HOME

TheInfoList




The USC Information Sciences Institute (ISI) is a component of the
University of Southern California , mottoeng = "Let whoever earns the palm bear it" , religious_affiliation = Nonsectarian - Methodist Methodism, also called the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations Denomination may refer to: * Religious de ...

University of Southern California
(USC)
Viterbi School of Engineering Image:USC_Campaign_1783.jpg, 240px, USC Viterbi School of Engineering. The USC Viterbi School of Engineering (formerly the USC School of Engineering) is located at the University of Southern California in the United States. It was renamed followin ...
, and specializes in research and development in information processing, computing, and communications technologies. It is located in
Marina del Rey, California Marina del Rey is an unincorporated seaside community in Los Angeles County, California Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, is the most populous county in the United States The United States of America (USA), ...

Marina del Rey, California
. ISI actively participated in the information revolution, and it played a leading role in developing and managing the early
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
and its predecessor
ARPAnet The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was the first wide-area packet-switching network with distributed control and one of the first networks to implement the Internet protocol suite, TCP/IP protocol suite. Both technologies ...
.Bekey, George A. ''"A Remarkable Trajectory: From Humble Beginnings to Global Prominence'', The history of the USC Viterbi School of Engineering." Charleston: CreateSpace, 2015. Print. The Institute conducts basic and applied research supported by more than 20 U.S. government agencies involved in defense, science, health, homeland security, energy and other areas. Annual funding is about $100 million. ISI employs about 350 research scientists, research programmers, graduate students and administrative staff at its Marina del Rey, California headquarters and in Arlington, Virginia. About half of the research staff hold PhD degrees, and about 40 are research faculty who teach at USC and advise graduate students. Several senior researchers are tenured USC faculty in the Viterbi School.


Research and sponsors

ISI research spans
artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstra ...

artificial intelligence
(AI),
cybersecurity Computer security, cybersecurity, or information technology security (IT security) is the protection of computer system A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logic ...
,
grid computing Grid computing is the use of widely distributed computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic s ...
,
cloud computing Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operatio ...

cloud computing
,
quantum computing Quantum computing is a type of computation Computation is any type of that includes both al and non-arithmetical steps and which follows a well-defined model (e.g. an ). Mechanical or electronic devices (or, , people) that perform computatio ...
, microelectronics, supercomputing, nano-satellites and many other areas. AI expertise includes natural language processing, in which ISI has an international reputation, reconfigurable robotics, information integration, motion analysis and social media analysis. Hardware/software expertise includes cyber-physical system security, data mining,
reconfigurable computing Reconfigurable computing is a computer architecture In computer engineering Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of engineering Engineering is the use of scientific method, scientific principles to design and build machi ...
and cloud computing. In networking, ISI explores Internet resilience, Internet traffic analysis and photonics, among other areas. Researchers also work in scientific data management, wireless technologies,
biomimetics Biomimetics or biomimicry is the emulation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems. The terms "biomimetics" and "biomimicry" are derived from grc, βίος (''bios''), life, and μίμησι ...
and electrical
smart grid #REDIRECT Smart grid #REDIRECT Smart grid A smart grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operation and energy measures including: * advanced metering infrastructure (of which smart meters are a generic name for any utility sid ...
, in which ISI is advising the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power on a major demonstration project. Another current initiative involves
big data Big data is a field that treats ways to analyze, systematically extract information from, or otherwise deal with data set A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of informati ...

big data
brain imaging jointly with the Keck School of Medicine of USC. Federal agency sponsors include the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Education, Department of Energy, Department of Homeland Security, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, and other scientific, technical, and defense-related agencies. Corporate partners include Chevron Corp. in th
Center for Interactive Smart Oilfield Technologies
(CiSoft), Lockheed Martin Company in the USC-Lockheed Martin Quantum Computing Center, and Parsons Corp. subsidiary Sparta Inc. in th
DETER Project
a cybersecurity research initiative and international testbed. ISI also has partnered with businesses including
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
Corporation,
Samsung Electronics Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (; lit. "tristar electronics", sometimes shortened to SEC and stylized as SΛMSUNG) is a South Korean multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in ...
Company, the
Raytheon Raytheon Technologies Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * ...

Raytheon
Company,
GlobalFoundries GlobalFoundries Inc. (GF or GloFo) is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinationa ...
Inc.,
Northrop Grumman Northrop Grumman Corporation () is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Mult ...

Northrop Grumman
Corporation and
Carl Zeiss AG Carl Zeiss AG (), branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems and optoelectronics, founded in Jena Jena (; ) is a German List of cities and towns in Germany, city and the second largest city in Thuringia. Together with t ...
, and currently is working wit
Micron Technology, Inc.
Altera Altera Corporation was a manufacturer of programmable logic devices (PLDs) headquartered in San Jose, California. It was founded in 1983 and acquired by Intel in 2015. The main product lines from Altera were the Stratix, mid-range Arria, and lowe ...
Corporation and
Fujitsu is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational information and communications technology equipment and services corporation, established in 1935 and headquartered in Tokyo. Fujitsu is the world's sixth-largest Information technology, I ...

Fujitsu
Ltd. ISI also operates th
Metal Oxide Semiconductor Implementation Service
(MOSIS), a multi-project electronic circuit wafer service that has prototyped more than 60,000 chips since 1981. MOSIS provides design tools and pools circuit designs to produce specialty and low-volume chips for corporations, universities and other research entities worldwide. The Institute also has given rise to several startup and spinoff companies in grid software, geospatial information fusion, machine translation, data integration and other technologies.


History

ISI was founded by
Keith Uncapher Keith Uncapher (1922–2002) was an American computer engineer and manager. At the RAND Corporation Uncapher worked on several pioneering computer projects. He founded the Information Sciences Institute (ISI) at the University of Southern Californ ...
, who headed the computer research group at RAND Corporation in the 1960s and early 1970s. Uncapher decided to leave RAND after his group's funding was cut in 1971. He approached the University of California at Los Angeles about creating an off-campus technology institute, but was told that a decision would take 15 months. He then presented the concept to USC, which approved the proposal in five days. ISI was launched with three employees in 1972. Its first proposal was funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 30 days for $6 million. ISI became one of the earliest nodes on ARPANET, the predecessor to the Internet, and in 1977 figured prominently in a demonstration of its international viability. ISI also helped refine the
TCP/IP The Internet protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, is the set of communications protocol A communication protocol is a system of rules that allows two or more entities of a communications system 400px, Communication system A commu ...
communications protocols fundamental to Net operations, and researcher
Paul Mockapetris Paul V. Mockapetris (born 1948 in Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts ...
developed the now-familiar
Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and Decentralised system, decentralized naming system used to identify computers, Internet#Applications_and_services, services, and other resources reachable through the internet or other intern ...

Domain Name System
characterized by .com, .org, .net, .gov, and .edu on which the Net still operates. (The names .com, .org et al. were invented at
SRI International SRI International (SRI) is an American nonprofit organization, nonprofit scientific research, scientific research institute and organization headquartered in Menlo Park, California. The trustees of Stanford University established SRI in 1946 as ...
, an ongoing collaborator.)
Steve Crocker Stephen D. Crocker (born October 15, 1944 in Pasadena, California, United States) is the inventor of the Request for Comments series, authoring the first RFC and many more. He attended Van Nuys High School, as did Vint Cerf and Jon Postel. Crocke ...
originated the Request for Comments (RFC) series, the written record of the network's technical structure and operation that both documented and shaped the emerging Internet. Another ISI researcher, Danny Cohen, became first to implement packet voice and packet video over ARPANET, demonstrating the viability of packet switching for real-time applications.
Jonathan Postel Jonathan Bruce Postel (; August 6, 1943 – October 16, 1998) was an American computer scientist who made many significant contributions to the development of the Internet, particularly with respect to Internet Standard, standards. He is known p ...
collaborated in development of TCP/IP, DNS and the SMTP protocol that supports email. He also edited the RFC for nearly three decades until his sudden death in 1998, when ISI colleagues assumed responsibility. The Institute retained that role until 2009. Postel simultaneously directed the
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a standards organization that oversees global IP address allocation, Autonomous system (Internet), autonomous system number allocation, DNS root zone, root zone management in the Domain Name Sys ...
(IANA) and its predecessor, which assign Internet addresses. IANA was administered from ISI until a nonprofit organization,
ICANN The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN ) is an American multistakeholder group and nonprofit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or ...

ICANN
, was created for that purpose in 1998.


Other achievements

Some of the first Net security applications, and one of the world's first portable computers, also originated at ISI. ISI researchers also created or co-created the: *GLOBUS grid computing standard *LOOM knowledge representation language and environment, or
LOOM (ontology) Loom is a knowledge representation language developed by researchers in the artificial intelligence research group at the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute. The leader of the Loom project and primary architect for ...
*MONARCH supercomputer-on-a-chip *
Soar (cognitive architecture) Soar is a cognitive architecture A cognitive architecture refers to both a theory about the structure of the human mind Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of b ...
for developing intelligent behavioral systems * Pegasus (workflow management) In 2011, several ISI natural language experts advised the IBM team that created Watson, the computer that became the first machine to win against human competitors on the ''Jeopardy!'' TV show. In 2012, ISI's Kevin Knight spearheaded a successful drive to crack the Copiale cipher, a lengthy encrypted manuscript that had remained unreadable for 250 years. Also in 2012, the USC-Lockheed Martin Quantum Computing Center (QCC) became the first organization to operate a quantum annealing system outside of its manufacturer, D-Wave Systems, Inc. USC, ISI and Lockheed Martin now are performing basic and applied research into quantum computing. A second quantum annealing system is located at NASA Ames Research Center, and is operated jointly by NASA and Google. The USC Andrew and Erna Viterbi School of Engineering was ranked among the nation's top 10 engineering graduate schools by ''US News & World Report'' in 2015. Including ISI, USC is ranked first nationally in federal computer science research and development expenditures.


Organizational structure

ISI is organized into seven divisions focused on differing areas of research expertise: *Advanced Electronics: MOSIS shared-services integrated circuit research and fabrication, CMOS and post-CMOS concepts, and biomimetics *Computational Systems and Technology: quantum computing; supercomputing; cloud, wireless, reconfigurable and multicore computing; microarchitecture and electronics; science automation technologies; social networks and space systems *Informatics Systems Research: grid computing, information security, service-oriented architectures, imaging and medical informatics that aim to transform healthcare discovery processes, practice and delivery. *Artificial Intelligence: artificial intelligence in natural language, machine translation, information integration, education, robotics and other disciplines. *Networking and Cybersecurity: internet security research and international testbed, internet measurement and monitoring approaches, and sensor networks that emphasize both networking theory and practice. *Space Technology and Systems: space research and hands-on involvement for students through the Space Engineering Research Center, operated jointly by ISI and USC. *Vision, Image, Speech and Text Analytics: ISI's Center for Vision, Image, Speech and Text Analytics (VISTA) is an internationally recognized leader in areas such as multimedia signal processing, computer vision, and natural language analysis. Smaller, specialized research groups operate within almost all divisions. ISI is led by Executive Director Craig Knoblock, the previous director to the AI division.


References


External links


Official USC Information Sciences Institute (ISI) website

Official USC Viterbi School of Engineering websiteYoutube.comDwavesys.com
{{authority control Institutes of the University of Southern California Research institutes in California Artificial intelligence laboratories Computer science institutes in the United States Laboratories in the United States Marina del Rey, California Science and technology in Greater Los Angeles