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IPS (in-plane switching) is a screen technology for
liquid-crystal display A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display A flat-panel display (FPD) is an electronic display device s, LED display and Vacuum fluorescent display, VF display, top to bottom. A display device is an output device for presentation ...

liquid-crystal display
s (LCDs). In IPS, a layer of
liquid crystal Liquid crystals (LCs) are a state of matter In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time ...
s is sandwiched between two
glass Glass is a non- crystalline, often transparency and translucency, transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optics. Glass is most often formed by ...

glass
surfaces Water droplet lying on a damask. Surface tension">damask.html" ;"title="Water droplet lying on a damask">Water droplet lying on a damask. Surface tension is high enough to prevent floating below the textile. A surface, as the term is most gener ...
. The liquid crystal molecules are aligned parallel to those surfaces in predetermined directions (''in-plane''). The molecules are reoriented by an applied electric field, whilst remaining essentially parallel to the surfaces to produce an image. It was designed to solve the strong viewing angle dependence and low-quality color reproduction of the twisted nematic field effect (TN) matrix LCDs prevalent in the late 1980s.


History

The TN method was the only viable technology for
active matrixActive matrix is a type of addressing scheme{{unreferenced, date=June 2009, bot=yes There are three different addressing schemes for display device s, LED display and Vacuum fluorescent display, VF display, top to bottom. A display device is an outp ...
TFT LCD A thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display (TFT LCD) is a variant of a liquid-crystal display display. A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, flat-panel display or other Electro-optic modulator, electronically modulated op ...
s in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Early panels showed grayscale inversion from up to down, and had a high response time (for this kind of transition, 1 ms is visually better than 5 ms). In the mid-1990s new technologies were developed—typically IPS and Vertical Alignment (VA)—that could resolve these weaknesses and were applied to large
computer monitor A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial or text form. A monitor usually comprises a electronic visual display, visual display, electronic circuit, some circuitry, a casing, and a power supply. The display de ...

computer monitor
panels. One approach patented in 1974 was to use inter-digitated
electrode An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor A semiconductor material has an Electrical resistivity and conductivity, electrical conductivity value falling between tha ...

electrode
s on one glass
substrate Substrate may refer to: Physical layers *Substrate (biology), the natural environment in which an organism lives, or the surface or medium on which an organism grows or is attached **Substrate (locomotion), the surface over which an organism loco ...
only to produce an
electric field An electric field (sometimes E-field) is the physical field that surrounds electrically-charged particle In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' ' ...

electric field
essentially parallel to the glass substrates. However, the inventor was not yet able to implement such IPS-LCDs superior to TN displays. After thorough analysis, details of advantageous molecular arrangements were filed in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...

Germany
by Guenter Baur et al. and patented in various countries including the US on 9 January 1990. The
Fraunhofer Society The Fraunhofer Society (german: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V., "Fraunhofer Society for the Advancement of Applied Research") is a German research organization with 75institutes spread throughout Germany, ...
in
Freiburg Freiburg im Breisgau (; abbreviated as Freiburg i. Br. or Freiburg i. B.), commonly referred to as Freiburg, is an independent city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. With a population of about 230,000 (as of December 31, 2018), Freiburg is the List ...

Freiburg
, where the inventors worked, assigned these patents to
Merck KGaA The Merck Group, brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business Business is the activity of making on ...
, Darmstadt, Germany. Shortly thereafter,
Hitachi () is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign ...

Hitachi
of Japan filed patents to improve this technology. A leader in this field was Katsumi Kondo, who worked at the Hitachi Research Center. In 1992, engineers at Hitachi worked out various practical details of the IPS technology to interconnect the
thin-film transistor A thin-film transistor (TFT) is a special type of field-effect transistor The field-effect transistor (FET) is a type of transistor file:MOSFET Structure.png, upright=1.4, Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), showing ...
array as a matrix and to avoid undesirable stray fields in between pixels. Hitachi also improved the viewing angle dependence further by optimizing the shape of the electrodes (''Super IPS'').
NEC is a Japanese multinational information technology and electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses active d ...
and Hitachi became early manufacturers of active-matrix addressed LCDs based on the IPS technology. This is a milestone for implementing large-screen LCDs having acceptable visual performance for flat-panel computer monitors and television screens. In 1996,
Samsung The Samsung Group (or simply Samsung) ( ko, 삼성) is a South Korean Multinational corporation, multinational manufacturing Conglomerate (company), conglomerate headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea. It comprises numerous affil ...

Samsung
developed the optical patterning technique that enables multi-domain LCD. Multi-domain and in-plane switching subsequently remain the dominant LCD designs through 2006. Later, LG Display and other South Korean, Japanese, and Taiwanese LCD manufacturers adapted IPS technology. IPS technology is widely used in panels for TVs,
tablet computer A tablet computer, commonly shortened to tablet, is a mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations aut ...
s, and
smartphones A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can per ...

smartphones
. In particular, most
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
products was marketed as '' Flexview'' from 2004 to 2008 has an IPS LCDs with CCFL backlighting, and all
Apple Inc. Apple Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...
products marketed with the label ''
Retina Display
Retina Display
'' feature IPS LCDs with LED
backlight A backlight is a form of illumination used in liquid crystal displays (LCDs). As LCDs do not produce light by themselves—unlike, for example, cathode ray tube (CRT) displays—they need illumination (available light, ambient light or a special l ...

backlight
ing since 2010.


Technology


Implementation

In this case, both linear
polarizing filter A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter An optical filter is a device that selectively transmits light Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation within the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be visual perc ...
s P and A have their axes of transmission in the same direction. To obtain the 90 degree twisted nematic structure of the LC layer between the two glass plates without an applied electric field (''OFF'' state), the inner surfaces of the glass plates are treated to align the bordering LC molecules at a right angle. This molecular structure is practically the same as in TN LCDs. However, the arrangement of the electrodes e1 and e2 is different. Because they are in the same plane and on a single glass plate, they generate an electric field essentially parallel to this plate. The diagram is not to scale: the LC layer is only a few
micrometerMicrometer can mean: * Micrometer (device) A micrometer, sometimes known as a micrometer screw gauge, is a device incorporating a calibrated screw widely used for Accuracy and precision, accurate measurement of components in mechanical engineeri ...
s thick and so is very small compared with the distance between the electrodes. The LC molecules have a positive dielectric
anisotropy Anisotropy () is the property of a material which allows it to change or assume different properties in different directions as opposed to isotropy. It can be defined as a difference, when measured along different axes, in a material's physic ...
and align themselves with their long axis parallel to an applied electrical field. In the ''OFF'' state (shown on the left), entering light L1 becomes linearly polarized by polarizer P. The twisted nematic LC layer rotates the polarization axis of the passing light by 90 degrees, so that ideally no light passes through polarizer A. In the ''ON'' state, a sufficient voltage is applied between electrodes and a corresponding electrical field E is generated that realigns the LC molecules as shown on the right of the diagram. Here, light L2 can pass through polarizer A. In practice, other schemes of implementation exist with a different structure of the LC molecules for example without any twist in the ''OFF'' state. As both electrodes are on the same substrate, they take more space than TN matrix electrodes. This also reduces contrast and brightness. Super-IPS was later introduced with better response times and colour reproduction.


Advantages

* IPS panels display consistent, accurate color from all viewing angles. A state-of-the-art (2014) comparison of IPS vs. TN panels concerning colour consistency under different viewing angles can be seen on the website of
Japan Display {{Infobox company , name = Japan Display Inc.株式会社ジャパンディスプレイ , logo = Japan Display logo.svg , logo_size = 190px , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual pe ...
Inc.Visual comparison of IPS and TN done by Japan Display Inc.
* Unlike TN LCDs, IPS panels do not lighten or show tailing when touched. This is important for touch-screen devices, such as
smartphones A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can per ...

smartphones
and tablets. * IPS panels offer clear images and stable response time.


Disadvantages

* IPS panels require up to 15% more power than TN panels. * IPS panels are more expensive to produce than TN panels. * IPS panels have longer response times than TN panels. * IPS panels are sometimes vulnerable to a defect Backlight Bleeding


Alternative technologies


Plane to Line Switching (PLS)

Toward the end of 2010
Samsung Electronics Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (; lit. "tristar electronics", sometimes shortened to SEC and stylized as SΛMSUNG) is a South Korean multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in ...
introduced Super PLS (Plane-to-Line Switching) with the intent of providing an alternative to the popular IPS technology which is primarily manufactured by LG Display. It is an "IPS-type" panel technology, and is very similar in performance features, specs and characteristics to LG Display's offering. Samsung adopted PLS panels instead of
AMOLED AMOLED (active-matrix organic light-emitting diode, ) is a type of OLED display device technology. OLED describes a specific type of thin-film-display technology in which organic compounds form the electroluminescence, electroluminescent materia ...

AMOLED
panels, because in the past AMOLED panels had difficulties in realizing full HD resolution on
mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets ...
s. PLS technology was Samsung's wide-viewing angle LCD technology, similar to LG Display's IPS technology. Samsung asserted the following benefits of Super PLS (commonly referred to as just "PLS") over IPS: * Further improvement in viewing angle * 10 percent increase in brightness * Up to 15 percent decrease in production costs * Increased image quality * Flexible panel


Advanced Hyper-Viewing Angle (AHVA)

In 2012 AU Optronics began investment in their own IPS-type technology, dubbed AHVA. This should not be confused with their long standing AMVA technology (which is a VA-type technology). Performance and specs remained very similar to LG Display's IPS and Samsung's PLS offerings. The first 144 Hz compatible IPS-type panels were produced in late 2014 (used first in early 2015) by AUO, beating Samsung and LG Display to providing high refresh rate IPS-type panels.


Manufacturers

*
AU Optronics AU Optronics (AUO; ) is a company in Taiwan that specialises in optoelectronic solutions. It was formed in September 2001 by the merger of Acer Display Technology, Inc. (the predecessor of AUO, established in 1996) and Unipac Optoelectronics Corpor ...

AU Optronics
* Acer * BOE *
Chi Mei Optoelectronics Chi Mei Corporation (; CMC) is a plastics producer in Taiwan. It is the largest maker of Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, ABS resin in the world, producing about 1 million tons of ABS annually in 1999.Motohiko KitaharaInnovative Strategies Help We ...
*
Japan Display {{Infobox company , name = Japan Display Inc.株式会社ジャパンディスプレイ , logo = Japan Display logo.svg , logo_size = 190px , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual pe ...
Inc. *
LG Display LG Display (Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, an ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language * Korean alphabet, or Hangul Places * Korean Peninsula, a peninsula ...
(mentioned as largest supplier of IPS LCDs in 2012) * Panasonic Liquid Crystal Display Co., Ltd * Samsung Display * Sony Professional Display


See also

*
Computer monitor A computer monitor is an output device that displays information in pictorial or text form. A monitor usually comprises a electronic visual display, visual display, electronic circuit, some circuitry, a casing, and a power supply. The display de ...

Computer monitor
*
e-paper Electronic paper, also sometimes electronic ink, e-ink or electrophoretic display, are display devices that mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper. Unlike conventional flat panel displays that emit light, an electronic paper display refl ...

e-paper
*
LCD TV Liquid-crystal-display televisions (LCD TVs) are television sets that use liquid-crystal displays to produce images. They are, by far, the most widely produced and sold television display type. LCD TVs are thin and light, but have some disadvantag ...
*
Liquid-crystal display A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, flat-panel display or other Electro-optic modulator, electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals combined with polarizers. Liquid c ...

Liquid-crystal display
*
Smart watch A smartwatch is a wearable computer in the form of a watch; modern smartwatches provide a local touchscreen interface for daily use, while an associated smartphone app provides for management and telemetry (such as long-term biomonitoring). While ...

Smart watch
*
TFT LCD A thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display (TFT LCD) is a variant of a liquid-crystal display display. A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, flat-panel display or other Electro-optic modulator, electronically modulated op ...


References


External links


Panel TechnologiesFull Form of IPS Display
{{DEFAULTSORT:Ips Panel Display technology Liquid crystal displays German inventions Japanese inventions South Korean inventions de:Flüssigkristallbildschirm#In-Plane Switching (IPS)