms do count here, so ''Helix succinea'' is type species by absolute tautonymy (now ''Succinea putris''). :::Kobelt 1904 established the gastropod subgenus ''Iberus (Balearica)'' and included 10 species. Among these was ''Helix balearica'' Rossmässler 1838, which Kobelt cited as ''Iberus balearicus, Iberus (Balearica) balearicus''. The ending -us is irrelevant here, ''Helix balearica'' is type species by absolute tautonymy (currently ''Iberellus balearicus'' or ''Iberellus hispanicus''). :::''Euxinolauria'' Lindholm, 1924 (Gastropoda: Lauriidae) was established as a new replacement name for ''Caucasica'' Caziot & Margier, 1909 (not ''Caucasica'' Boettger, 1877 (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae)). ''Caucasica'' Caziot & Margier, 1909 contained originally four species, among which was ''Pupa caucasica'' Pfeiffer, 1857. This is the type species for ''Caucasica'' Caziot & Margier, 1909 fixed by absolute tautonymy, and also for ''Euxinolauria'' (now ''Euxinolauria caucasica''). :::The following examples do not represent absolute tautonymy: ''Scomber scombrus'' Linnaeus, 1758 (Actinopterygii), ''Babyrousa babyrussa'' (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mammalia), ''Suricata suricatta'' (Schreber, 1776) (Mammalia), ''Merlangius merlangus'' (Linnaeus, 1758) (Actinopterygii), ''Isabellaria isabellina'' (Pfeiffer, 1842) (Gastropoda), ''Rupestrella rupestris'' (Philippi, 1836) (Gastropoda). ::Linnean tautonymy (0.3 %) :::Example: :::Linnaeus 1758 established ''Castor (genus), Castor'' (Mammalia) and included two species, ''Castor fiber'' and ''Castor moschatus''. Among the synonyms of ''Castor fiber'' was cited the one-word name Castor with references to six pre-Linnean works (Gesner 1598, Rondelet 1554, Jonston 1650, Dodart 1676, Ray 1693 and Aldrovandi 1649). ''Castor fiber'' Linnaeus 1758 is type species fixed by Linnean tautonymy (now ''Castor fiber''). * Subsequent methods of type fixation: ::Subsequent monotypy (2 %) :::Examples: :::''Valvata'' Müller, 1773 (Gastropoda) was established with a short description and without species. Müller 1774 included one species ''Valvata cristata'' Müller 1774. ''Valvata cristata'' is type species by subsequent monotypy (now ''Valvata cristata''). :::''Omphiscola'' Rafinesque, 1819 (Gastropoda) was established without species included. Beck 1837 [1838] included one species ''Buccinum glabrum'' Müller, 1774. ''Buccinum glabrum'' is type species by subsequent monotypy (now ''Omphiscola glabra''). ::Subsequent absolute tautonymy (only very few cases) :::Examples: :::''Alosa Garsault, 1764'' (Actinopterygii) was established without included species. As first author, Cuvier, 1829 included two species ''Clupea alosa'' and ''Clupea fincta''. Type species is ''Clupea alosa'' Linnaeus 1758 by subsequent absolute tautonymy (now ''Alosa alosa''). :::''Rupicapra'' Garsault, 1764 (Mammalia) was established without included species. As first author, Blainville, 1816 included three species ''Capra rupicapra'' Linnaeus, 1758, ''Capra pudu'', and ''Capra americana''. Type species is ''Capra rupicapra'' by subsequent absolute tautonymy (now ''Rupicapra rupicapra''). ::Subsequent Linnean tautonymy (only theoretical, there might be no case) ::Subsequent designation (32 %) :::Examples: :::''Aplexa'' Fleming, 1820 (Gastropoda) was established with two species, ''Bulla hypnorum'' Linnaeus, 1758 and ''Bulla rivalis'' Turton, 1807. Herrmannsen 1846 fixed ''Bulla hypnorum'' as type by subsequent designation (now ''Aplexa hypnorum''). :::''Pseudanodonta'' Bourguignat 1877 (Bivalvia) was established with seven species, ''Anodonta complanata'' Rossmässler 1835, and six others. Westerlund 1902 validly designated ''Anodonta complanata'' as type species (now''Pseudanodonta complanata''). A ''species-group name'' can have a name-bearing type specimen, but this is not a requirement. In many cases species-group names have no type specimens, or they are lost. In those cases the application of the species-group name is usually based on common acceptance. If there is no common acceptance, there are provisions in the Code to fix a name-bearing type specimen that is binding for users of that name. Fixing such a name-bearing type should only be done if this is taxonomically necessary (articles 74.7.3, 75.2, 75.3). Examples: : ''Aptenodytes patagonica'' Miller, 1778 is either based on a type specimen, perhaps deposited in the Natural History Museum, London, Natural History Museum London or somewhere else, or its type is lost. This is now irrelevant because the usage of the name (as ''Aptenodytes patagonicus'') for the king penguin is unambiguously accepted. : The name-bearing type for ''Homo sapiens'' Linnaeus, 1758 is deposited in Uppsala (the bones of Carl von Linné). This is a lectotype designated by Stearn 1959, correctly but unnecessarily because the usage of the name was unambiguous at that time, and still is.


Structure

The code divides names in the following manner: * Names above the family group * Family-group names * Genus-group names * Species-group names The names above the family group are regulated only as to the requirements for publication; there is no restriction to the number of ranks and the use of names is not restricted by priority. The names in the family, genus, and species groups are fully regulated by the provisions in the code. There is no limitation to the number of ranks allowed in the family group. The genus group has only two ranks: ''
genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), circumscribing) and classifying gr ...
'' and ''subgenus''. The species group has only two ranks: ''
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
'' and ''subspecies''.


Gender agreement

In the species group ''gender agreement'' applies. The name of a species, in two parts, a
binomen In taxonomy, binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system"), also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, bot ...
, say, ''Loxodonta africana'', and of a subspecies, in three parts, a
trinomen In zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is a ...
, say ''Canis lupus albus'', is in the form of a Latin phrase, and must be grammatically correct Latin. If the second part, the
specific nameSpecific name may refer to: * in Database management systems, a system-assigned name that is unique within a particular database In Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy, either of these two meanings, each with its own set of rules: * Specific name (botany), ...
(or the third part, the
subspecific name In zoological nomenclature, a subspecific name is the third part of a trinomen. In zoology Zoology ()The pronunciation of zoology as is typically regarded as nonstandard, though it is not uncommon. is the branch of biology that studies the an ...
) is adjective, adjectival in nature, its ending must agree in gender with the name of the genus. If it is a noun, or an arbitrary combination of letters, this does not apply. * For instance, the generic name ''Equus (genus), Equus'' is masculine; in the name "Equus africanus," the specific name ''africanus'' is an adjective and its ending follows the gender of the generic name. * In ''Equus zebra'' the specific name ''zebra'' is a noun, it may not be "corrected" to "Equus zebrus". * In ''Equus quagga burchellii'' the subspecific name ''burchellii'' is a noun in the genitive case ("of Burchell"). If a species is moved, therefore, the spelling of an ending may need to change. If ''Gryllus migratorius'' is moved to the genus ''Locusta'', it becomes ''
Locusta migratoria The migratory locust (''Locusta migratoria'') is the most widespread locust species, and the only species in the genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or ...

Locusta migratoria
''. Confusion over Latin grammar has led to many incorrectly formed names appearing in print. An automated search may fail to find all the variant spellings of a given name (e.g., the spellings ''atra'' and ''ater'' may refer to the same species).


History

Written nomenclatural rules in zoology were compiled in various countries since the late 1830s, such as Merton's Rules and Strickland's codes going back to 1843. At the first and second International Congress of Zoology, International Zoological Congresses (Paris 1889, Moscow 1892) zoologists saw the need to establish commonly accepted international rules for all disciplines and countries to replace conventions and unwritten rules that varied across disciplines, countries, and languages. Compiling "International Rules on Zoological Nomenclature" was first proposed in 1895 in Leiden (3rd International Congress for Zoology) and officially published in three languages in 1905 (French, English, German; only French was official). From then on, amendments and modifications were subsequently passed by various International Congress of Zoology, zoological congresses (Boston 1907, Graz 1910, Monaco 1913, Budapest 1927, Padua 1930, Paris 1948, Copenhagen 1953, and London 1958). These were only published in English, and can only be found in the reports of these congresses or other official publications. The 1905 rules became increasingly outdated. They soon sold out, and it became increasingly difficult to obtain to a complete set of the Rules with all amendments. In Copenhagen 1953 the French and English texts of the rules were declared of equivalent official force, and a declaration was approved to prepare a new compilation of the rules. In 1958, an Editorial Committee in London elaborated a completely new version of the nomenclatural rules, which were finally published as the first edition of the ''ICZN Code'' on 9 November 1961. The second edition of the code (only weakly modified) came in 1963. The last zoological congress to deal with nomenclatural problems took place in Monte Carlo 1972, since by then the official zoological organs no longer derived power from zoological congresses. The third edition of the code came out in 1985. The present edition is the 4th edition, effective since 2000. These code editions were elaborated on by editorial committees appointed by the
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals". Founded in 1895, it currently comprises 24 commissioners from 18 countries. Organ ...
. The ICZN Commission takes its power from a general biological congress (IUBS, International Union of Biological Sciences). The editorial committee for the fourth edition was composed of seven persons. Such new editions of the ICZN Code are not democratically approved by those taxonomists who are forced to follow the code's provisions, neither do taxonomists have the right to vote for the members of the commission or the editorial committee. As the commission may alter the code (by declarations and amendments) without issuing a new edition of the book, the current edition does not necessarily contain the actual provision that applies in a particular case. The Code consists of the original text of the fourth edition and Declaration 44. The code is published in an English and a French version; both versions are official and equivalent in force, meaning, and authority. This means that if something in the English code is unclear or its interpretation ambiguous, the French version is decisive, and if there is something unclear in the French code, the English version is decisive.


Commission

The rules in the code apply to all users of zoological names. However, its provisions can be interpreted, waived, or modified in their application to a particular case when strict adherence would cause confusion. Such exceptions are not made by an individual scientist, no matter how well-respected within the field, but only by the
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals". Founded in 1895, it currently comprises 24 commissioners from 18 countries. Organ ...
, acting on behalf of all zoologists. The commission takes such action in response to proposals submitted to it. * Carl Linnaeus named the domestic cat ''Felis catus'' in 1758; Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber named the wildcat ''Felis silvestris'' in 1775. For taxonomists who consider these two kinds of cat a single species the
principle of priority 270px, '' valid name. Priority is a fundamental principle of modern botanical nomenclature and zoological nomenclature. Essentially, it is the principle of recognising the first valid application of a name to a plant or animal. There are two aspec ...
means that the species ought to be named ''F. catus'', but in practice almost all biologists have used ''F. silvestris''. In 2003, the commission issued a ruling (Opinion 2027) that "conserved the usage of 17 specific names based on wild species, which are pre-dated, by or contemporary with those based on domestic forms", confirming ''F. silvestris'' for the wild cat. Taxonomists who consider the domesticated cat the same species as the wild cat should use ''F. silvestris''; taxonomists who consider the domesticated cat a subspecies of the wild cat should use ''F. silvestris catus''; taxonomists who consider the domesticated cat a separate species should use ''F. catus''. The latest amendments enacted by the commission concern electronic publishing, which is now permitted for works published under an ISBN or ISSN after 2011 in a way that ensures registration with ZooBank as well as archival of multiple copies.


Local usage and name changes

The ICZN is used by the scientific community worldwide. Changes are governed by guidelines in the code.Scott L. Wing Causes and Consequences of Globally Warm Climates in the Early ... - 2003 No 369 - Page 288 "Following the general practice of naming species after localities by ending with "-ensis," Schnack (2000) proposed to change the name Discorbis duwi to Discorbis duwiensis. However, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Chapter 7 Article 32) does not allow such a change" Local changes, such as the animal name changes in Turkey, changes proposed by the Turkish government, are not recognised by ICZN.


Citation

The current (fourth edition) code is cited in scientific papers as ICZN (1999) and in reference lists as:- ICZN 1999. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Fourth Edition. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, UK. 306 pp.


Versions

* Strickland, H.E. [et al.] 1843. Report of a committee appointed "to consider of the rules by which the Nomenclature of Zoology may be established on a Uniform and Permanent Basis." ["The Strickland Code".] In: ''Report of 12th Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science'', June 1842, p. 105-121
BHL
[Also published in the ''Philosophical Magazine'' and the ''Annals of Natural History''.] * Strickland, H.E. 1878. ''Rules for Zoological Nomenclature''. John Murray, London
Internet Archive
* Blanchard, R., Maehrenthal, F. von & Stiles, C. W. 1905. ''Règles internationales de la nomenclature zoologique adoptées par les Congrès Internationaux de Zoologie. International Rules of Zoological Nomenclature. Internationale Regeln der Zoologischen Nomenklatur''. Rudeval, Paris
Google Books
* ICZN. 1961. ''International Code of Zoological Nomenclature: adopted by the XV International Congress of Zoology''. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, UK
BHL
* ICZN. 1964. ''International Code of Zoological Nomenclature''. Second edition. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, UK
BHL
* ICZN. 1985. ''International Code of Zoological Nomenclature''. Third edition. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, UK
BHL
* ICZN. 1999. ''International Code of Zoological Nomenclature''. Fourth edition. The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, UK.
BHLThe Code Online (ICZN)


See also

* Author citation (zoology) * ''Nomen dubium'' * ''Nomen nudum'' * ''Nomen oblitum'' * List of authors of names published under the ICZN * ''International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants''


Notes


References


External links


ICZN website

Current text of the code

Code-1, Stoll et al. 1961

Code-2, Stoll et al. 1964

Code-3, Ride et al. 1985

Code-4, Ride et al. 2000

ZooBank: The World Register of Animal Names

Proposed amendment of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication
{{Carl Linnaeus Zoological nomenclature, * Nomenclature codes