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The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, commonly known as the Inner Temple, is one of the four
Inns of Court The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales. There are four Inns of Court – Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, Inner Temple and Middle Temple. All barristers must belong to one of them. They have ...
(professional associations for
barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually abbreviated in everyday speech to attorney, is the preferred term for a practisin ...

barrister
s and judges) in London. To be
called to the Bar The call to the bar (rarely, call to bar) is a legal term of art Jargon is the specialized terminology associated with a particular field or area of activity. Jargon is normally employed in a particular Context (language use), communicative cont ...
and practise as a barrister in
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...

England and Wales
, a person must belong to one of these Inns. It is located in the wider
Temple A temple (from the Latin ) is a building reserved for spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice. Religions which erect temples include Christianity (whose temples are typically called church (building), churches), Hinduism (w ...
area of the capital, near the
Royal Courts of Justice The Royal Courts of Justice, commonly called the Law Courts, is a court building in Westminster which houses the High Court of Justice of England and Wales, High Court and Court of Appeal of England and Wales. The High Court also sits on circui ...

Royal Courts of Justice
, and within the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
. The Inn is a
professional body Regulatory colleges are legal entities in Canada charged with serving the public interest by regulating the practice of a profession. Most regulatory colleges are established by an Act of Parliament, acts of parliament instead of through articles o ...
that provides legal training, selection, and regulation for members. It is ruled by a governing council called "Parliament", made up of the Masters of the Bench (or "
Bencher Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Temple. A bencher or Master of the Bench is a senior member of an Inns of Court, Inn of Court in England and Wales or the Bar of No ...
s"), and led by the
Treasurer In ''A new way to pay the National Debt'' (1786), King_George_III George_III_(George_William_Frederick;_4_June_173829_January_1820)_was__King_of_Great_Britain_and_Ireland Ireland_(;__ga,_Éire_;_Ulster_Scots_dialect,_Ulster-Scots:__)_i ...
, who is elected to serve a one-year term. The Temple takes its name from the
Knights Templar , colors = White mantle with a red cross A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two intersecting lines or bars, usually perpendicular to each other. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally. A cross of ...
, who originally (until their abolition in 1312) leased the land to the Temple's inhabitants (Templars). The Inner Temple was a distinct society from at least 1388, although as with all the Inns of Court its precise date of founding is not known. After a disrupted early period (during which the Temple was almost entirely destroyed in the
Peasants' Revolt The Peasants' Revolt, also named Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381. The revolt had various causes, including the socio-economic and political tensions generated by the Black ...
) it flourished, becoming the second-largest Inn during the
Elizabethan period The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603). Historians often depict it as the Golden age (metaphor), golden age in English history. The symbol of Britannia ...
(after
Gray's Inn The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, commonly known as Gray's Inn, is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) in London. To be called to the bar in order to practise as a barrister in England and Wale ...
). The Inner Temple expanded during the reigns of
James I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and King of Ireland, Ireland as James I from the Union of the Crowns, union of the Scottish and En ...

James I
and
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...

Charles I
, with 1,700 students admitted between 1600 and 1640. The
First English Civil War The First English Civil War was fought in and , from August 1642 to June 1646. It forms one of the conflicts known collectively as the 1638 to 1651 , which also took place in and . These include the 1638 to 1640 , the , the , the , and th ...
's outbreak led to a complete suspension of legal education,Fletcher (1901) p. xliv with the Inns close to being shut down for almost four years. Following the
English Restoration The Restoration of the Stuart monarchy The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a dynasty, royal house of Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, Kingdom of England, England, Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland and later Kingdom of Great Britain, Gre ...
the Inner Templars welcomed
Charles II
Charles II
back to London personally with a lavish banquet. After a period of slow decline in the 18th century, the following 100 years saw a restoration of the Temple's fortunes, with buildings constructed or restored, such as the Hall and the Library. Much of this work was destroyed during
The Blitz The Blitz was a German bombing campaign against the United Kingdom in 1940 and 1941, during the . The term was first used by the British press and originated from the term , the German word for 'lightning war'. The Germans conducted mass ai ...
, when the Hall, Temple,
Temple Church The Temple Church is a Royal peculiar church in the City of London located between Fleet Street and the River Thames, built by the Knights Templar as their English headquarters. It was consecrated on 10 February 1185 by Patriarch Heraclius of Je ...
, and many sets of barristers' chambers were devastated. Rebuilding was completed in 1959, and today the Temple is a flourishing and active Inn of Court, with over 8,000 members.


Role

The Inner Temple is one of the four
Inns of Court The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales. There are four Inns of Court – Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, Inner Temple and Middle Temple. All barristers must belong to one of them. They have ...
, along with
Gray's Inn The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, commonly known as Gray's Inn, is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) in London. To be called to the bar in order to practise as a barrister in England and Wale ...
,
Lincoln's Inn The Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn is one of the four Inns of Court The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers A barrister is a type of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices ...

Lincoln's Inn
, and the
Middle Temple The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court 300px, Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Te ...

Middle Temple
. The Inns are responsible for training, regulating, and selecting barristers within
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...

England and Wales
, and are the only bodies allowed to call a barrister to the Bar and allow him or her to practice. The Inner Temple is an independent, unincorporated organisation, and works as a trust. It has approximately 8,000 members and around 450 apply to join per year. Although the Inn was previously a disciplinary and teaching body, these functions are now shared between the four Inns, with the
Bar Standards Board The Bar Standards Board regulates barristers in England and Wales for the public interest. It is responsible for: * Setting standards of conduct for barristers and authorising barristers to practise; * Monitoring the service provided by barrist ...
(a division of the
General Council of the Bar The General Council of the Bar, commonly known as the Bar Council, is the representative body for barristers in England and Wales Barristers in England and Wales are one of the two main categories of lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person ...
) acting as a disciplinary body and the Inns of Court and Bar Educational Trust providing education.


History


The Knights Templar and the founding of the Inner Temple

The history of the Inner Temple begins in the early years of the reign of
Henry II Henry II may refer to: Kings *Henry II of England (1133–89), reigned from 1154 *Henry II of Jerusalem and Cyprus (1271–1324), reigned from 1285; king of Jerusalem in name only from 1291 *Henry II of Castile (1334–79), reigned 1366–67 and ...

Henry II
(1154–1189), when the contingent of
Knights Templar , colors = White mantle with a red cross A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two intersecting lines or bars, usually perpendicular to each other. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally. A cross of ...
in London moved from the Old Temple in
Holborn Holborn ( or ) is a district in central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city s ...

Holborn
to a new location on the banks of the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the The Isis, River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At , it is the longest river entirely in England and the Longest rivers of the United Kingdom, se ...
, stretching from
Fleet Street Fleet Street is a major street mostly in the City of London. It runs west to east from Temple Bar, London, Temple Bar at the boundary with the City of Westminster to Ludgate Circus at the site of the London Wall and the River Fleet from which ...

Fleet Street
to what is now Essex House. The original Temple covered much of what is now the northern part of
Chancery Lane Chancery Lane is a one-way street situated in the Wards of the City of London, ward of Farringdon Without in the City of London. It has formed the western boundary of the City since 1994, having previously been divided between the City of West ...
(originally New Street), which the Knights created to provide access to their new buildings. The old Temple eventually became the London palace of the Bishop of Lincoln. After the Reformation it became the home of the
Earl of Southampton 200px, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton Earl of Southampton was a title that was created three times in the Peerage of England. The first creation came in 1537 in favour of the courtier William FitzWilliam, 1st Earl of Southampton, Wi ...
, and the location is now named Southampton Buildings. The first group of lawyers came to live here during the 13th century, although as legal advisers to the Knights rather than as a society. The Knights fell out of favour, and the order was dissolved in 1312, with the land seized by the king and granted to the
Knights Hospitaller The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem ( la, Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), commonly known as the Knights Hospitaller (), was a medieval and early modern Catholic The Catholic Church, ...

Knights Hospitaller
. The Hospitallers probably did not live on the property, but rather used it as a source of revenue through rent. During the 12th and 13th centuries the law was taught in the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It c ...

City of London
, primarily by the clergy. During the 13th century two events happened that ended this form of legal education; first, a
papal bull A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden Seal (emblem), seal (''bulla (seal), bulla'') that was traditionally appended to the end in order to auth ...
of 1207 that prohibited the clergy from teaching the
common law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by courts and similar tribunal A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority ...
, rather than
canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure dis ...
, and second, a decree by on 2 December 1234 that no institutes of legal education could exist in the City of London.Watt (1928) p.133 As a result, the Church ceased to have a role in legal education in London. The secular, common law lawyers migrated to the hamlet of
Holborn Holborn ( or ) is a district in central London Central London is the innermost part of London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city s ...

Holborn
, as it was easy to get to the law courts at
Westminster Hall The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place for both the House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada. In the UK and Canada, the Common ...
and was just outside the City. Two groups occupied the Hospitaller land, and became known as the "inner inn" (occupying the consecrated buildings near the centre of the Temple) and the "middle inn" (occupying the unconsecrated buildings between the "inner inn" and the
Outer Temple The Outer Temple is a building next to Temple, London, the Temple in London, just outside the City of London. In the 14th century, the property seized from the Knights Templar was divided, and that part of the Temple property then just outside Lon ...
). These became the Inner Temple and the
Middle Temple The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court 300px, Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Te ...

Middle Temple
, and were distinct societies by 1388, when they are mentioned in a year book. The Hospitallers leased the land to the Inner Temple for £10 a year, with students coming from
Thavie's Inn Thavie's Inn was a former Inn of Chancery , the only Inn of Chancery building to survive largely intact The Inns of Chancery or ''Hospida Cancellarie'' were a group of buildings and legal institutions in London initially attached to the Inns of C ...
to study there.


Early years

There are few records of the Inner Temple from the 14th and 15th centuries—indeed, from all the societies, although Lincoln's Inn's records stretch back to 1422. The Temple was sacked by
Wat Tyler Wat Tyler (c. 1320/4 January 1341 – 15 June 1381) was a leader of the 1381 Peasants' Revolt in Kingdom of England, England. He marched a group of rebels from Canterbury to City of London, London to oppose the institution of a Tax per head, ...
and his rebels during the
Peasants' Revolt The Peasants' Revolt, also named Wat Tyler's Rebellion or the Great Rising, was a major uprising across large parts of England in 1381. The revolt had various causes, including the socio-economic and political tensions generated by the Black ...
in 1381, with buildings pulled down and records destroyed.
John Stow John Stow (''also'' Stowe; 1524/25 – 5 April 1605) was an English historian A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narr ...

John Stow
wrote that, after breaking into
Fleet Prison#REDIRECT Fleet Prison Fleet Prison was a notorious London prison by the side of the River Fleet. The prison was built in 1197, was rebuilt several times, and was in use until 1844. It was demolished in 1846. History The prison was built in ...
, the rebels:
went to the Temple to destroy it, and plucked down the houses, tooke off the tyles of the other buildings left; went to the churche, tooke out all the bookes and remembrances that were m the hatches of the prentices of the law, carried them into the high street, and there burnt them. This house they spoyled for wrathe they bare to the prior of St. John's, unto whom it belonged, and, after a number of them had sacked this Temple, what with labour and what with wine being overcome, they lay down under the walls and housing,, and were slain like swyne, one of them killing another for old grudge and hatred, and others also made quick dispatch of them. A number of them that burnt the Temple went from thence to the Savoy, destroying in their way all the houses that belonged to the Hospital of St. John.
John Baker thinks that the inhabitants took the opportunity to rebuild much of the Temple, and that this was when the Temple's Hall was built, since it contained 14th century roofing that would not have been available to the Knights Templar. The Inns of Court were similarly attacked in
Jack Cade Jack Cade's Rebellion was a popular revolt in 1450 against the government of England, which took place in the south-east of the country between the months of April and July. It stemmed from local grievances regarding the corruption, maladmi ...

Jack Cade
's rebellion, although there are no specific records showing damage to the Inner Temple. With the
Dissolution of the Monasteries#REDIRECT Dissolution of the monasteries {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
in 1539, the Hospitallers' properties were confiscated by the king, who leased them to the Inner and Middle Temples until 1573. Following a Scotsman's request to purchase the land, the Inner and Middle Temples appealed to
James I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and King of Ireland, Ireland as James I from the Union of the Crowns, union of the Scottish and En ...

James I
, who granted the land to a group of noted lawyers and
Bencher Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Temple. A bencher or Master of the Bench is a senior member of an Inns of Court, Inn of Court in England and Wales or the Bar of No ...
s, including Henry Montague and Sir
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *, the capital city of Italy *, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *, the people of ancient Rome *', shortened ...
, and to "their heirs and assignees for ever" on the condition that the Inner and Middle Temples each paid him £10 a year.


Elizabethan age

The Elizabethan age saw a large amount of rebuilding and beautification within the Temple, and with over 100 sets of chambers it was the second largest Inn (after
Gray's Inn The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, commonly known as Gray's Inn, is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) in London. To be called to the bar in order to practise as a barrister in England and Wale ...
), with 155 residential students reported in 1574. In winter 1561, the Inner Temple was the scene of an extraordinary set of
revels ''Revels'' is a contemporary series of American seasonal stage performances, incorporating singing, dancing, recitals, and theatrics loosely organized around a central theme or narrative. The folk-tradition-based performances started in 1957, we ...
that celebrated the raising of as the Temple's "Christmas Prince", a role he was granted in gratitude for his intervention in a dispute with the
Middle Temple The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court 300px, Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Te ...

Middle Temple
over
Lyon's Inn Lyon's Inn was one of the Inns of Chancery attached to London's Inner Temple The Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, commonly known as the Inner Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) ...
, one of the
Inns of Chancery The Inns of Chancery or ''Hospida Cancellarie'' were a group of buildings and legal institutions in London initially attached to the Inns of Court and used as offices for the clerks of court of equity, chancery, from which they drew their name. ...
that had historically been tied to the Inner Temple. Dudley's influence swayed
Elizabeth Elizabeth or Elisabeth may refer to: People * Elizabeth (given name), a female given name (including people with that name) * Elizabeth (biblical figure), mother of John the Baptist Ships * HMS Elizabeth, HMS ''Elizabeth'', several ships * Elisab ...

Elizabeth
into asking Nicholas Bacon to rule in favour of the Inner Temple, and in gratitude the Parliament and Governors swore never to take a case against Dudley and to offer him their legal services whenever required.Axton (1970) p.365 This pledge was always honoured, and in 1576 the Inner Temple Parliament referred to Dudley as the "chief governor of this House". The play was partially documented by
Gerard Legh Gerard Legh (died 1563) was an English lawyer, known as a writer on heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology Vexi ...
in his ''Accedens of Armory'', a book of heraldry woodcuts, which described Dudley's role as Prince Pallaphilos, the lieutenant of
Athena Athena or Athene, often given the epithet An epithet (, ) is a byname, or a descriptive term (word or phrase), accompanying or occurring in place of a name and having entered common usage. It has various shades of meaning when applied ...

Athena
and Patron of the Order of the Pegasus.


Seventeenth century

The Inner Temple continued to expand during the reigns of
James I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and King of Ireland, Ireland as James I from the Union of the Crowns, union of the Scottish and En ...

James I
and
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...

Charles I
, with 1,700 students admitted to the Inn between 1600 and 1640. The outbreak of the
First English Civil War The First English Civil War was fought in and , from August 1642 to June 1646. It forms one of the conflicts known collectively as the 1638 to 1651 , which also took place in and . These include the 1638 to 1640 , the , the , the , and th ...
led to a complete suspension of legal education, with the Inns almost shut down for nearly four years; the Inns "suffered a mortal collapse". Nothing was done to adapt the old system of legal education, which was declining anyway, to the new climate of internal war. After the end of the Civil War, the old system was not restored; Readers refused to read and both barristers and Benchers refused to follow the internal regulations. The last reading at Inner Temple was made in 1678. Following the
English Restoration The Restoration of the Stuart monarchy The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a dynasty, royal house of Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland, Kingdom of England, England, Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland and later Kingdom of Great Britain, Gre ...
, the Inner Temple welcomed back to London with a lavish banquet on 15 August 1661. The banquet was hosted by Sir Heneage Finch, the Speaker of the House of Commons and was attended by the King, four Dukes including the
Duke of York Duke of York is a title of nobility Nobility is a social class normally ranked immediately below Royal family, royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy (class), aristocracy. Nobility has often been an Estates ...

Duke of York
, fourteen Earls of England, Scotland and Ireland, 6 Lords and the
Chief Justice of the Common Pleas 200px, John Coleridge, the last Chief Justice of the Common Pleas The chief justice of the Common Pleas was the head of the Court of Common Pleas, also known as the Common Bench or Common Place, which was the second-highest common law court ...
. The group proceeded from
Whitehall Whitehall is a road and area in the City of Westminster, Central London. The road forms the first part of the A roads in Zone 3 of the Great Britain numbering scheme, A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea, London, Chelsea. It is the main ...

Whitehall
on the King's barge, landed at the Temple and walked through the Temple Garden surrounded by all the Benchers, barristers and servants of the Temple, fifty of whom brought a lavish feast for the revellers. At the start of the next legal term, two Dukes including the Duke of York, two Earls and two Lords were admitted as members, and the Duke of York was
called to the Bar The call to the bar (rarely, call to bar) is a legal term of art Jargon is the specialized terminology associated with a particular field or area of activity. Jargon is normally employed in a particular Context (language use), communicative cont ...
and made an honorary Bencher. During the rule of the
House of Stuart The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a royal house A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is t ...

House of Stuart
, much was done by the
Court of Star Chamber The Star Chamber (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roma ...
to enforce religious edicts against Catholicism within the Inner Temple. An order was sent directly to the Benchers proclaiming that no "pson eyther convented or suspected for papistrye shulde be called eyther to the benche or to the barre", and at the same time Benchers were selected specifically because of their Protestant beliefs, with popular and successful Catholics held back. This period also features an example of the independent standing of the Temple; in 1668 the Lord Mayor of London attempted to enter the Temple with his sword, something that was his right in the City but not permitted within the Temple. The students took his sword and forced him to spend the night in a set of chambers; when he escaped and tried to return, they called the
Trained Bands Trained Bands were companies of part-time militia A militia () is generally an army or some other Military organization, fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a country, or subjects of a state, who may perform military ...
. The Mayor complained to the King, who heard the case on 7 April 1669 and decided to allow it to be determined by law rather than by his royal privilege; the lawyers returned to the principle that the Temple could set its own internal rules on the right to carry swords. Much of the Inn was destroyed in the
Great Fire of London Great may refer to: Descriptions or measurements * Great, a relative measurement in physical space, see Size * Greatness, being divine, majestic, superior, majestic, or transcendent People with the name * "The Great", a historical suffix to people ...

Great Fire of London
in 1666, and extensive damage was done in other fires in 1677 and 1678. One of these fires destroyed Caeser's Buildings, on Middle Temple Lane where Lamb Buildings now stand, and the site was purchased by Middle Temple from Inner Temple, which needed the proceeds to repair or rebuild other buildings.


Eighteenth century to the present

The 18th century was a period of relative stability, with an element of decline. The Benchers of the time were described as "opposed to all modern fashions, including new-fangled comforts", with the Inn's buildings deteriorating. Much of the Temple was rebuilt during the 19th century, most noticeably the Hall and Library, although fever and disease continued as a result of the Inn's outdated systems; the same water was used both for drinking and for flushing the toilet, for example. In 1922 the Temple called
Ivy Williams Dr. Ivy Williams (7 September 1877 – 18 February 1966) was the first woman to be called to the English bar, in May 1922. She never practised but she was the first woman to teach law at a British university. Biography Williams was born in Newt ...
to the bar, making her the first female barrister in England and Wales. The Temple suffered massively during
The Blitz The Blitz was a German bombing campaign against the United Kingdom in 1940 and 1941, during the . The term was first used by the British press and originated from the term , the German word for 'lightning war'. The Germans conducted mass ai ...
in the Second World War, including attacks on 19 September and 26 September 1940, which destroyed the Library clocktower and the Hall respectively; on 10–11 May 1941 the Inn was hit by a series of incendiaries which destroyed the inside of Temple Church, the Hall, the Library and many sets of chambers. Fires continued to burn for another day, despite the assistance of the
Fire Brigade A fire department (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United Sta ...
and several barristers and employees. It was decided not to start rebuilding until after the cessation of hostilities, and plans began in 1944, when the Temple contacted the War Damage Commission to provide the £1.5 million to cover the damage. £1.4 million was provided, with the rest found elsewhere. There was a further delay due to the Temple's choice of architect, Hubert Worthington, who was so slow that the Benchers ended up replacing him with his junior associate, T.W. Sutcliffe, and eventually
Sir Edward Maufe Sir is a formal English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the ...
. The chambers were the priority, with parts of
King's Bench Walk King's Bench Walk is a street in Temple, London, Temple, in the City of London. It is mainly made up of Barristers in England and Wales, barristers' chambers. History King's Bench Walk is located in the Inner Temple, one of the four Inns of Court ...
finished in 1949, and the final building (the Library) was opened on 21 April 1958. In 2001 the Inner Temple bought the neighbouring 1–2
Serjeant's Inn Serjeant's Inn (formerly Serjeants' Inn) was the Inn of Court Image:London-Inns-of-Court.JPG, 300px, Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Temple. The Inns of Court in L ...
, which can be accessed directly from the Inner Temple, with the intention of converting it to barristers' chambers. However, instead, the premises has been let on a 99-year lease to Apex Hotels. No. 3 Serjeant's Inn has been a barristers' chambers, occupying commercial premises, since 1986. Mitre Court, which connects the Inner Temple area, Serjeant's Inn and Fleet Street, is occupied as barristers' chambers, residential flats and more recently, solicitors.


Structure and governance

The Inner Temple is governed by the Parliament, an executive council made up of the elected
Bencher Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Temple. A bencher or Master of the Bench is a senior member of an Inns of Court, Inn of Court in England and Wales or the Bar of No ...
s. The Parliament is led by the Treasurer, who is elected annually to serve a one-year term; the Treasurer for 2020 and 2021 was Guy Fetherstonhaugh QC. The Inner Temple also has a Reader, who traditionally holds the position for a year before being appointed as Treasurer; the Reader for 2020 and 2021 was Judge Deborah Taylor. The Inner Temple was historically governed by a Treasurer and three Governors. Members were divided into two categories; Clerks (''Clerici'') admitted to Clerks' Commons and Fellows (''Socii'') admitted to Fellows' Commons. The Governors held Parliament with a small group of senior barristers; in 1508, for example, Parliament was held with three Governors and four senior barristers. The last Governor was elected in 1566, and Benchers took over later that century. Benchers, or Masters of the Bench, are elected members of the Parliament responsible for overseeing the estates, the Inn's finances and setting internal policy. Today there are approximately 350 Governing Benchers (barristers and members of the judiciary) and honorary, academic and Royal Benchers appointed ,as well as those practising in other jurisdictions.


Coat of arms

The coat of arms of the Inner Temple is, in
blazon In heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, Imperial, royal and noble rank ...

blazon
, " Azure a pegasus salient
argent In heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology Vexillology () is the study of the history, symbolism and usage of ...

argent
", or a
Pegasus Pegasus ( gr, Πήγασος, ''Pḗgasos''; la, Pegasus, Pegasos) is a mythical Myth is a folklore genre Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to t ...

Pegasus
.
Gerard Legh Gerard Legh (died 1563) was an English lawyer, known as a writer on heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology Vexi ...
is normally given the credit for having suggested the Pegasus as a coat of arms, having given an account of playing the part of Prince Pallaphilos, a patron of the Honorable Order of Pegasus in the 1561 Christmas
revels ''Revels'' is a contemporary series of American seasonal stage performances, incorporating singing, dancing, recitals, and theatrics loosely organized around a central theme or narrative. The folk-tradition-based performances started in 1957, we ...
. It may alternately have come about because of the tiles in Temple Church, which show a knight on horseback with a shield and sword raised. From this point onwards, the arms were considered the Temple's property, and they were confirmed by the
College of Arms The College of Arms, or Heralds' College, is a royal corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by ...
in 1967.


Liberty

Inner Temple (together with the neighbouring
Middle Temple The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, commonly known simply as Middle Temple, is one of the four Inns of Court 300px, Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. Clockwise from top left: Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, Inner Te ...

Middle Temple
) is also one of the few remaining liberties, an old name for a type of administrative division. It is an independent
extra-parochial area In England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom ...
, historically not governed by the
City of London Corporation The City of London Corporation, officially and legally the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London The City of London is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (19 ...
(and is today regarded as a local authority for most purposes) and equally outside the
ecclesiastical jurisdiction Ecclesiastical jurisdiction signifies jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from L ...
of the
Bishop of London The Bishop of London is the Ordinary (church officer), ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of London in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers of 17 boroughs of Greater London north of the Thames, River Thames (historically the ...
. The Inner Temple's functions as a local council are set out in the Temples Order 1971. It geographically falls within the boundaries and liberties of the City, but can be thought of as an independent
enclave An enclave is a territory (or a part of one) that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Enclaves may also exist within territorial waters. ''Enclave'' is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly ...

enclave
.


Plate

The Inner Temple is noted for its collection of silver and
pewter Pewter () is a malleable Ductility is a mechanical property commonly described as a material's amenability to drawing Drawing is a form of visual art in which an artist uses instruments to mark paper Paper is a thin sheet materia ...
plate,Jones (1939) p.401 described in the early 20th century as similar in value to that of
Oxford Oxford () is a city in England. It is the county town In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' u ...

Oxford
or
Cambridge University The University of Cambridge is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by Henry III of England, Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest ...
.Bellot (1902) p.116 The first reference to plate is in 1534, with a silver cup left to the Temple as part of the estate of a Master Sutton. Further pieces were added over the next century, with Robert Bowes giving a silver gilt cup to
Sir John Baker John Baker or Jon Baker may refer to: Military figures *John Baker (American Revolutionary War) (1731–1787), American Revolutionary War hero, for whom Baker County, Georgia was named *John Baker (RAF officer) (1897–1978), British air marshal ...
on 16 May 1563. The cup, which was shaped like a melon with feet formed from the "tendrils" of the melon, is a prized possession of the Temple.
Nicholas Hare Sir Nicholas Hare of Bruisyard, Suffolk (c. 1484 – 31 October 1557) was Speaker of the House of Commons of England between 1539 and 1540. Life He was born the eldest son of John Hare of Homersfield, Suffolk, educated at Gonville and Caius Coll ...
left three silver
salt cellar A salt cellar (also called a salt, salt-box and a salt pig) is an article of tableware upright=1.3, Table laid for six at the Royal Castle, Warsaw, (18th-19th century fashion) Tableware are the dishes or dishware used for setting a table, se ...

salt cellar
s for the use of the Benchers in 1597. Two silver candlesticks were bought in 1606, another salt cellar in 1610 and six silver spoons in 1619. A large part of the "house plate" was stolen in 1643, and it is unknown whether it was recovered, although money was spent in prosecuting the offender.Bellot (1902) p.117 Two silver cups were bought in 1699, and records from 1 January 1703 show that the Temple owned one gilt cup (the "melon" cup) five salt cellars, ten large cups, twelve little cups, and twenty-three spoons. Twelve more spoons were bought in 1707, along with another silver cup, and at some point in this period the Temple purchased or was given a '' nef''. A dozen teaspoons were bought in 1750, a coffee pot in 1788 and an "argyle" or gravy holder in 1790.


Buildings

The Inner Temple contains many buildings, some modern and some ancient, although only
Temple Church The Temple Church is a Royal peculiar church in the City of London located between Fleet Street and the River Thames, built by the Knights Templar as their English headquarters. It was consecrated on 10 February 1185 by Patriarch Heraclius of Je ...
dates back to the time of the
Knights Templar , colors = White mantle with a red cross A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two intersecting lines or bars, usually perpendicular to each other. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally. A cross of ...
s who originally inhabited the site.


Chambers

The Inn contains several buildings and sets of buildings used to house barristers' chambers, with those rooms above the second floor generally being residential in nature. The sets are Crown Office Row, Dr Johnson's Buildings, Farrar's Building, Francis Taylor Building, Harcourt Buildings, Hare Court, King's Bench Walk, Littleton Building, Mitre Court Buildings, Paper Buildings and the eastern side of Temple Gardens. Crown Office Row was named after the Crown Office, which used to sit on the site and was removed in 1621. The first building (described by Charles Dugdale as "the Great Brick Building over against the Garden") was constructed in 1628, and completely replaced in 1737. The current buildings were designed and built by
Sir Edward Maufe Sir is a formal English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the ...
.
Charles Lamb Charles Lamb (10 February 1775 – 27 December 1834) was an English essayist, poet, and antiquarian 's cabinet of curiosities, from ''Museum Wormianum,'' 1655 An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: ''antiquarius'', meaning pertaining to ...

Charles Lamb
was born in No. 2 Crown Office Row, which was destroyed during the Second World War, and
Thomas CoventryThomas Coventry may refer to: *Thomas Coventry, 1st Baron Coventry (1578–1640), English lawyer, politician and judge *Thomas Coventry, 2nd Baron Coventry (1606–1661), English politician *Thomas Coventry, 1st Earl of Coventry (c. 1629–1699) *Tho ...
maintained a set of chambers there. Harcourt Buildings were first built in 1703 by John Banks and named after Simon Harcourt, the Treasurer of the time. There were three buildings, 50 feet wide, 27 feet deep and 3 storeys high. Replacements were constructed between 1832 and 1833, and were not particularly attractive—Hugh Bellot said that they "could scarcely be more unsightly". These replacements were destroyed in 1941, and new buildings were built based on a design by Hubert Worthington. Hare Court was named after Nicholas Hare, who built the first set in 1567. The west and south sides were destroyed in the fire of 1678. On 31 May 1679 orders were given to replace the west side with four new buildings three storeys high, which were funded by the Treasurer (Thomas Hanmer) and the tenants at the time, including
Judge Jeffreys George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys, PC (15 May 1645 – 18 April 1689), also known as "the Hanging Judge", was a Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic la ...
. The Court features a
pump A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow (isochoric process, isochoric flow) refers to a fluid flow, flow in which the ...

pump
, the water of which was noted in the 19th century for its purity. King's Bench Walk has contained buildings since at least 1543, although these were burnt down in the
Great Fire of London Great may refer to: Descriptions or measurements * Great, a relative measurement in physical space, see Size * Greatness, being divine, majestic, superior, majestic, or transcendent People with the name * "The Great", a historical suffix to people ...

Great Fire of London
in 1666 and their replacements destroyed in another fire in 1677.Bellot (1902) p.59 The buildings take their name from the Office of the
King's Bench The Queen's Bench (); or, during the reign of a male monarch, the King's Bench ('), is the superior court in a number of jurisdictions within some of the Commonwealth realm A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state A sovereign state ...
, which was situated in the row and destroyed in the 1677 fire. Buildings were reconstructed in 1678 and 1684, and a noted inhabitant of these early constructs was
Lord Mansfield William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, PC, SL (2 March 170520 March 1793) was a British barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdiction (area), jurisdictions. Barristers mostly specialise in courtroom advocacy and litig ...

Lord Mansfield
. The current buildings date from the first, 1678 construction to, most recently, chambers built in 1948. Mitre Court Buildings are on the site of Fuller's Rents, constructed in 1562 by John Fuller, the Temple's Treasurer. Noted residents of chambers here included
Sir Edward Coke Sir Edward Coke ( "cook", formerly ; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister, judge, and politician who is considered the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan era, Elizabethan and Jacobean era, Jacobean eras. Born into ...

Sir Edward Coke
. Mitre Court was erected on the site in 1830, and based on a design by Robert Smirke. While constructing it the labourers found a hoard of 67
guinea Guinea (), officially the Republic of Guinea (french: link=no, République de Guinée), is a coastal country in West Africa. Guinea borders the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Guinea-Bissau to the northwest, Senegal to the north, Mali to the no ...
s dated from the reigns of monarchs from to
George IIGeorge II or 2 may refer to: People * George II of Antioch (seventh century AD) * George II of Armenia (late ninth century) * George II of Abkhazia (916–960) * Patriarch George II of Alexandria (1021–1051) * George II of Georgia (1072–1089) * ...
, which were confiscated by the Clerk of the Works.
Paper Buildings Paper Buildings are a set of Chambers (law), chambers located in the Inner Temple in Temple, London. They were initially constructed in 1609. Paper Buildings appear in A Tale of Two Cities and Barnaby Rudge. On 6 March 1838, about twenty sets of ...
are on the site of Heyward's Buildings, constructed in 1610. The "paper" part of the name comes from the fact that they were built from timber, lath and plaster, a construction method known as "paperwork". A fire in 1838 destroyed three of the buildings, which were immediately replaced with a design by Robert Smirke, with
Sydney Smirke Sydney Smirke (20 December 1797 – 8 December 1877) was a British architect. Smirke who was born in London, England as the fifth son of painter Robert Smirke (painter), Robert Smirke and his wife, Elizabeth Russell. He was the younger brothe ...
later adding two more buildings. A famous resident of (at the time) Heyward's Buildings was
John Selden John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) John (; ') is a common masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British Engli ...
, who was one of the original tenants and shared a set of chambers with Heyward himself.


Gardens and Gateway

Inner Temple Gardens were laid out around 1601, with a set of decorated railings added in 1618 with the Temple's pegasus and the griffin of
Gray's Inn The Honourable Society of Gray's Inn, commonly known as Gray's Inn, is one of the four Inns of Court (professional associations for barristers and judges) in London. To be called to the bar in order to practise as a barrister in England and Wale ...
, a sign of the strong relationship between the two; the design was included in the new iron gates made in 1730, which are still present. The gardens contain various landmarks, including a sundial from 1707 by Edward Strong the Elder, a pair of cisterns dated from 1730 and a lead statute of a blackmoor by
John Nost Image:Vannost.jpg, Preparatory drawing by Jan van Nost for a statue of William III & II, now in the Victoria & Albert Museum John Nost (Dutch language, Dutch: Jan van Nost) (died 1729) was a Flemish sculptor who worked in England in the late 17th ...
, which was transferred from
Clifford's Inn Clifford's Inn is a former Inn of Chancery in London. It was located between Fetter Lane, Clifford's Inn Passage, leading off Fleet Street Fleet Street is a major street mostly in the City of London The City of London is a City status i ...

Clifford's Inn
when Clifford's was destroyed. A
rookery A rookery is a colony of breeding animals, generally birds. A rookery is generally reserved for a colony of gregarious Sociality is the degree to which individuals in an animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryo ...

rookery
was established during the 18th century by Edward Northey, who brought a colony of crows from his estates in
Epsom Epsom is the principal town of the Borough of Epsom and Ewell Epsom and Ewell () is a Non-metropolitan district, local government district with borough status in Surrey, England, covering the towns of Epsom and Ewell. The borough was forme ...
to fill it. The gardens were previously noted for their roses, and
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is often called England's national p ...

William Shakespeare
claimed that the
Wars of the Roses The Wars of the Roses were a series of fifteenth-century English civil wars for control of the throne of England, fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, represented by a ...
started in the Inner Temple Garden. The gardens have recently been the subject of substantial restoration under the auspices of the Master of the Garden, Oliver Sells QC. The Gateway, at the top of Inner Temple Lane on
Fleet Street Fleet Street is a major street mostly in the City of London. It runs west to east from Temple Bar, London, Temple Bar at the boundary with the City of Westminster to Ludgate Circus at the site of the London Wall and the River Fleet from which ...

Fleet Street
, is thought to have existed in the same location since the founding of the Temples by the Knights Templar. It was rebuilt in 1610 by John Bennett, the King's
Serjeant-at-Arms A serjeant-at-arms, or sergeant-at-arms, is an officer appointed by a deliberative body, usually a legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sover ...
, and again rebuilt in 1748. The building above it (which is not owned by the Inn) is reputed to have been the council chambers of
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales (19 February 1594 – 6 November 1612), was the eldest son and heir apparent of James VI and I, King of Kingdom of England, England and Kingdom of Scotland, Scotland; and his wife Anne of Denmark. His name de ...
and Charles, Prince of Wales, later
Charles ICharles I may refer to: Kings and emperors * Charlemagne (742–814), numbered Charles I in the lists of French and German kings * Charles I of Anjou (1226–1285), also king of Albania, Jerusalem, Naples and Sicily * Charles I of Hungary (1288 ...

Charles I
.


Hall

The original Inner Temple Hall is the Hall or refectory of the original
Knights Templar , colors = White mantle with a red cross A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two intersecting lines or bars, usually perpendicular to each other. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally. A cross of ...
building on the site, and has been dated to the 8th century. It was extensively repaired in 1606 and 1629, but was still in poor condition in 1816. Despite this, little was done at that time but replacing the timbers which had gone rotten and patching the crumbling walls with brick. As a result of the poor condition and the increasing numbers of barristers, it was demolished in 1868. Its replacement was a larger hall in the
Gothic style Gothic architecture (or pointed architecture) is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of Sty ...
, designed by
Sydney Smirke Sydney Smirke (20 December 1797 – 8 December 1877) was a British architect. Smirke who was born in London, England as the fifth son of painter Robert Smirke (painter), Robert Smirke and his wife, Elizabeth Russell. He was the younger brothe ...
, which was opened on 14 May 1870 by Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, Princess Louise. The new Hall was 94 feet long, 41 feet wide and 40 feet high, with glass windows featuring the coats of arms of noted Treasurers from 1506 onwards running around the room. There were two doors, one to the south and one to the north, which are said by William Dugdale to be the remnants of a "great carved screen" erected in 1574. The Hall was destroyed during the Second World War, and the foundation stone for the new hall was laid by Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Queen Elizabeth in 1952. The building was designed by Hubert Worthington and opened in 1955 as part of a complex involving the Hall, Library and Benchers' Chambers.


Library

The original Library existed from at least 1506, and consisted of a single room. This was not a dedicated library, as it was also used for dining when there were too many barristers for the hall, and later for moot court, moots. By 1607 a second room had been added, and Edward Coke donated a copy of his ''Reports'' for the library a year later. The Library of the Inner Temple was far superior to those of the other
Inns of Court The Inns of Court in London are the professional associations for barristers in England and Wales. There are four Inns of Court – Gray's Inn, Lincoln's Inn, Inner Temple and Middle Temple. All barristers must belong to one of them. They have ...
, and "placed the House far in advance of the other societies". The Library refused to accept
John Selden John is a common English name and surname: * John (given name) John (; ') is a common masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British Engli ...
's manuscripts in 1654, most likely because the size of the collection would necessitate a new building, but it has been described as "the greatest loss which the Library of the Inner Temple ever sustained". The Library was entirely destroyed in the
Great Fire of London Great may refer to: Descriptions or measurements * Great, a relative measurement in physical space, see Size * Greatness, being divine, majestic, superior, majestic, or transcendent People with the name * "The Great", a historical suffix to people ...

Great Fire of London
, but a replacement was built in 1668. A second, smaller fire in 1679 necessitated the destruction of one library building to act as a firebreak and save the hall. In 1707 the Inner Temple was offered the Petyt Manuscripts and a sum of £150 to build a new Library, which was completed in 1709 and consisted of three rooms. A Librarian was appointed immediately, and the practice continues to this day. Modifications were made in 1867, 1872 and 1882 which extended the Library to eight rooms A new Library was built on the site of the old one in the 19th century, with the north wing being completed in 1882, and contained 26,000 law volumes, as well as 36,000 historical and architectural texts. This building was destroyed during the Second World War, and although some of the rarest manuscripts had been moved off site, 45,000 books were lost. A replacement Library was built in 1958, and currently contains approximately 70,000 books.


Temple Church

Temple Church has been described as "the finest of the four round churches still existing in London". The original Round was constructed in 1185 by the
Knights Templar , colors = White mantle with a red cross A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two intersecting lines or bars, usually perpendicular to each other. The lines usually run vertically and horizontally. A cross of ...
and consecrated by the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, Patriarch of Jerusalem on 10 February. The church was highly regarded during this period, with William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, William the Marshal buried there and Henry III of England, Henry III initially making plans before changing to Westminster Abbey. After the fall of the Templars the church, along with the rest of the Temple, fell into the hands of the
Knights Hospitaller The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem ( la, Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), commonly known as the Knights Hospitaller (), was a medieval and early modern Catholic The Catholic Church, ...

Knights Hospitaller
, and from there passed to Henry VIII of England, Henry VIII, who appointed a priest, known as the Master of the Temple. The Royal Charter granted by
James I James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and King of Ireland, Ireland as James I from the Union of the Crowns, union of the Scottish and En ...

James I
that guaranteed the independence of the Inner and Middle Temples did so on the condition that the Temples maintain the church, a requirement which has been followed to this day. Both societies also own the Master's House next to the church, a Georgian townhouse built in 1764. During the reign of the elegant columns which had dominated the church were covered with oak wainscotting. Repairs to the east end of the church took place in 1707, and the exterior of the north and east sides was repaired in 1737. Some further repairs took place in 1811, but the main restoration happened in 1837, when Robert Smirke restored the south side and removed most of the wainscotting. This was followed with more repairs in 1845, which lowered the floor to its original height, removed ugly whitewash which had been added a century earlier and led to the discovery of a marble piscina at the east end. All of this work was destroyed on 10 May 1941 during the Second World War when incendiary device, firebombs gutted the church. Over the next decade the church was restored, and it was reconsecrated in 1954 by the Archbishop of Canterbury.


Notable members

Significant members of the judiciary include
Sir Edward Coke Sir Edward Coke ( "cook", formerly ; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister, judge, and politician who is considered the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan era, Elizabethan and Jacobean era, Jacobean eras. Born into ...

Sir Edward Coke
, Elizabeth Butler-Sloss, Baroness Butler-Sloss, Lady Justice Butler-Sloss, and Norman Birkett, Lord Justice Birkett. Salihu Modibbo Alfa Belgore, Justice S.M.A. Belgore, Grand Commander of the Order of the Niger, GCON, a former Chief Justice of Nigeria. Several barrister members have gone on to be highly important, including Edward Marshall-Hall, and legal academics have also been members, such as John Baker (legal historian), Sir John Baker. The first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru; the Indian independence activist, Mahatma Gandhi; The first Prime Minister of Pakistan Liaqat Ali Khan was called to Bar in 1922 by one of his English law professor. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Prime Ministers Clement Attlee and George Grenville have both been members; as was the first Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tunku Abdul Rahman; the fifth President of India, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed; the fourth Prime Minister of Ceylon, S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike ; the Chief Minister of West Bengal, Siddhartha Shankar Ray, Pt Ram Chandra Kukreti, one of the first barristers of Dehradun, India, was also its member. Outside of the law and politics, members have included the poet Arthur Brooke (poet), Arthur Brooke, Admiral Francis Drake, dramatist W. S. Gilbert, the economist John Maynard Keynes, King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck of Bhutan, Burma's first recorded archaeologist Taw Sein Ko, and diplomat and Righteous among the Nations Constantin Karadja, Prince Constantin Karadja.Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi#English barrister


See also

* Thomas Joshua Platt


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Official Website
{{Authority control Inns of Court Professional education in London Education in the City of London Politics of the City of London Organisations based in the City of London Districts of the City of London English law Bar of England and Wales Knights Templar Buildings and structures in the United Kingdom destroyed during World War II Rebuilt buildings and structures in the United Kingdom Grade I listed buildings in the City of London Grade I listed law buildings Liberties of London Local authorities in London Local precepting authorities in England