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Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB;
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of J ...

Japanese
: , ''Tōgō dejitaru hōsō sābisu'') is a Japanese broadcasting standard for
digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual Audiovisual (AV) is electronic media possessing both a sound and a visual component, such as slide-tape presentations, films, television programs, corporate conferencing, c ...
(DTV) and
digital radio Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit or receive across the radio spectrum. Digital transmission by radio waves includes digital broadcasting, and especially digital audio radio services. Types In digital broadcasting system ...
. ISDB supersedes both the
NTSC-J 400px, Television encoding systems by nation. Countries that are using the NTSC system are shown in green. NTSC-J was the analog television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for t ...
analog television system and the previously used
MUSE In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the Muses ( grc, Μοῦσαι, Moûsai, el, Μούσες, Múses) are the inspirational goddesses of literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used mo ...
Hi-vision analog HDTV system in Japan. An improved version of ISDB-T (
ISDB-T International ISDB-T International, or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital ( en, Brazilian Digital Television System), is a technical standard for digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisu ...
) will soon replace the
NTSC The abbreviation NTSC can refer to the National Television System Committee,National Television System Committee (1951–1953), eport_and_Reports_of_Panel_No._11,_11-A,_12-19,_with_Some_supplementary_references_cited_in_the_Reports,_and_the_Pet_...
,_PAL-M,_and_PAL.html" ;"title="PAL-M.html" ;"title="eport and Reports of Panel No. 11, 11-A, 12-19, with Some supplementary references cited in the Reports, and the Pet ...
, PAL-M">eport and Reports of Panel No. 11, 11-A, 12-19, with Some supplementary references cited in the Reports, and the Pet ...
, PAL-M, and PAL">PAL-N broadcast standards in South America and the Philippines. Digital terrestrial television, Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting (DTTB) services using ISDB-T started in Japan in December 2003, and since then, many countries have adopted ISDB over other digital broadcasting standards. A newer and "advanced" version of the ISDB standard (that will eventually allow up to 8K terrestrial broadcasts and 1080p mobile broadcasts via the VVC codec, including HDR and HFR) is currently under development.


Countries and territories using ISDB-T


Asia

* * (officially adopted ISDB-T, started broadcasting in digital) * (officially adopted ISDB-T) * (officially adopted ISDB-T HD) * (currently assessing digital platform)


Americas

* (officially adopted ISDB-T International, started broadcasting in digital) * (officially adopted ISDB-T International, started broadcasting in digital) * (officially adopted ISDB-T International, started broadcasting in digital) * (officially adopted ISDB-T International, started broadcasting in digital) * (officially adopted ISDB-T International, started broadcasting in digital) * (officially adopted ISDB-T International, started broadcasting in digital) * (officially adopted ISDB-T International, started broadcasting in digital) * (officially adopted ISDB-T International, started broadcasting in digital) * (officially adopted ISDB-T International, started broadcasting in digital) * (officially adopted ISDB-T International, started broadcasting in digital) * (officially adopted ISDB-T International, started pre-implementation stage) * (officially adopted ISDB-T International, started pre-implementation stage, briefly experimented with
ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards are an American set of standards for digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual signals using Digital signal, digital encoding, in contras ...
) * (officially adopted ISDB-T International, briefly experimented with
ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards are an American set of standards for digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual signals using Digital signal, digital encoding, in contras ...
, started broadcasting in digital) * (officially adopted ISDB-T international, started pre-implementation stage) * (currently assessing digital platform) * (currently assessing digital platform) * (currently assessing digital platform)


Africa

* (officially adopted
ISDB-T International ISDB-T International, or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital ( en, Brazilian Digital Television System), is a technical standard for digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisu ...
(
SBTVD ISDB-T International, or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital ( en, Brazilian Digital Television System), is a technical standard for digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisu ...
), started pre-implementation stage) * (In 2013, decided on European digital terrestrial TV. However, Angola reviewed the adoption to ISDB-T International system in March 2019.)


Introduction

ISDB is maintained by the Japanese organization
ARIB The , commonly known as , is a standardization organization in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial ...
. The
standards Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined relationship to a unit of ...
can be obtained for free at the Japanese organization
DiBEGDiBEG (The Digital Broadcasting Experts Group) was founded in September 1997 to promote ISDB-T International ISDB-T International, or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital ( en, Brazilian Digital Television System), is a technic ...
website and at ARIB. The core standards of ISDB are
ISDB-S The Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB; Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a wh ...
(satellite television),
ISDB-T The Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB; Japanese: , ''Tōgō dejitaru hōsō sābisu'') is a Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangl ...
(terrestrial), ISDB-C (cable) and 2.6 GHz band mobile broadcasting which are all based on
MPEG-2 MPEG-2 is used in Digital Video Broadcast and DVDs. The container_formats..html" ;"title="MPEG program stream">MPEG transport stream, TS, and MPEG program stream, PS, are Container format (digital)">container formats.">MPEG program stream">MPEG ...
,
MPEG-4 MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data. It was introduced in late 1998 and designated a standard for a group of audio and video coding formats and related technology agreed upon by the ISO/ IEC Movin ...
, or
HEVC High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), also known as H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2, is a video compression standard designed as part of the MPEG-H project as a successor to the widely used Advanced Video Coding (AVC, H.264, or MPEG-4 Part 10). In comp ...
standard for multiplexing with transport stream structure and video and audio coding (MPEG-2, H.264, or HEVC) and are capable of UHD, high-definition television (
HDTV High-definition television (HD) describes a television system providing an image resolution of substantially higher resolution than the previous generation of technologies. The term has been used since 1936, but in modern times refers to the gener ...
) and standard-definition television.
ISDB-T The Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB; Japanese: , ''Tōgō dejitaru hōsō sābisu'') is a Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangl ...
and
ISDB-Tsb The Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB; Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōgō dejitaru hōsō sābisu'') is a Japanese standard for digital television (DTV) and digital radio used by the country's Radio network, radio and televisio ...
are for mobile reception in TV bands.
1seg is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...
is the name of an ISDB-T component that allows viewers to watch TV channels via
cell phones A mobile phone, cellular phone, cell phone, cellphone, handphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive telephone call, calls over a radio frequency link wh ...
,
laptop computers A laptop or laptop computer is a small, portable personal computer File:Crystal Project computer.png, upright=0.9, An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing compone ...
, and
vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular machine that uses Power (physics), power to ...

vehicles
. The concept was named for its similarity to
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission Transmission may refer to: Science and technology * Power transmissionPower transmission is the movement of energy from its ...
as both allow multiple channels of data to be transmitted together (a process called multiplexing). This broadcast standard is also much like another
digital radio Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit or receive across the radio spectrum. Digital transmission by radio waves includes digital broadcasting, and especially digital audio radio services. Types In digital broadcasting system ...
system,
Eureka 147 Digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio standard for broadcasting Broadcasting is the distribution of sound, audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic medium (communication), mass communications medium, bu ...
, which calls each group of stations on a transmitter an
ensemble Ensemble may refer to: Art * Musical ensemble * Ensemble cast (drama, comedy) * Ensemble (musical theatre), also known as the chorus * Ensemble (band), a project of Olivier Alary * Ensemble (album), ''Ensemble'' (album), Kendji Girac 2015 album ...
; this is very much like the multi-channel digital TV standard
DVB-T DVB-T, short for Digital Video Broadcasting — Terrestrial, is the Digital Video Broadcasting, DVB European-based consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television that was first published in 1997 and first bro ...
. ISDB-T operates on unused TV channels, an approach that was taken by other countries for TV but never before for radio.


Transmission

The various flavors of ISDB differ mainly in the modulations used, due to the requirements of different frequency bands. The 12 GHz band ISDB-S uses PSK modulation, 2.6 GHz band digital sound broadcasting uses CDM, and ISDB-T (in
VHF Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation rate of an Alternating_current, alternating electric current or voltage or of a Magnetic_field, magnetic, electric or e ...
and/or
UHF Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the SI derived unit, derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defin ...

UHF
band) uses
COFDM In telecommunications, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a type of digital transmission and a method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier frequencies. OFDM has developed into a popular scheme for wideband digital com ...
with PSK/ QAM.


Interaction

Besides audio and video transmission, ISDB also defines data connections (Data broadcasting) with the internet as a return channel over several media ( 10/100 Ethernet, telephone line modem, mobile phone, wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11), etc.) and with different protocols. This component is used, for example, for interactive interfaces like data broadcasting (
ARIB STD-B24Broadcast Markup Language, or BML, is an XML-based standard developed by Japan's Association of Radio Industries and Businesses as a data broadcasting specification for digital television broadcasting. It is a data-transmission service allowing text ...
) and electronic program guides (EPG).


Interfaces and Encryption

The ISDB specification describes a lot of (network) interfaces, but most importantly, the Common Interface for Conditional Access System (CAS). While ISDB has examples of implementing various kinds of CAS systems, in Japan, a CAS system called "B-CAS" is used. ARIB STD-B25 defines the
Common Scrambling AlgorithmThe Common Scrambling Algorithm (CSA) is the encryption algorithm used in the DVB digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual signals using Digital signal, digital encoding, in contrast to the earl ...
(CSA) system called
MULTI2 MULTI2 is a block cipher, developed by Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi in 1988. Designed for general-purpose cryptography, its current use is encryption of high-definition television broadcasts in Japan. Cipher details MULTI2 is a symmetric key algorithm ...
required for (de-)scrambling television. The ISDB CAS system in Japan is operated by a company named '' B-CAS''; the CAS card is called ''B-CAS card''. The Japanese ISDB signal is always encrypted by the B-CAS system even if it is a free television program. That is why it is commonly called "Pay per view system without charge". An interface for mobile reception is under consideration. ISDB supports RMP (Rights management and protection). Since all digital television (DTV) systems carry digital data content, a
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc data storage format invented and developed in 1995 and released in late 1996. The medium can store any kind of digital data and was wide ...

DVD
or high-definition (HD) recorder could easily copy content losslessly. US major film studios requested copy protection; this was the main reason for RMP being mandated. The content has three modes: "copy once", "copy free" and "copy never". In "copy once" mode, a program can be stored on a hard disk recorder, but cannot be further copied; only moved to another copy-protected media—and this move operation will mark the content "copy one generation", which is mandated to prevent further copying permanently. "Copy never" programs may only be timeshifted and cannot be permanently stored. In 2006, the Japanese government is evaluating using the
Digital Transmission Content ProtectionDigital Transmission Content Protection (DTCP) is a digital rights management (DRM) technology that restricts digital home technologies including DVD players and televisions by encrypting interconnections between devices. This permits the distributio ...
(DTCP) "Encryption plus Non-Assertion" mechanism to allow making multiple copies of digital content between compliant devices.JEITA、地デジのコンテンツ保護策として暗号方式 EPN を提案:ニュース - CNET Japan
/ref>


Receiver

There are two types of ISDB receiver:
Television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a te ...
and set-top box. The aspect ratio of an ISDB-receiving television set is 16:9; televisions fulfilling these specs are called ''Hi-Vision TV''. There are four TV types:
Cathode ray tube File:CRT monochrome.png, 250px, Cutaway rendering of a monochrome CRT: 1. Deflection coils2. Electron beam3. Focusing coil4. Phosphor layer on the inner side of the screen; emits light when struck by the electron beam5.&nbs ...

Cathode ray tube
(CRT),
plasma display panelA plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display that uses small cells containing Plasma (physics), plasma: ionized gas that responds to electric fields. Plasma TVs were the first large (over 32 inches diagonal) flat panel displays to be ...

plasma display panel
(PDP),
organic light-emitting diode An organic light-emitting diode (OLED or organic LED), also known as organic electroluminescent (organic EL) diode, is a light-emitting diode A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electr ...
(OLED) and
liquid crystal display display. A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystal Liquid crystals (LCs) are a state of matter ...
(LCD), with LCD being the most popular ''Hi-Vision TV'' on the Japanese market nowadays. The LCD share, as measured by
JEITA Jeita ( ar, جعيتا '; also spelled ''Jaaita'' or ''Jaita'') is a town and municipality located in the Keserwan District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate of Lebanon. The town is about north of Beirut. It has an average elevation of 380 meters ...
in November 2004, was about 60%. While PDP sets occupy the high-end market with units that are over 50 inches (1270 mm), PDP and CRT set shares are about 20% each. CRT sets are considered low end for Hi-Vision. An STB is sometimes referred to as a digital tuner. Typical middle to high-end ISDB receivers marketed in Japan have several interfaces: *
F connector The F connector (also F-type connector) is a coaxial RF connector commonly used for "over the air" terrestrial television Terrestrial television is a type of television broadcasting in which the television signal is transmitted by radio wav ...

F connector
s for RF input. *
HDMI High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is a proprietary hardware, proprietary audio/video Interface (computing), interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant so ...

HDMI
or for
HDTV High-definition television (HD) describes a television system providing an image resolution of substantially higher resolution than the previous generation of technologies. The term has been used since 1936, but in modern times refers to the gener ...
a monitor in
home cinema Home cinema, also called home theaters or theater rooms, are home entertainment audio-visual systems that seek to reproduce a movie theater experience and mood using consumer electronics-grade video and home audio, audio equipment that is set u ...
. * for an audio amplifier and speakers for 5.1 surround audio in a home cinema. *
IEEE 1394 IEEE 1394 is an interface standard for a serial communication, serial bus for high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data transfer. It was developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s by Apple Inc., Apple in cooperation with a number ...
(aka FireWire) interface for digital data recorders (like
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital optical disc data storage format invented and developed in 1995 and released in late 1996. The medium can store any kind of digital data and was wide ...

DVD
recorders) in a home cinema. * RCA video jack provides
SDTV Standard-definition television (SDTV, SD, often shortened to standard definition) is a television system which uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high High may refer to: People with the name * High (surname) Science, tec ...
signal that is sampled down from the HDTV signal for analog CRT television sets or VCRs. * RCA audio jacks provide
stereo audio Stereophonic sound or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is usually achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration ...
for analog CRT television sets or VCRs. * S video is for VCRs or analog CRT television sets. * 10/100 and modular jack telephone line
modem A modulator-demodulator, or simply a modem, is a hardware device that converts data from a digital format, intended for communication directly between devices with specialized wiring, into one suitable for a transmission medium such as telep ...
interfaces are for an internet connection. * B-CAS card interface to de-scramble. * interface jack for controlling a VHS or DVD player.


Copy-protection technology

All TV broadcasters in Japan are encrypted with ''Copy-Once'', which allows users to record to a digital medium (such as a
D-VHS D-VHS is a digital video recording format developed by JVC, in collaboration with Hitachi () is a Japanese multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. It i ...
, a DVD, or an HDD) but does not allow dubbing to another digital medium. On the other hand, the "Copy-Once" technology does not prohibit all types of dubbing. It is possible to dub to an analog medium (such as standard VHS), and if recorded to an HDD, it allows users to "Move" the contents to a D-VHS, but not copy. In contrast,
1seg is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...
digital broadcasts, which are for low-bandwidth mobile reception and occupy 1/13th of a digital channel, are transmitted "in the clear" and do not carry copy protection information. Many users are also anxious about the recent news of severe protection in the future. There are modes in ISDB that do not allow the output of a signal from an Analog connector (such as D-connector,
Component Component may refer to: In engineering, science, and technology Generic systems *System components, an entity with discrete structure, such as an assembly or software module, within a system considered at a particular level of analysis *Lumped ele ...
,
Composite Composite or compositing may refer to: Materials * Composite material, a material that is made from several different substances ** Metal matrix composite, composed of metal and other parts ** Cermet, a composite of ceramic and metallic materials * ...

Composite
, or
S-Video S-Video (also known as separate video and Y/C) is a signaling standard for standard definition video, typically 480i Image:TV-line-count-world.svg, 300px, SDTV resolution by nation; countries using 480i are in green. 480i is the video mode used f ...
). There are already plans to restrict analog output (similar to
Blu-ray The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital optical disc storage format. It is designed to supersede the DVD format, capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition video (HDTV 720p and 1080p). The main ap ...
and
HD DVD HD DVD (short for High Definition Digital Versatile Disc) is an obsolete high-density optical disc format for storing data and playback of high-definition video. Supported principally by Toshiba, HD DVD was envisioned to be the successor to the ...
) for "Copyright Protection" reasons, making all currently sold STB Tuners, LCD/Plasma TVs (without HDMI inputs), analog-output-only VHS and D-VHS systems, and DVD players, unusable. These more limiting copy protection technologies will all start after analog broadcasting ends (when there won't be any choice for viewers). Currently, no financial assistance schemes have been announced, forcing viewers without proper devices to buy new TVs or STB boxes that receive ISDB broadcasts. Though not clear, it is said that there are also plans to protect all programs with "Copy-Never". The copy protection on ISDB broadcasts can be circumvented with the proper hardware and software. Brazilian standard ISDB-Tb does not implement this copy protection mechanism. For other countries, there are some examples of implementing a CAS system (such as Verimatrix) by the operators' choice.


B-CAS card

The B-CAS card is required to decode television broadcasts in Japan. These cards are included with every digital television or tuner at no charge. To use this card, the end-user must agree to the statement written on the registration card. Although the card must be inserted to watch TV, if the end-user refuses to accept the terms/conditions contained within the statement, the user cannot watch digital broadcasts. Essentially, users are "forced" to agree with the statement. Though registration is not required, it is recommended to enjoy interactive programs. Unregistered B-CAS cards display a
watermark A watermark is an identifying image or pattern in paper Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, Textile, rags, poaceae, grasses or other vegetable sources in w ...
in the corner of the screen, suggesting the user to register. However, many viewers worry about the leaking of personal information, and the power/rights the TV stations have to access personal information for almost every citizen in Japan. In case of loss or destruction, a new B-CAS card of the same number can be issued for a fee of 2,000 yen.


Services

A typical Japanese broadcast service consists as follows: # One HDTV or up to three SDTV services within one channel. # Provides
interactive television Interactive television (also known as ITV or iTV) is a form of media convergence, adding data services to traditional television technology. Throughout its history, these have included on-demand delivery of content, as well as new uses such as ...
through
datacasting Datacasting (data broadcasting) is the broadcasting Broadcasting is the distribution of sound, audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic medium (communication), mass communications medium, but typically one using the ele ...
. # Interactive services such as games or shopping, via telephone line or broadband internet. # Equipped with an
electronic program guide Electronic programming guides (EPGs) and interactive programming guides (IPGs) are menu-based systems that provide users of television, radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication, communicating using radio waves. Radio w ...

electronic program guide
. # Ability to send firmware patches for the TV/tuner over the air. # During emergencies, the service utilizes
Emergency Warning Broadcast system is the early warning system used in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt ...
to quickly inform the public of various threats for the areas at risk. There are examples providing more than 10 SDTV services with H.264 coding in some countries.


ISDB-S


History

Japan started digital broadcasting using the DVB-S standard by PerfecTV in October/1996, and DirecTV in December/1997, with communication satellites. Still, DVB-S did not satisfy the requirements of Japanese broadcasters, such as
NHK also called the Japan Broadcasting Corporation and shortened from ''Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai'', is a Japanese government-owned public broadcaster Public broadcasting involves radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication ...

NHK
, key commercial broadcasting stations like
Nippon Television JOAX-DTV, virtual channel In most telecommunications organizations, a virtual channel is a method of remapping the ''program number'' as used in H.222 Program Association Tables and Program Mapping Tables to a channel number that can be en ...
, ,
Fuji Television JOCX-DTV, branded as and colloquially known as CX, is a Japanese television station A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television (ATV) operator, that trans ...

Fuji Television
,
TV Asahi JOEX-DTV (virtual channel In most telecommunications organizations, a virtual channel is a method of remapping the ''program number'' as used in H.222 Program Association Tables and Program Mapping Tables to a channel number that can be entere ...

TV Asahi
,
TV Tokyo JOTX-DTV, virtual channel 7 (UHF digital channel 23), branded as and often abbreviated as , a blend of "television, terebi" and "Tokyo", is the flagship (broadcasting), flagship station of the TX Network, TXN Network headquartered in the Su ...
, and
WOWOW , listed as , is a private satellite broadcasting and premium satellite television station in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , ...
(Movie-only Pay-TV broadcasting). Consequently,
ARIB The , commonly known as , is a standardization organization in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial ...
developed a new broadcast standard called ISDB-S. The requirements were HDTV capability, interactive services, network access and effective frequency utilization, and other technical requirements. The DVB-S standard allows the transmission of a bitstream of roughly 34 Mbit/s with a satellite transponder, which means the transponder can send one HDTV channel. Unfortunately, the NHK broadcasting satellite had only four vacant transponders, which led ARIB and NHK to work on ISDB-S: the new standard could transmit at 51 Mbit/s with a single transponder, which means that ISDB-S is 1.5 times more efficient than DVB-S and that one transponder can transmit two HDTV channels, along with other independent audio and data. Digital satellite broadcasting (BS digital) was started by NHK and followed commercial broadcasting stations on 1 December 2000. Today,
SKY PerfecTV! is a direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service that provides satellite television, audio programming and interactive television services to households in Japan, owned by parent company SKY Perfect JSAT Corporation. SKY PerfecTV! is also a direct b ...
(the successor of Skyport TV and Sky D), CS burn, Platone, EP, DirecTV, J Sky B, and PerfecTV!, adopted the ISDB-S system for use on the 110-degree (east longitude) wide-band communication satellite.


Technical specification

This table shows the summary of ISDB-S (satellite digital broadcasting).


Channel

Frequency and channel specification of Japanese Satellites using ISDB-S


ISDB-S3

New satellite version supporting 4K, 8K, HDR, HFR, and 22.2 audio.


ISDB-C

ISDB-C is cable digital broadcasting specification. The technical specification J.83/C is developed by JCTEA. ISDB-C is identical to DVB-C but has a different channel bandwidth of 6 MHz (instead of 8 MHz) and roll-off factor.


ISDB-T


History

HDTV was invented at
NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories NHK Science & Technical Research Laboratories (STRL, ja, NHK放送技術研究所, NHK Hōsō Gijutsu Kenkyūjo), headquartered in Setagaya, Tokyo is a special ward in Tokyo, Japan. It is also the name of a neighborhood and administrative dis ...
(Japan Broadcasting Corporation's Science & Technical Research Laboratories). The research for HDTV started as early as the 1960s, though a standard was proposed to the ITU-R (CCIR) only in 1973. By the 1980s, a high definition television camera, cathode-ray tube, videotape recorder, and editing equipment, among others, had been developed. In 1982 NHK developed MUSE (Multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding), the first HDTV video compression and transmission system.
MUSE In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the Muses ( grc, Μοῦσαι, Moûsai, el, Μούσες, Múses) are the inspirational goddesses of literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used mo ...
used digital video compression, but for transmission
frequency modulation Frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature of its characteristic ...

frequency modulation
was used after a digital-to-analog converter converted the digital signal. In 1987, NHK demonstrated MUSE in Washington D.C. as well as NAB. The demonstration made a great impression in the U.S., leading to the development of the
ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards are an American set of standards for digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual signals using Digital signal, digital encoding, in contras ...
terrestrial DTV system. Europe also developed a DTV system called DVB. Japan began R&D of a completely digital system in the 1980s that led to ISDB. Japan began terrestrial digital broadcasting, using ISDB-T standard by NHK and commercial broadcasting stations, on 1 December 2003.


Features

ISDB-T is characterized by the following features: * ISDB-T (Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting-Terrestrial) in Japan use
UHF Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the SI derived unit, derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defin ...

UHF
470 MHz-770 MHz, bandwidth of 300 MHz, allocate 50 channels, namely channels 13 to 62, each channel is 6 MHz width (actually 5.572 MHz effective bandwidth and 430 kHz guard band between channels). These channels are called "physical channel(物理チャンネル)". For other countries, US channel table or European channel table are used. * For channel tables with 6 MHz width, ISDB-T single channel bandwidths 5.572 MHz has number of carriers 5,617 with interval of 0.99206 kHz. For 7 MHz channel, channel bandwidth is 6.50 MHz; for 8 MHz 7.42 MHz. * ISDB-T allows to accommodate any combination of HDTV (roughly 8Mbit/s in H.264) and SDTV (roughly 2Mbit/s in H.264) within the given bitrate determined by the transmission parameters such as bandwidth, code-rate, guard interval, etc. Typically, among the 13 segments, the center segment is used for
1seg is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...
with QPSK modulation and the remaining 12 segments for the HDTV or SDTV payloads for 64QAM modulation. The bitstream of the 12 segments are combined into one transport stream, within which any combination of programs can be carried based on the MPEG-2 transport stream definition. * ISDB-T transmits a
HDTV High-definition television (HD) describes a television system providing an image resolution of substantially higher resolution than the previous generation of technologies. The term has been used since 1936, but in modern times refers to the gener ...
channel and a mobile TV channel
1seg is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...
within one channel. 1seg is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video broadcasting service in Japan. Although 1seg is designed for mobile usage, reception is sometimes problematic in moving vehicles. Because of reception on high speed vehicle,
UHF Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the SI derived unit, derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defin ...

UHF
transmission is shaded by buildings and hills frequently, but reported well receiving in
Shinkansen The , colloquially known in English as the bullet train, is a network of high-speed rail High-speed rail (HSR) is a type of rail transport that runs significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of speciali ...

Shinkansen
as far as run in flat or rural area. * ISDB-T provides interactive services with data broadcasting. Such as . ISDB-T supports internet access as a
return channelIn communications systems, the return channel (also reverse channel or return link) is the transmission link from a user terminal to the central hub. Return links are often, but not always, slower than the corresponding forward links. Examples whe ...
that works to support the data broadcasting. Internet access is also provided on mobile phones. * ISDB-T provides
Single Frequency Network A single-frequency network or SFN is a broadcast network A terrestrial network (or broadcast network in the United States) is a group of radio station , Sweden , Norway Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio signal, audio (sound), sometimes ...
(SFN) and on-channel repeater technology. SFN makes efficient utilization of the frequency resource (spectrum). For example, the Kanto area (greater Tokyo area including most part of Tokyo prefecture and some part of Chiba, Ibaragi, Tochigi, Saitama and Kanagawa prefecture) are covered with SFN with roughly 10 million population coverage. * ISDB-T can be received indoors with a simple indoor antenna. * ISDB-T provides robustness to
multipath interference In radio communication Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating using radio wave Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Radio waves ...
("ghosting"), co-channel analog television interference, and
electromagnetic interference 300px, Electromagnetic interference in analog TV signal Electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation rate of an Alternating_current, alter ...
s that come from motor vehicles and power lines in urban environments. * ISDB-T is claimed to allow HDTV to be received on moving vehicles at over 100 km/h;
DVB-T DVB-T, short for Digital Video Broadcasting — Terrestrial, is the Digital Video Broadcasting, DVB European-based consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television that was first published in 1997 and first bro ...
can only receive
SDTV Standard-definition television (SDTV, SD, often shortened to standard definition) is a television system which uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high High may refer to: People with the name * High (surname) Science, tec ...
on moving vehicles, and it is claimed that
ATSC Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards are an American set of standards for digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual signals using Digital signal, digital encoding, in contras ...
can not be received on moving vehicles at all (however, in early 2007 there were reports of successful reception of ATSC on laptops using USB tuners in moving vehicles).


Adoption

ISDB-T was adopted for commercial transmissions in Japan in December 2003. It currently comprises a market of about 100 million television sets. ISDB-T had 10 million subscribers by the end of April 2005. Along with the wide use of ISDB-T, the price of receivers is getting low. The price of ISDB-T STB in the lower end of the market is ¥19800 as of 19 April 2006. By November 2007 only a few older, low-end STB models could be found in the Japanese market (average price U$180), showing a tendency towards replacement by mid to high-end equipment like PVRs and TV sets with inbuilt tuners. In November 2009, a retail chain
AEON The word aeon , also spelled eon ( in American English), originally meant "life", "vital force" or "being", "generation" or "a period of time", though it tended to be translated as "age" in the sense of "ages", "forever", "timeless" or "for eter ...
introduced STB in 40 USD, followed by variety of low-cost tuners. The Dibeg web page confirms this tendency by showing low significance of the digital tuner STB market in Japan.
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, ...

Brazil
, which used an analogue TV system (PAL-M) that slightly differed from any other countries, has chosen ISDB-T as a base for its DTV format, calling it
ISDB-Tb ISDB-T International, or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital ( en, Brazilian Digital Television System), is a technical standard for digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisu ...
or ''internally''
SBTVD ISDB-T International, or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital ( en, Brazilian Digital Television System), is a technical standard for digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisu ...
(''Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital-Terrestre''). The Japanese DiBEG group incorporated the advancements made by Brazil -
MPEG4 MPEG-4 is a method of defining Video compression, compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data. It was introduced in late 1998 and designated a standardization, standard for a group of sound, audio and video coding formats and related technol ...
video codec instead of ISDB-T's MPEG2 and a powerful interaction middleware called Ginga- and has renamed the standard to "
ISDB-T International ISDB-T International, or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital ( en, Brazilian Digital Television System), is a technical standard for digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisu ...
". Other than Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Chile and Ecuador which have selected ISDB-Tb, there are other South American countries, mainly from
Mercosur Mercosur (in Spanish), Mercosul (in Portuguese), or Ñemby Ñemuha (in Guarani), officially Southern Common Market,, pt, link=no, Mercado Comum do Sul, gn, link=no, Ñemby Ñemuha is a South American South America is a continent ...

Mercosur
, such as Venezuela, that chose ISDB-Tb, which providing economies of scale and common market benefits from the regional South American manufacturing instead of importing ready-made STBs as is the case with the other standards. Also, it has been confirmed with extensive tests realized by Brazilian Association of Radio and Television Broadcasters (ABERT), Brazilian Television Engineering Society (SET) and
Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie Mackenzie Presbyterian University (Portuguese language, Portuguese: ''Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie'') is a private university in São Paulo, Brazil. The Mackenzie Presbyterian University is an institution of higher learning that has strong t ...
the insufficient quality for indoor reception presented by ATSC and, between DVB-T and ISDB-T, the latter presented superior performance in indoor reception and flexibility to access digital services and TV programs through non-mobile, mobile or portable receivers with impressive quality. The ABERT–SET group in Brazil did system comparison tests of DTV under the supervision of the CPqD foundation. The comparison tests were done under the direction of a work group of SET and ABERT. The ABERT/SET group selected ISDB-T as the best choice in digital broadcasting modulation systems among ATSC, DVB-T and ISDB-T. Another study found that ISDB-T and DVB-T performed similarly, and that both were outperformed by
DVB-T2 DVB-T2 is an abbreviation for "Digital Video Broadcasting — Second Generation Terrestrial"; it is the extension of the television standard DVB-T DVB-T, short for Digital Video Broadcasting — Terrestrial, is the Digital Video Broadcasting, ...

DVB-T2
. ISDB-T was singled out as the most flexible of all for meeting the needs of mobility and portability. It is most efficient for mobile and portable reception. On June 29, 2006, Brazil announced ISDB-T-based SBTVD as the chosen standard for digital TV transmissions, to be fully implemented by 2016. By November 2007 (one month prior DTTV launch), a few suppliers started to announce zapper STBs of the new Nippon-Brazilian SBTVD-T standard, at that time without interactivity. As in 2019, the implementation rollout in Brazil proceeded successfully, with terrestrial analog services (PAL-M) phased out in most of the country (for some less populated regions, analog signal shutdown was postponed to 2023).


Adoption by country

This lists the other countries who adopted the ISDB-T standard, chronologically arranged. * On April 23, 2009, Peru announced its decision to adopt ISDB-T as the digital terrestrial television standard. This decision was taken on the basis of the recommendations by the Multi-sectional Commission to assess the most appropriate standard for the country. * On August 28, 2009, Argentina officially adopted the ISDB-T system calling it internally SATVD-T (Sistema Argentino de Televisión Digital - Terrestre). * On September 14, 2009, Chile announced it was adopting the ISDB-T standard because it adapts better to the geographical makeup of the country, while allowing signal reception in cell phones, high-definition content delivery and a wider variety of channels. * On October 6, 2009, Venezuela officially adopted the ISDB-T standard. * On March 26, 2010, Ecuador announced its decision to adopt ISDB-T standard. This decision was taken on the basis of the recommendations by the Superintendent of Telecommunications. * On April 29, 2010, Costa Rica officially announced the adoption of ISDB-Tb standard based upon a commission in charge of analyzing which protocol to accept. * On June 1, 2010, Paraguay officially adopted ISDB-T International, via a presidential decree #4483. * On June 11, 2010, the Philippines ( NTC) officially adopted the ISDB-T standard. * On July 6, 2010, Bolivia announced its decision to adopt ISDB-T standard as well. * On December 27, 2010, the Uruguayan Government adopts the ISDB-T standard., voiding a previous 2007 decree which adopted the European DVB system. * On November 15, 2011, the Maldivian Government adopts the ISDB-T standard. As the first country in the region that use European channel table and 1 channel bandwidth is 8 MHz. * On February 26, 2013, the
Botswana Botswana (, also ), officially the Republic of Botswana ( tn, Lefatshe la Botswana, label=Setswana The Tswana language () is a Bantu language spoken in Southern Africa by about 8,2 million people. It is a Bantu languages, Bantu langua ...

Botswana
government adopts the ISDB-T standard. As the one of the first country within the region and even the first country within the continent of
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are ...

Africa
as a whole. * On September 12, 2013, Honduras adopted the ISDB-T standard. * On May 20, 2014,
Government of Sri Lanka The Government of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකා, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO; ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republi ...
officially announced its decision to adopt ISDB-T standard, and on September 7, 2014 Japanese Prime Minister
Shinzo Abe Shinzo Abe (, ; ; born 21 September 1954) is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan and President of the Liberal Democratic Party (Japan), Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) from 2006 to 2007 and again from 2012 to 2020. He is t ...

Shinzo Abe
signed an agreement with Sri Lankan President
Mahinda Rajapakse Percy Mahinda Rajapaksa, commonly known as Mahinda Rajapaksa (Sinhala language, Sinhala: , Tamil language, Tamil: ; born 18 November 1945), is the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka and Minister of Finance (Sri Lanka), Minister of Finance since 2019, a ...

Mahinda Rajapakse
for constructing infrastructure such as ISDB-T networks with a view to smooth conversion to ISDB-T, and cooperating in the field of content and developing human resources. * On January 23, 2017, El Salvador adopted the ISDB-T standard. * On March 20, 2019, Angola adopted the ISDB-T standard.


Technical specification

Segment structure ARIB has developed a segment structure called BST-OFDM (see figure). ISDB-T divides the frequency band of one channel into thirteen segments. The broadcaster can select which combination of segments to use; this choice of segment structure allows for service flexibility. For example, ISDB-T can transmit both and HDTV using one TV channel or change to 3 SDTV, a switch that can be performed at any time. ISDB-T can also change the modulation scheme at the same time. The above figure shows the spectrum of 13 segments structure of ISDB-T.
(''s0'' is generally used for
1seg is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...
, ''s1''-''s12'' are used for one
HDTV High-definition television (HD) describes a television system providing an image resolution of substantially higher resolution than the previous generation of technologies. The term has been used since 1936, but in modern times refers to the gener ...

HDTV
or three
SDTV Standard-definition television (SDTV, SD, often shortened to standard definition) is a television system which uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high High may refer to: People with the name * High (surname) Science, tec ...
s)


Summary of ISDB-T

* H.264 Baseline profile is used in one segment (
1seg is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...
) broadcasting for portables and Mobile phone. * H.264 High-profile is used in ISDB-Tb to high definition broadcasts.


Channel

Specification of Japanese terrestrial digital broadcasting using ISDB-T.


ISDB-Tsb

ISDB-Tsb is the terrestrial digital sound broadcasting specification. The technical specification is the same as ISDB-T. ISDB-Tsb supports the coded transmission of OFDM signals.


ISDB-Tmm

ISDB-Tmm (Terrestrial mobile multi-media) utilised suitable number of segments by station with video coding MPEG-4 AVC/H.264. With multiple channels, ISDB-Tmm served dedicated channels such as sport, movie, music channels and others with quality sound, allowing for better broadcast quality as compared to
1seg is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...
. This service used the
VHF Very high frequency (VHF) is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation rate of an Alternating_current, alternating electric current or voltage or of a Magnetic_field, magnetic, electric or e ...
band, 207.5–222 MHz which began to be utilised after Japan's switchover to digital television in July 2011. Japan's
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications The is a cabinet-level ministry in the Government of Japan The is the central government of Japan. The Government of Japan consists of legislature, executive and judiciary branches and is accountable to the Emperor of Japan. The Prime Min ...
licensed to
NTT Docomo File:NTT DoCoMo Yoyogi Building 2009 cropped.jpg, NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building in Shibuya, Shibuya, Tokyo is a Japanese mobile phone operator. The name is officially backronym, an abbreviation of the phrase, "''do communications over the mobile n ...
subsidiary ''mmbi, Inc.'' for ISDB-Tmm method on September 9, 2010. The
MediaFLO MediaFLO was a technology developed by Qualcomm Qualcomm is an American multinational corporation headquartered in San Diego, California, and Delaware General Corporation Law, incorporated in Delaware. It creates semiconductors, software, and s ...
method offered with
KDDI () is a Japanese telecommunications operator formed on October 1, 2000 through the merger of DDI Corp. (Daini-Denden Inc.), KDD (Kokusai Denshin Denwa) Corp. (itself a former listed state-owned enterprise privatized in 1998), and IDO Corp. It h ...
was not licensed. The ISDB-Tmm broadcasting service by ''mmbi, Inc.'' is named モバキャス (
pronouncedPronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken. This may refer to generally agreed-upon sequences of sounds used in speaking a given word or language in a specific dialect ("correct pronunciation") or simply the way a particular in ...
''mobakyasu''), literally short form of mobile casting on July 14, 2011, and had been branded as NOTTV since October 4, 2011. The Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications approved the start of operations of ''NOTTV'' on October 13, 2011. Planning the service with monthly subscription fee of 420 yen for south
Kanto Plain Kantō (Japanese) Kanto is a simplified spelling of Japanese language, Japanese , omitting the diacritics. Kantō (in Japan) Kantō may refer to: *Kantō Plain of Japan *Kantō region of Japan *Kantō-kai organized crime group *Kanto (Pokémon), ...

Kanto Plain
,
Aichi is a prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Th ...
,
Osaka is a Cities designated by government ordinance of Japan, designated city in the Kansai region of Honshu in Japan. It is the capital and the most populous city in Osaka Prefecture, and the List of cities in Japan, third most populous city in Ja ...
,
Kyoto Kyoto (; Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...

Kyoto
and some other prefectures from April 1, 2012. The deployment plan was to cover approximately 73% of
household A household consists of one or several persons who live in the same dwelling and share meals. It may also consist of a single family or another group of people. The household is the basic unit of analysis in many social, microeconomic and governm ...

household
s by the end of 2012, approximately 91% by the end of 2014, and 125 stations or
repeater In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal (information theory), signal and retransmits it. Repeaters are used to extend transmissions so that the signal can cover longer distances or be received on the other s ...
s to be installed in 2016 to cover
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...

cities
nationwide.
Android Android may refer to: Science and technology * Android (robot), a humanoid robot or synthetic organism designed to imitate a human * Android (operating system), Google's mobile operating system ** Android (operating system)#Mascot, Unnamed Androi ...

Android
smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perf ...

smartphone
s and tablets with ISDB-Tmm receiving capability were also sold mainly by
NTT DoCoMo File:NTT DoCoMo Yoyogi Building 2009 cropped.jpg, NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building in Shibuya, Shibuya, Tokyo is a Japanese mobile phone operator. The name is officially backronym, an abbreviation of the phrase, "''do communications over the mobile n ...
, although a separate tuner (TV BoX manufactured by
Huawei Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. ( ; ) is a Chinese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * M ...
; or StationTV manufactured by Pixela) could be purchased for
iPhone {{Infobox information appliance , name = iPhone , logo = , image = , caption = The front face of an iPhone 13 Pro in Sierra Blue , developer = Apple Inc. , manufacturer = Foxconn, Pegatron, Wistron (contract manufacturers) , type = Sma ...

iPhone
s and
iPad iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., which run the iOS and iPadOS mobile operating systems. The iPad (1st generation), first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; the most recent iPad models are ...

iPad
s as well as Android smartphones and tablets sold by
au by KDDI au, or au by KDDI, is a brand marketed by KDDI in the main islands of Japan and by Okinawa Cellular in Okinawa for their mobile cellular services. Naming According to the brand creator, the name 'au' is based on the Japanese verbs for 'meet' ( ...
and
SoftBank Mobile is a Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = ...
to receive ISDB-Tmm broadcasts. Due to the continued unprofitability of NOTTV, ''mmbi, Inc.'' shut down the service on June 30, 2016.


2.6 GHz Mobile satellite digital audio/video broadcasting

MobaHo! was a mobile satellite In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed into orbit. These objects are called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon. On ...
is the name of the services that uses the Mobile satellite digital audio broadcasting specifications.
MobaHo! was a mobile satellite In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally placed into orbit. These objects are called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth's Moon. On ...
started its service on 20 October 2004. Ended on 31 March 2009


Standards

ARIB The , commonly known as , is a standardization organization in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial ...
and JCTEA developed the following standards. Some part of standards are located on the pages of
ITU-R The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union 260px, ITU Monument, Bern The International Telecommunication Union is a specialized agency of the Unit ...
and
ITU-T The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 and Y.3173 for machine learning, and H.264/MPEG-4 AVC for video c ...
.


Table of terrestrial HDTV transmission systems


See also

General category *
DiBEGDiBEG (The Digital Broadcasting Experts Group) was founded in September 1997 to promote ISDB-T International ISDB-T International, or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital ( en, Brazilian Digital Television System), is a technic ...
- The Digital Broadcasting Experts Group *
Digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual Audiovisual (AV) is electronic media possessing both a sound and a visual component, such as slide-tape presentations, films, television programs, corporate conferencing, c ...
*
Digital terrestrial television Digital terrestrial television (DTTV or DTT, or DTTB with "broadcasting") is a technology for terrestrial television Terrestrial television is a type of television broadcasting in which the television signal is transmitted by radio waves fro ...
*
Digital audio broadcasting Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio International standard, standard for broadcasting digital audio radio services in many countries around the world, defined and promoted by the WorldDAB forum. The standard is dominant in Europe ...

Digital audio broadcasting
* DMB *
1seg is a mobile terrestrial digital audio/video and data broadcasting service in Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...
* B-CAS * Data broadcasting *
SDTV Standard-definition television (SDTV, SD, often shortened to standard definition) is a television system which uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high High may refer to: People with the name * High (surname) Science, tec ...
, enhanced-definition television, EDTV, high-definition television, HDTV *
ISDB-T International ISDB-T International, or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital ( en, Brazilian Digital Television System), is a technical standard for digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisu ...
(
SBTVD ISDB-T International, or SBTVD, short for Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão Digital ( en, Brazilian Digital Television System), is a technical standard for digital television Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisu ...
) - Brazilian Digital Television System based on ISDB-T * Tokyo Skytree - ISDB-T broadcasting for
Kanto Plain Kantō (Japanese) Kanto is a simplified spelling of Japanese language, Japanese , omitting the diacritics. Kantō (in Japan) Kantō may refer to: *Kantō Plain of Japan *Kantō region of Japan *Kantō-kai organized crime group *Kanto (Pokémon), ...

Kanto Plain
Transmission technology * ATSC Standards - Advanced Television Systems Committee Standard * DMB-T - Digital Multimedia Broadcast-Terrestrial *
DVB-T DVB-T, short for Digital Video Broadcasting — Terrestrial, is the Digital Video Broadcasting, DVB European-based consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television that was first published in 1997 and first bro ...
- Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial * MPEG * Single frequency network (SFN), multi-frequency network (MFN)


References


External links


Welcome to ISDB-T Official Web Site!
Digital Broadcasting Experts Group (DiBEG)
ISDB-T International Web Site!


[NHK
The ISDB-T System
[International Telecommunication Union, ITU (link is down, 2012/10/28)
Comparison Test Results in Brazil, Clear Superiority of the ISDB-T system
[NHK
Digital Television Laboratory and Field Test Results - Brazil
[International Telecommunication Union, ITU
ISDB-T: Japanese Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting (DTTB)
(PDF) Asian Institute of Technology
Final report of the Digital Terrestrial Television Peruvian Commission (In Spanish)


Digital Broadcasting Experts Group (DiBEG)

[NHK * [http://www.nhk.or.jp/strl/publica/bt/en/pa0005.html ISDB-S - Satellite Transmission System for Advanced Multimedia Services Provided by Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting]
NHK also called the Japan Broadcasting Corporation and shortened from ''Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai'', is a Japanese government-owned public broadcaster Public broadcasting involves radio Radio is the technology of signaling and telecommunication ...

NHK

The Association for Promotion of Digital Broadcasting (Dpa)


[NHK * [https://web.archive.org/web/20110323015803/http://www.gov-online.go.jp/eng/publicity/book/hlj/html/201009/201009_08.html Switching On to ISDB-T Digital] Highlighting Japan September 2010 (Public Relations Office Government of Japan) * ISDB-Tmm *
Introducing ISDB-Tmm mobile multimedia broadcasting system
- International Telecommunication Union, ITU (May 2010) *
Deployment of Mobile Multimedia Broadcasting based on ISDB-Tmm technology in Japan
- International Telecommunication Union, ITU(May 23, 2011) {{DEFAULTSORT:Isdb ISDB, Broadband Broadcast engineering Digital television High-definition television Radio broadcasting Mass media companies established in 1981 Satellite television Television transmission standards Japanese inventions Standards of Japan Mass media companies of Japan 1981 establishments in Japan