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The Indian Premier League (IPL) is a professional men's
Twenty20 cricket Twenty20 (T20) is a shortened game format of cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a ...

Twenty20 cricket
league, contested by ten teams based out of ten Indian cities. The league was founded by the
Board of Control for Cricket in India The Board of Control for Cricket in IndiaThe India men's national cricket team, also known as Team India and Men in Blue, is governed by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), and is a Full Member of the International Cricket Council ...
(BCCI) in 2007. It is usually held between March and May of every year and has an exclusive window in the
ICC Future Tours Programme The ICC Future Tours Programme (or FTP for short) is a schedule of international cricket tours which structure the programme of cricket for International Cricket Council full members, with an objective of each team playing each other at least once a ...
. The IPL is the most-attended cricket league in the world and in 2014 was ranked sixth by average attendance among all sports leagues. In 2010, the IPL became the first sporting event in the world to be broadcast live on
YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform Social media are interactive technologies that allow the Content creation, creation or information sharing, sharing/exchange of information, ideas, career interests, an ...

YouTube
. The brand value of the IPL in 2019 was , according to
Duff & Phelps Duff & Phelps, A Kroll Business, is a multinational financial consultancy firm based in New York City. Since Duff & Phelps was founded in 1932, the firm has added more than 30 complementary companies to its portfolio, including the 2018 acquisit ...
. According to BCCI, the 2015 IPL season contributed to the
GDP Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, in the ...
of the
Indian economy The economy of India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language s ...
. The 2020 IPL season set a massive viewership record with 31.57 million average impressions and with an overall consumption increase of 23 per cent from the 2019 season. There have been fourteen seasons of the IPL tournament. The current IPL title holders are the
Chennai Super Kings The Chennai Super Kings (CSK) are a franchise cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with ...

Chennai Super Kings
, winning the 2021 season. The venue for the 2020 season was moved due to the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...
and games were played in the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
.


History


Background

The
Indian Cricket League The Indian Cricket League (ICL) was a private cricket league funded by Zee Entertainment Enterprises that operated between 2007 and 2009 in India. Its two seasons included tournaments between four international teams (World XI, India, Pakistan ...
(ICL) was founded in 2007, with funding provided by
Zee Entertainment Enterprises Zee Entertainment Enterprises (formerly Zee Telefilms) is an Indian media conglomerate A media conglomerate, media group, or media institution is a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing a ...
. The ICL was not recognised by the
Board of Control for Cricket in India The Board of Control for Cricket in IndiaThe India men's national cricket team, also known as Team India and Men in Blue, is governed by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), and is a Full Member of the International Cricket Council ...
(BCCI) or the
International Cricket Council The International Cricket Council (ICC) is the world governing body A governing body is a group of people that has the authority to exercise governance Governance is all the processes of interactions be they through the laws Law ...
(ICC) and the BCCI were not pleased with its committee members joining the ICL executive board. To prevent players from joining the ICL, the BCCI increased the prize money in their own domestic tournaments and also imposed lifetime bans on players joining the ICL, which was considered a rebel league by the board.


Foundation

On 13 September 2007, on the back of India's victory at the 2007 T20 World Cup, BCCI announced a franchise-based
Twenty20 cricket Twenty20 (T20) is a shortened game format of cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a ...

Twenty20 cricket
competition called Indian Premier League. The first season was slated to start in April 2008, in a "high-profile ceremony" in
New Delhi New Delhi (, ''Naī Dillī'') is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majusc ...

New Delhi
. BCCI vice-president
Lalit Modi Lalit Kumar Modi (born 29 November 1963) is an Indian businessman and cricket administrator. He was the founder & first chairman and Commissioner of the Indian Premier League The Indian Premier League (IPL) is a professional men's Twenty20 ...
, who spearheaded the IPL effort, spelled out the details of the tournament including its format, the prize money, franchise revenue system and squad composition rules. It was also revealed that the IPL would be run by a seven-man governing council composed of former India players and BCCI officials and that the top two teams of the IPL would qualify for that year's
Champions League Twenty20 The Champions League Twenty20, also referred to as the CLT20, was an annual international Twenty20 Twenty20 cricket or Twenty-20 (often abbreviated to T20) is a shortened format of cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball ...
. Modi also clarified that they had been working on the idea for two years and that the IPL was not started as a "knee-jerk reaction" to the ICL. The league's format was similar to that of the
Premier League The Premier League, often referred to as the English Premier League or the EPL (legal name: The Football Association Premier League Limited), is the top level of the English football league system The English football league system, als ...
of England and the
NBA The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a professional basketball Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, ...
in the United States. In order to decide the owners for the new league, an
auction An auction is usually a process of buying and selling goods In economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), d ...

auction
was held on 24 January 2008 with the total base prices of the franchises costing around $400 million. At the end of the auction, the winning bidders were announced, as well as the cities the teams would be based in:
Bangalore Bangalore , List of renamed Indian cities and states, officially known as Bengaluru (), is the Capital city, capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of more than and a metropolitan area, metropolit ...

Bangalore
,
Chennai Chennai (, ), also known as Madras (List of renamed Indian cities and states#Tamil Nadu, the official name until 1996), is the capital city of the states and territories of India, Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The state's largest city in area ...

Chennai
,
Delhi Delhi (; ''Dillī''; ''Dillī''; ''Dêhlī''), officially the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, is a city and a of containing , the capital of India. * * * Straddling the river, but primarily its western or right bank, Delhi ...

Delhi
,
Hyderabad Hyderabad ( , , ) is the capital and largest city of the India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the ...

Hyderabad
,
Jaipur Jaipur (; hi, जयपुर; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscu ...

Jaipur
,
Kolkata Kolkata ( or , ; also known as Calcutta , the official name until 2001) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upperca ...
,
Mohali Mohali, officially known as Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar, is a planned city A planned community, planned city, or planned town is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously und ...
, and
Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay — List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Maharashtra. According to the United ...

Mumbai
. In the end, the franchises were all sold for a total of $723.59 million. The Indian Cricket League soon folded in 2008.


Expansions and terminations

On 21 March 2010, two new franchises –
Pune Warriors India The Pune Warriors India were a franchise Twenty20 cricket team that represented the city of Pune in the Indian Premier League (IPL). The team was one of two IPL franchises from the Indian state of Maharashtra, the other being Mumbai Indians. It ...
and
Kochi Tuskers Kerala The Kochi Tuskers Kerala was a franchise cricket team Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in which the a ...
– joined the league before the fourth season in 2011. Sahara Adventure Sports Group bought the
Pune Pune (; ) is the seventh most populous city in India and the second-largest city in the state of Maharashtra Maharashtra (; , abbr. MH or Maha, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'' ...

Pune
franchise for $370 million while Rendezvous Sports World bought the
Kochi , settlement_type = Metropolis in the background A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or int ...

Kochi
franchise for $333.3 million. However, one year later, on 11 November 2011, it was announced that the
Kochi Tuskers Kerala The Kochi Tuskers Kerala was a franchise cricket team Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in which the a ...
side would be terminated following the side breaching the BCCI's terms of conditions. Then, on 14 September 2012, following the team not being able to find new owners, the BCCI announced that the
2009 2009 was designated as: *International Year of Astronomy 200px, Euro gold and silver commemorative coins (Austria)#2009 Coinage, International Year of Astronomy commemorative coin. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) was a year-l ...
champions, the
Deccan Chargers The Deccan Chargers (abbreviated as DC) was a franchise cricket team based in the city of Hyderabad Hyderabad ( , , ) is the capital and largest city of the India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in ...
, would be terminated. The next month, on 25 October, an auction was held to see who would be the owner of the replacement franchise, with
Sun TV Network Sun TV Network is an Indian Mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, va ...
winning the bid for the
Hyderabad Hyderabad ( , , ) is the capital and largest city of the India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the ...

Hyderabad
franchise. The team would be named
Sunrisers Hyderabad The Sunrisers Hyderabad (stylised as SunRisers Hyderabad, SRH) are a franchise cricket team Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of whi ...
.
Pune Warriors India The Pune Warriors India were a franchise Twenty20 cricket team that represented the city of Pune in the Indian Premier League (IPL). The team was one of two IPL franchises from the Indian state of Maharashtra, the other being Mumbai Indians. It ...
withdrew from the IPL on 21 May 2013 over financial differences with the BCCI. The franchise was officially terminated by the BCCI, on 26 October 2013, on account of the franchise failing to provide the necessary bank guarantee. On 14 June 2015, it was announced that two-time champions,
Chennai Super Kings The Chennai Super Kings (CSK) are a franchise cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with ...

Chennai Super Kings
, and the inaugural season champions,
Rajasthan Royals The Rajasthan Royals (often abbreviated as RR) are a franchise cricket team Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pi ...
, would be suspended for two seasons following their role in a spot-fixing and betting scandal. Then, on 8 December 2015, following an auction, it was revealed that Pune and
Rajkot Rajkot () is the fourth-largest city in the state of Gujarat Gujarat (, ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * Th ...
would replace Chennai and Rajasthan for two seasons. The two teams were the
Rising Pune Supergiant The Rising Pune Supergiant (often abbreviated as RPS) was a franchise cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cric ...
and the
Gujarat Lions The Gujarat Lions (often abbreviated as GL) was a franchise cricket team based in the city of Rajkot, that represented Indian state Gujarat in the Indian Premier League (IPL). The team played in the IPL for 2 years (the 2016 and 2017 seasons) as ...
. In August 2021, the BCCI announced that two new franchises would join the league starting from 2022 season. It was also announced that the franchises would be based in two of the six cities shortlisted by the BCCI;
Ahmedabad Ahmedabad ( Gujarati: Amdavad, ) is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependen ...

Ahmedabad
,
Lucknow Lucknow (, ) is the List of state and union territory capitals in India, capital city of the List of state and union territory capitals in India, Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous Lu ...

Lucknow
,
Cuttack Cuttack (, , ) is the former capital and the second largest city in the Indian state of Odisha Odisha (English: , ), formerly Orissa (), is an Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ) ...
,
Guwahati Guwahati (, ; formerly rendered Gauhati ) is the biggest city of the Indian state India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by pop ...
,
Ranchi Ranchi (, ) is the List of state and union territory capitals in India, capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement, which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, norther ...
and
Dharamshala Dharamshala (; also spelled Dharamsala) is the winter capital city of Himachal Pradesh Himachal Pradesh (; ; "Province of the Snow-laden Mountains") is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Ma ...

Dharamshala
. In a closed bidding held on 25 October,
RPSG Group The RP-Sanjiv Goenka Group, commonly known as RPSG Group, is an Indian industrial and services conglomerate headquartered in Kolkata Kolkata ( or , ; also known as Calcutta , List of renamed Indian cities and states#West Bengal, the o ...
and CVC Capital won bids for the two teams. RPSG paid for Lucknow, whereas CVC won Ahmedabad for .


Organisation


Tournament format

Currently, with eight teams, each team plays each other twice in a home-and-away round-robin format in the league phase. At the conclusion of the league stage, the top four teams will qualify for the playoffs. The top two teams from the league phase will play against each other in the first Qualifying match, with the winner going straight to the IPL final and the loser getting another chance to qualify for the IPL final by playing the second Qualifying match. Meanwhile, the third and fourth place teams from league phase play against each other in an eliminator match and the winner from that match will play the loser from the first Qualifying match. The winner of the second Qualifying match will move onto the final to play the winner of the first Qualifying match in the IPL Final match, where the winner will be crowned the Indian Premier League champions.


Player acquisition, squad composition and salaries

A team can acquire players through any of the three ways: the annual player auction, trading players with other teams during the trading windows, and signing replacements for unavailable players. Players sign up for the auction and also set their base price, and are bought by the franchise that bids the highest for them. Unsold players at the auction are eligible to be signed up as replacement signings. In the trading windows, a player can only be traded with his consent, with the franchise paying the difference if any between the old and new contracts. If the new contract is worth more than the older one, the difference is shared between the player and the franchise selling the player. There are generally three trading windowstwo before the auction and one after the auction but before the start of the tournament. Players cannot be traded outside the trading windows or during the tournament, whereas replacements can be signed before or during the tournament. Some of the team composition rules (as of 2020 season) are as follows: * The squad strength must be between 18 and 25 players, with a maximum of 8 overseas players. *
Salary cap In professional sports Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance. Professional athleticism has come to the fore through a combination of developments. Mass media and in ...
of the entire squad must not exceed . * Under-19 players cannot be picked unless they have previously played
first-class First class (or 1st class, Firstclass) generally implies a high level of service, importance or quality. Specific uses of the term include: Books and Comics * ''First Class'', List of Dandy comic strips, a comic strip in ''The Dandy'' (1983-1998 ...
or
List A List A cricket is a classification of the limited-overs (one-day) form of the sport of cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played ...
cricket. * A team can play a maximum of 4 overseas players in their playing eleven. The term of a player contract is one year, with the franchise having the option to extend the contract by one or two years. Since the 2014 season, the player contracts are denominated in the
Indian rupee The Indian rupee (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an , , or . Symbols allow people to go beyond what is n or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different s a ...
, before which the contracts were in
U.S. dollar The United States dollar (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, Object (philosophy), object, or wikt:relationship, relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond wha ...
s. Overseas players can be remunerated in the currency of the player's choice at the
exchange rate In finance Finance is a term for the management, creation, and study of money In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III are contrasted with the beggar whose legs and arms were amputated, ...
on either the contract due date or the actual date of payment. Prior to the 2014 season, Indian domestic players were not included in the player auction pool and could be signed up by the franchises at a discrete amount while a fixed sum of to would get deducted per signing from the franchise's salary purse. This received significant opposition from franchise owners who complained that richer franchises were "luring players with under-the-table deals" following which the IPL decided to include domestic players in the player auction. According to a 2015 survey by Sporting Intelligence and ''
ESPN The Magazine ''ESPN The Magazine'' was an American monthly sports magazine A magazine is a periodical literature, periodical publication which is printing, printed in Coated paper, gloss-coated and Paint sheen, matte paper. Magazines are generally publish ...
'', the average IPL salary when pro-rated is 4.33 million per year, the second highest among all sports leagues in the world. Since the players in the IPL are only contracted for the duration of the tournament (less than two months), the weekly IPL salaries are extrapolated pro rata to obtain an average annual salary, unlike other sports leagues in which players are contracted by a single team for the entire year.


Match rules

IPL games utilise
television timeout A television timeout (alternately TV timeout or media timeout) is a break in a televised live event for the purpose of television Television, sometimes shortened to TV or telly, is a telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmi ...
s and hence there is no time limit in which teams must complete their
innings An innings is one of the divisions of a cricket match during which one team takes its turn to batting (cricket), bat. Innings also means the period in which an individual player bats (acts as either striker or nonstriker). Innings, in cricket, a ...
. However, a penalty may be imposed if the
umpires An umpire is an official An official is someone who holds an office (function or , regardless whether it carries an actual with it) in an or government and participates in the exercise of , (either their own or that of their superior and/o ...
find teams misusing this privilege. Each team is given a two-and-a-half-minute "strategic timeout" during each innings; one must be taken by the
bowling Bowling is a Throwing sports#Target sports, target sport and recreational activity in which a player rolls a bowling ball, ball toward Bowling pin, pins (in pin bowling) or another target (in target bowling). The term ''bowling'' usually refe ...
team between the ends of the 6th and 9th
overs In cricket, an over consists of six consecutive legal delivery (cricket), deliveries bowling (cricket), bowled from one end of a cricket pitch to the player batting at the other end, almost always by a single bowler. A maiden over is an over in ...
, and one by the
batting Batting may refer to: *Batting (baseball) In baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on t ...
team between the ends of the 13th and 16th overs. Since the 2018 season, the
Umpire Decision Review System The Umpire Decision Review System (UDRS or simply DRS) is a technology-based system used in cricket to assist the match officials in their decision-making. On-field Umpire (cricket), umpires may choose to consult with the third umpire (known as a ...
is being used in all IPL matches, allowing each team one chance to review an on-field umpire's decision per innings.


Prize money

The 2019 season of the IPL offered a total prize money of , with the winning team netting . The first and second runners up received and , respectively, with the fourth placed team also winning . The other teams are not awarded any prize money. The IPL rules mandate that half of the prize money must be distributed among the players.


Teams


Current teams

*


Defunct teams


Tournament seasons and results

Out of the thirteen teams that have played in the Indian Premier League since its inception, one team has won the competition five times, one team has won the competition four times, one team has won the competition twice and three other teams have won it once.
Mumbai Indians The Mumbai Indians are a franchise cricket team based in Mumbai, Maharashtra, that competes in the Indian Premier League. Founded in 2008, the team is owned by India's biggest conglomerate, Reliance Industries, through its 100% subsidiary Indi ...
are the most successful team in league's history in terms of the number of titles won. The
Chennai Super Kings The Chennai Super Kings (CSK) are a franchise cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with ...

Chennai Super Kings
have won 4 titles, the
Kolkata Knight Riders The Kolkata Knight Riders (KKR) are a franchise cricket team representing the city of Kolkata in the Indian Premier League. The franchise is owned by Bollywood actor Shah Rukh Khan, actress Juhi Chawla and her spouse Jay Mehta. The Knight R ...

Kolkata Knight Riders
have won two titles, and the other three teams who have won the tournament are the
Deccan Chargers The Deccan Chargers (abbreviated as DC) was a franchise cricket team based in the city of Hyderabad Hyderabad ( , , ) is the capital and largest city of the India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in ...
,
Rajasthan Royals The Rajasthan Royals (often abbreviated as RR) are a franchise cricket team Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pi ...
and
Sunrisers Hyderabad The Sunrisers Hyderabad (stylised as SunRisers Hyderabad, SRH) are a franchise cricket team Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of whi ...
. The current champions are the
Chennai Super Kings The Chennai Super Kings (CSK) are a franchise cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with ...

Chennai Super Kings
who defeated the
Kolkata Knight Riders The Kolkata Knight Riders (KKR) are a franchise cricket team representing the city of Kolkata in the Indian Premier League. The franchise is owned by Bollywood actor Shah Rukh Khan, actress Juhi Chawla and her spouse Jay Mehta. The Knight R ...

Kolkata Knight Riders
by 27 runs in the
final Final, Finals or The Final may refer to: *Final (competition), the last or championship round of a sporting competition, match, game, or other contest which decides a winner for an event ** Another term for playoffs, describing a sequence of cont ...
of the 2021 season securing their fourth title.


Performance in the IPL by title

Team now defunct.


IPL season results


Teams' performances

Team now defunct.


End of league games points table position

Team now defunct.


Awards


Orange Cap

The Orange Cap is awarded to the top run-scorer in the IPL during a season. It is an ongoing competition with the leader wearing the cap throughout the tournament until the final game, with the eventual winner keeping the cap for the season. Latest winner –
Ruturaj Gaikwad Ruturaj Dashrat Gaikwad (born 31 January 1997) is an Indian cricketer who plays for Maharashtra cricket team, Maharashtra in domestic cricket and for the Chennai Super Kings in the Indian Premier League (IPL). He made his international debut for ...
– 635 Runs (2021).


Purple Cap

The Purple Cap is awarded to the top wicket-taker in the IPL during a season. It is an ongoing competition with the leader wearing the cap throughout the tournament until the final game, with the eventual winner keeping the cap for the season. Latest winner –
Harshal Patel Harshal Patel, popularly known as 'Purple Patel', (born 23 November 1990) is an Indian international cricketer who plays for Royal Challengers Bangalore in the Indian Premier League. He is the captain of Haryana cricket team, Haryana in the Ran ...
– 32 wickets (2021).


Most Valuable Player

The award was called the "man of the tournament" till the 2012 season. The IPL introduced the Most Valuable Player rating system in 2013, the leader of which would be named the "Most Valuable Player" at the end of the season. Latest winner –
Harshal Patel Harshal Patel, popularly known as 'Purple Patel', (born 23 November 1990) is an Indian international cricketer who plays for Royal Challengers Bangalore in the Indian Premier League. He is the captain of Haryana cricket team, Haryana in the Ran ...
(2021).


Fairplay Award

The Fair Play Award is given after each season to the team with the best record of fair play. The winner is decided on the basis of the points the umpires give to the teams. After each match, the two on-field umpires, and the third umpire, scores the performance of both the teams. Latest winner –
Rajasthan Royals The Rajasthan Royals (often abbreviated as RR) are a franchise cricket team Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pi ...
(2021).


Emerging player award

The award was presented for the "best under-19 player" in 2008 and "best under-23 player" in 2009 and 2010, being called "Under-23 Success of the Tournament". In 2011 and 2012, the award was known as "Rising Star of the Year", while, in 2013, it was called "Best Young Player of the Season". Since 2014, the award has been called the Emerging Player of the Year. In 2016,
Mustafizur Rahman Mustafizur Rahman (Bengali language, Bengali: মুস্তাফিজুর রহমান; born 6 September 1995), also known as The Fizz, is a Bangladeshi international cricketer. He is specialized as a left-arm Fast bowling, fast-mediu ...

Mustafizur Rahman
of Bangladesh was the first and only foreign player till date to win the Emerging Player of the Year award. Latest winner –
Ruturaj Gaikwad Ruturaj Dashrat Gaikwad (born 31 January 1997) is an Indian cricketer who plays for Maharashtra cricket team, Maharashtra in domestic cricket and for the Chennai Super Kings in the Indian Premier League (IPL). He made his international debut for ...
(2021).


Most sixes award

The Maximum Sixes Award, currently known as Unacademy Let's Crack It Sixes Award for sponsorship reasons, is presented to the batsman who hits the most sixes in a season of the IPL. Latest winner –
KL Rahul Kananur Lokesh Rahul (born 18 April 1992) is an Indian international cricketer who is the vice-captain of the India national cricket team in One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. He plays for Karnataka cricket team, Karnataka in ...

KL Rahul
– 30 Sixes (2021).


Financials


Title sponsorship

From 2008 to 2012, the title sponsor was DLF, India's largest real estate developer, who had secured the rights with a bid of for five seasons. After the conclusion of the 2012 season,
PepsiCo PepsiCo, Inc. (commonly known as the Pepsi Company) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mul ...

PepsiCo
bought the title sponsorship rights for for the subsequent five seasons. However, the company terminated the deal in October 2015, two years before the expiry of the contract, reportedly due to the two-season suspension of Chennai and Rajasthan franchises from the league. The BCCI then transferred the title sponsorship rights for the remaining two seasons of the contract to Chinese smartphone manufacturer Vivo for . In June 2017, Vivo retained the rights for the next five seasons (2018–2022) with a winning bid of , in a deal more expensive than
Barclays Barclays plc () is a British multinational Investment banking, investment bank and financial services company, headquartered in London, England. Apart from investment banking, Barclays is organised into four core businesses: Retail banking, pe ...

Barclays
'
Premier League The Premier League, often referred to as the English Premier League or the EPL (legal name: The Football Association Premier League Limited), is the top level of the English football league system The English football league system, als ...
title sponsorship contract between 2013 and 2016. On 4 August 2020, Vivo got out of the title sponsorship rights due to the ongoing military stand-off between India and China at the
Line of Actual Control The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is a notional demarcation line{{Refimprove, date=January 2008 A political demarcation line is a geopolitical border, often agreed upon as part of an armistice or ceasefire. Africa * Moroccan Wall, de ...
in July 2020. It was also reported that the withdrawal was a result of Vivo's market losses due to the ongoing COVID-19 situation and that it intended to return as the title sponsors for the following 3 years.
Dream11 Dream11 is an Indian fantasy sports A fantasy sport (also known less commonly as rotisserie or roto) is a type of game, often played using the Internet, where participants assemble imaginary or virtual teams composed of proxies of real players of ...
bagged the title sponsorship for the 2020 IPL for an amount of ₹222 crore.


Brand value

The tournament has grown rapidly in value over the years 2016–18, as seen in a series of jumps in value from one season to the next. The IPL as a whole was valued by financial experts at US$4.16 billion in 2016, but that number grew to $5.3 billion in 2017, and $6.13 billion in 2018. A report from Duff & Phelps said that one of the contributing factors in the rapid growth of the value of the Indian Premier League was signing a new television deal with Star India Private Limited, which engaged more viewers due to the fact that the IPL was transmitted to regional channels in 8 languages, rather than the previous deal, which saw the transmissions limited to sports networks with English language commentary. The report also stated that the game continued to recover from recent controversy, stating "This IPL season has grabbed the eyeballs for all the right reasons with a relatively controversy free tournament, coupled with some scintillating on-field performances which have brought the spotlight back on the game." According to another independent report conducted by Brand Finance, a London-based company, after the conclusion of the
2017 Indian Premier League The 2017 season of the Indian Premier League, also known as IPL 10 and branded as Vivo (technology company), Vivo IPL 2017, was the tenth edition of the IPL, a professional Twenty20 cricket league established by the Board of Control for Cricket ...
, the IPL has seen its business value grow by 37% to an all-time high of $5.3 billion — crossing the five billion mark for the first time in a season. According to the director of the company: "Now in its 11th season, the Indian Premier League is here to stay. The league has delivered financially for the players, franchisees, sponsors and India as a whole, prompting a strong desire among a range of stakeholders to appropriately value it. To ensure continued development, management and team owners will have to explore innovative ways of engaging fans, clubs, and sponsors."


Broadcasting

The IPL's broadcast rights were originally held by a partnership between
Sony Pictures Networks Sony Pictures Networks India Pvt Ltd. is an Indian indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Pictures, Sony Pictures Entertainment through its India division. It has a subsidiary, MSM-Worldwide Factual Media Private Limited and an affiliate, Ban ...
and
World Sport Group Headquartered in Singapore, World Sport Group was a sports marketing, event management and media company in Asia, with a roster of golf, association football and cricket events. World Sport Group manages almost 600 days of sports events annually, ...
under a ten-year contract valued at US$1.03 billion. Sony would be responsible for domestic television, while WSG would handle international distribution. The initial plan was for 20% of these proceeds to go to the IPL, 8% as prize money and 72% would be distributed to the franchisees from 2008 until 2012, after which the IPL would go public and list its shares. However, in March 2010, the IPL decided not to go public and list its shares. As of the 2016 season,
Sony MAX Sony Max is an Indian pay television Pay television, also known as subscription television, premium television or, when referring to an individual service, a premium channel, refers to subscription The subscription business model is a b ...

Sony MAX
,
Sony SIX Sony SIX is an Indian pay television sports channel. It is owned and operated by Sony Pictures Networks India. The Sony SIX channel broadcasts sports events. History Sony SIX was launched in April 2012 by Sony Networks India, which also owns Son ...
, and
Sony ESPN Sony ESPN was an Indian pay television sports channel which was a joint venture between ESPN Inc. and Sony Pictures Networks India. The channel targeted the Indian subcontinent including India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. This Channel was p ...
served as the domestic broadcasters of the IPL; MAX and SIX aired broadcasts with commentary in
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...

Hindi
, SIX additionally aired broadcasts in
Bengali Bengali or Bengalee, or Bengalese may refer to: *something of, from, or related to Bengal, a large region in South Asia * Bengalis, an ethnic and linguistic group of the region * Bengali language, the language they speak ** Bengali alphabet, the w ...
,
Tamil Tamil may refer to: * Tamils The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar ( ta, தமிழர், Tamiḻar, translit-std=ISO, in the singular or ta, தமிழர்கள், Tamiḻarkaḷ, translit-std=ISO, label=none, in the plural), o ...

Tamil
,
Kannada Kannada (; ಕನ್ನಡ, ; less commonly known as Kanarese) is a Dravidian language Dravidian languages (or sometimes Dravidic languages) are a family of languages In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of peop ...
and
Telugu Telugu may refer to: * Telugu language, a major Dravidian language of India *Telugu people, an ethno-linguistic group of India * Telugu script, used to write the Telugu language ** Telugu (Unicode block), a block of Telugu characters in Unicode ...
, while Sony ESPN aired broadcasts in English. Sony also produced an entertainment-oriented companion
talk show A talk show (or chat show in British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification ...
, ''
Extraaa Innings T20 ''E2xtraaa Innings T20'' (also popularly called 'Extra Innings') was a cricket based show telecast in between match sessions during the Indian Premier League (IPL) that covered match analysis and expert opinions from commentators, retired players ...
'', which featured analysis and celebrity guests. The IPL became a major television property within India; Sony MAX typically became the most-watched television channel in the country during the tournament, and by 2016, annual advertising revenue surpassed . Viewership numbers were expected to increase further during the 2016 season due to the industry adoption of the new BARC ratings system, which also calculates rural viewership rather than only urban markets. In the 2016 season, Sony's broadcasts achieved just over 1 billion impressions (television viewership in thousands), jumping to 1.25 billion the following year. On 4 September 2017, it was announced that the then-current digital rights-holder,
Star India Star India (stylized as ★Star) is an Indian media conglomerate and wholly owned subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company India. It is headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. It has a network of 60 channels in eight languages, reaching out to 9 out o ...
, had acquired the global media rights to the IPL under a five-year contract beginning in 2018. Valued at 163.475 billion (US$2.55 billion, £1.97 billion), it is a 158% increase over the previous deal, and the most expensive broadcast rights deal in the history of cricket. The IPL sold the rights in packages for domestic television, domestic digital, and international rights; although Sony held the highest bid for domestic television, and
Facebook Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service owned by Meta Platforms. Founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, an ...

Facebook
had made a US$600 million bid for domestic digital rights (which U.S. media interpreted as a sign that the social network was interested in pursuing professional sports rights), Star was the only bidder out of the shortlist of 14 to make bids in all three categories. Star CEO
Uday Shankar Uday Shankar (8 December 1900 – 26 September 1977) was an Indian dancer Dance in India comprises numerous styles of dances, generally classified as Classical music, classical or Folk music, folk. As with other aspects of Indian culture, di ...

Uday Shankar
stated that the IPL was a "very powerful property", and that Star would "remain very committed to make sure that the growth of sports in this country continues to be driven by the power of cricket". He went on to say that "whoever puts in that money, they put in that money because they believe in the fans of the sport. The universe of cricket fans, it tells you, continues to very healthy, continues to grow. What was paid in 2008, that was 2008. India and cricket and IPL—all three have changed dramatically in the last 10 years. It is a reflection of that." The deal led to concerns that Star India now held a
monopoly A monopoly (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxi ...

monopoly
on major cricket rights in the country, as it is also the rights-holder of ICC competitions and the Indian national team. For its inaugural season, Star aimed to put a larger focus on widening the IPL's appeal with a "core" cricket audience. The network aimed to broadcast at least two hours of IPL-related programming daily from January until the start of the season, having organised televised announcements of player retention selections and new team captains. Viewership of the player auction, which featured pre- and post-auction reactions and analysis, increased six-fold to 46.5 million. In March, Star Sports broadcast ''Game Plan: In Your City'' specials from the home city of each of the IPL's franchises. Star Sports stated that its in-season coverage and studio programming would focus more on the game itself and behind-the-scenes coverage of the IPL's teams, rather than trying to incorporate irrelevant entertainment elements. The network introduced a new studio program known as ''The Dugout'', which broadcasts coverage of matches with analysis from a panel of experts. Star streams IPL matches in India and other markets to subscribers of its streaming service
Hotstar Hotstar (also known as Disney+ Hotstar) is an Indian brand of Video on demand#Subscription models, subscription video on-demand Over-the-top media service, over-the-top Streaming media, streaming service owned by Novi Digital Entertainment of S ...
. Matches are also available on Jio TV and Airtel TV apps on smartphones. Throughout the 2019 season, international streaming viewership on Hotstar saw records, exceeding 10 million concurrent viewers multiple times. The 2019 final broke these records, peaking at 18.6 million concurrent streaming viewers. Hotstar initially scheduled its relaunch as
Disney+ Disney+ is an American Video on demand#Subscription models, subscription video on-demand Over-the-top media service, over-the-top Streaming media, streaming service owned and operated by the Disney Media and Entertainment Distribution, Media an ...
Hotstar to coincide with the opening of the 2020 season. However, with the postponement of the IPL season, the relaunch was pushed back to 3 April 2020.


International broadcasters

Source:-


IPL Governing Council

The IPL Governing Council is responsible for all the functions of the tournament. The members are: *
Brijesh Patel Brijesh Patel (born 24 November 1952) is an India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List of countri ...
– Chairman *
Jay Shah Jay Amitbhai Shah (born 22 September 1988) is an Indian businessman and cricket administrator. He became the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) Secretary in 2019. He is also the president of Asian Cricket Council. He is the son of Ami ...

Jay Shah
– Honorary Secretary * Arun Singh Dhumal – Honorary Treasurer * M Khairul Jamal Majumdar – Member *
Pragyan Ojha Pragyan Ojha (born 5 September 1986) is an Indian former cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pi ...

Pragyan Ojha
– ICA representative * Alka Rehani Bhardwaj – CAG Nominee


Controversy


Sponsorship

The IPL faced heavy criticism for retaining Chinese sponsors for the 2020 IPL season, even amidst calls for boycotting Chinese goods, and even while the 2020 China–India skirmishes were still going on.
Omar Abdullah Omar Abdullah (; born 10 March 1970) is an Indian people, Indian politician and former Chief Minister of the erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir. He became the 11th and the youngest Chief Minister of the State of Jammu and Kashmir (state), Ja ...

Omar Abdullah
and both criticized the BCCI/IPL Governing Council's decision to retain the Chinese sponsors. Swadeshi Jagran Manch, an affiliate of
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, (; Hindi language, Hindi: राष्ट्रीय स्वयंसेवक संघ, , , ), is an Indian Right-wing politics, right-wing, Hindu nationalist, paramilitary volunteer organisation. The RSS i ...
(RSS), said that the 2020 IPL should not feature the Chinese company Vivo.


See also

* List of T20 cricket competitions * Controversies involving the Indian Premier League * List of Indian Premier League players * List of Indian Premier League records and statistics


Notes


References


External links

* * * * {{Authority control Indian Premier League, Cricket leagues in India Sports leagues in India Professional sports leagues in India Professional cricket leagues 2008 establishments in India Sports leagues established in 2008 Twenty20 cricket leagues Sport in India Cricket player auction