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An intelligence agency is a
government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an Administration ...
responsible for the collection,
analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Ari ...
, and exploitation of information in support of
law enforcement File:CBP female officers going aboard a ship.jpg, upU.S. Customs and Border Protection officers boarding a ship 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, dete ...
,
national security National security or national defence is the security and Defence (military), defence of a sovereign state, nation state, including its Citizenship, citizens, economy, and institutions, which is regarded as a duty of government. Originally c ...
,
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or para ...

military
, and
foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Polic ...
objectives. Means of information gathering are both overt and covert and may include
espionage Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret Secrecy is the practice of hiding information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both it ...

espionage
, communication interception,
cryptanalysis cipher machine Cryptanalysis (from the Greek language, Greek ''kryptós'', "hidden", and ''analýein'', "to analyze") is the study of analyzing information system An information system (IS) is a formal, sociotechnical, organizational system desi ...
, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. The assembly and propagation of this information is known as
intelligence analysis Intelligence analysis is the application of individual and collective cognitive methods to weigh data and test hypotheses within a secret socio-cultural context. The descriptions are drawn from what may only be available in the form of deliberatel ...
or
intelligence assessment Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information Information can be thought of as the reso ...
. Intelligence agencies can provide the following services for their national governments. * Give early warning of impending crisis; * Serve national and international
crisis management Crisis management is the process by which an organization deals with a disruptive and unexpected event that threatens to harm the organization or its stakeholders. The study of crisis management originated with large-scale industrial and environ ...
by helping to discern the intentions of current or potential opponents; * Inform national defense planning and
military operation A military operation is the coordinated military action War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurgents, and mi ...
s ( military intelligence); * Protect sensitive information secrets, both of their own sources and activities, and those of other state agencies; * Covertly influence the outcome of events in favor of
national interest National Interest, often referred to by the French expression ''raison d'État'' (), is a rationality of governing referring to a sovereign state's goals and ambitions, be they economic, military, cultural, or otherwise. "Raison d'etat" is an integ ...
s, or influence
international security International security, also called global security, is a term which refers to the measures taken by states and international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field ...
; and * Defense against the efforts of other national intelligence agencies (
counter-intelligence Counterintelligence is an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program from an opposition's intelligence service. It includes gathering information and conducting activities to prevent espionage Espionage or spying is the ...
). The headquarters of the Finnish_Security_Intelligence_Service_or_SUPO_in_Punavuori,_Helsinki.html" ;"title="Punavuori.html" ;"title="Finnish Security Intelligence Service or SUPO in Punavuori">Finnish Security Intelligence Service or SUPO in Punavuori, Helsinki">Punavuori.html" ;"title="Finnish Security Intelligence Service or SUPO in Punavuori">Finnish Security Intelligence Service or SUPO in Punavuori, Helsinki There is a distinction between "security intelligence" and "foreign intelligence". Security intelligence pertains to domestic threats (e.g., terrorism, espionage). Foreign intelligence involves information collection relating to the political, or economic activities of foreign states. Some agencies have been involved in
assassination Assassination is the act of murder, deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state, head of government, heads of government, politicians, Monarchy, royalty, celebrity, celebrities, journalists, or CEOs. An assassina ...

assassination
,
arms trafficking Arms trafficking or gunrunning is the illicit trade of contraband small arms and ammunition, which constitutes part of a broad range of illegal activities often associated with transnational Criminal Organizations, criminal organizations. The illeg ...
, coups d'état, and the placement of misinformation (
propaganda Propaganda is communication that is primarily used to influence Influence or influencer may refer to: *Social influence, in social psychology, influence in interpersonal relationships **Minority influence, when the minority affect the behavior ...
) as well as other
covert Secrecy is the practice of hiding information from certain individuals or groups who do not have the "need to know", perhaps while sharing it with other individuals. That which is kept hidden is known as the secret. Secrecy is often controver ...
and
clandestine operations A clandestine operation is an intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialec ...
, in order to support their own or their governments' interests.


See also

*
Intelligence officerAn intelligence officer is a person employed by an organization to collect, compile or analyze information (known as intelligence) which is of use to that organization. The word of ''officer'' is a working title, not a rank, used in the same way a ...
*
List of intelligence agencies This is a list of intelligence agencies An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, Intelligence analysis, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, a ...
*
List of defunct intelligence agenciesThis is a list of defunct intelligence agencies An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, Intelligence analysis, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, militar ...
*
List of intelligence gathering disciplines This is a list of intelligence gathering disciplines. HUMINT Human intelligence (HUMINT) are gathered from a person in the location in question. Sources can include the following: * Advisors or foreign internal defense (FID) personnel work ...
*
Security agency A security agency is a governmental organization that conducts Intelligence assessment, intelligence activities for the internal security of a nation. They are the domestic cousins of foreign intelligence agency, intelligence agencies, and typical ...
*
Secret police Secret police (or political police) are intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstr ...
*
Secret service A secret service is a government agency A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of spec ...

Secret service
* Counter-intelligence and counter-terrorism organizations


Further reading

Books * ''Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security'', hrg. von K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 3 Bände, Detroit .a.: Gale .a. 2004 * Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, ''Cloak and Dollar: A History of American Secret Intelligence'', Yale University Press, 2002 * Richard C. S. Trahair, ''Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies, and Secret Operations'', Westport, Conn. .a.: Greenwood Press, 2004 * Amy B. Zegart, ''Flawed by Design: The Evolution of the CIA, JCS, and NSC'', Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press, 1999 Journals * ''The Journal of Intelligence History'' Reports * Ruiz, Victor H., 2010. "A Knowledge Taxonomy for Army Intelligence Training: An Assessment of the Military Intelligence Basic Officer Leaders Course Using Lundvall's Knowledge Taxonomy". Applied Research Projects.
Texas State University Texas State University is a public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the ...
Paper 331
Txstate.edu


References


External links


Proposal for a Privacy Protection Guideline on Secret Personal Data Gathering and Transborder Flows of Such Data in the Fight against Terrorism and Serious Crime by Marcel Stuessi

The Literature of Intelligence: A Bibliography of Materials, with Essays, Reviews, and Comments

International Intelligence History Association

Rüdiger Bergien: ''Intelligence History''
version: 1.0, in: Docupedia Zeitgeschichte, 3rd august 2021 {{Authority control