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Illiciaceae A.C.Sm. was a family of
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

flowering plant
s recognized in a number of systems of plant taxonomy. The Illiciaceae is not recognized as a distinct family by the
APG III system The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an el ...
of plant taxonomy, the most well accepted system in use today. The APG II system treated Illiciaceae as a family that may either be treated as part of another family, the
Schisandraceae Schisandraceae is a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typical ...
or allows for the optional
segregation Segregation may refer to: Separation of people * Geographical segregation, rates of two or more populations which are not homogenous throughout a defined space *Educational segegration * Housing segregation * Racial segregation, separation of hum ...
of the Illiciaceae from the Schisandraceae. The Illiciaceae as an optional segregate family then has the traditional circumscription of other taxonomic systems, consisting of a single genus, ''
Illicium ''Illicium'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscription (taxonomy), ci ...
''. The updated
APG III system The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an el ...
of 2009 does not recognize this family and includes ''Illicium'' in the
Schisandraceae Schisandraceae is a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typical ...
.


Description

The family consists of
shrub A shrub (often called a bush) is a small- to medium-sized perennial A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the Kingdom (biology), kingdom Plantae. Historically, the p ...

shrub
s or small
tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only wood plants with se ...

tree
s usually with volatile aromatic compounds. The leaves are
evergreen In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Anc ...

evergreen
, simple, alternate, spiral (sometimes crowded towards the tips of the twigs), leathery, petiolate, pinnately veined, non-sheathing, gland-dotted or not gland-dotted; also are aromatic, or without marked odour. The lamina is entire. The flowers are hermaphrodite, and usually showy, ranging in size from small to large, and composed of numerous distinct parts that change grade slightly as they spiral around the receptacle. The parts begin with a
perianth The perianth (perigonium, perigon or perigone in monocots) is the non-reproductive part of the flower, and structure that forms an envelope surrounding the sexual organs, consisting of the calyx (botany), calyx (sepals) and the corolla (flower), ...
of whorled
tepal A tepal is one of the outer parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, ...
s, with the outer whorls more
sepal A sepal ( or ) is a part of the flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms are the flowers of stone fruit fruit tree, trees (genus ''Prunus'') and of some other p ...
oid, graduating to more
petal Petals are modified leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. The leaves, stem, flower and fruit together fo ...

petal
oid inner tepals. The
stamen The stamen (plural The plural (sometimes abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full ve ...
s are also numerous and in a whorl. The
carpel Gynoecium (; ) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom Image:Cerisier du Japon Prunus serrulata.jpg, Cherry blossoms in Paris in full bloom. In botany, blossoms ...
s are arranged in a whorl, are separate, and number from 5 to numerous carpels in each whorl, each carpel containing a single ovule. The stem presents nodes unilacunar (with one trace), with internal phloem absent, secondary thickening developing from a conventional cambial ring, xylem with tracheids; The sieve-tube plastids are S-type. The fruit is non-fleshy; the fruiting carpel is dehiscent, with a follicle (the cycle of follicles often spreading radially in a stellate pattern) and presents only one seed. The seeds are copiously endospermic and oily. The embryo is well differentiated (very small), achlorophyllous. The germination is phanerocotylar.


Phytochemistry

Leaves bear essential oils. Proanthocyanidins present (cyanidin and delphinidin). Flavonols present (kaempferol and quercetin). The fruits produce 2.5 – 5% of essential oil (Anethole, 80-90%, chavicol, safrol, shikimic acid); also contents veranisatins A, B and C and merrilactons.


Distribution and species

The single genus, ''Illicium'', has about 40 species native to sub-tropical and tropical Southeast Asia and the southeastern United States, the Caribbean, and parts of Mexico. Species * ''Illicium verum'' * ''Illicium floridanum'' * ''Illicium henryi'' * ''Illicium parviflorum'' * ''Illicium anisatum'' For further details of placement in various list of systems of plant taxonomy, systems see the entry for family
Schisandraceae Schisandraceae is a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typical ...
.


References


External links

:
Illiciaceae
in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards)
The families of flowering plants:
descriptions, illustrations, identification, information retrieval''. Version: 3 May 2006. http://delta-intkey.com. :
Illiciaceae in the ''Flora of North America''
{{Taxonbar, from=Q1045795 Austrobaileyales Historically recognized angiosperm families