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iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a
mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems like macOS ...
created and developed by
Apple Inc. Apple Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...
exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile devices, including the
iPhone {{Infobox information appliance , name = iPhone , logo = , image = , caption = The front face of an iPhone 13 Pro The iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max are smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They are the flagship smart ...

iPhone
and
iPod Touch The iPod Touch is a line of iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile devices, includ ...

iPod Touch
; the term also included the versions running on
iPad iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., which run the iOS and iPadOS mobile operating systems. The iPad (1st generation), first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; the most recent iPad models ar ...

iPad
s until the name ''
iPadOS iPadOS is a mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system for mobile phones, tablet computer, tablets, smartwatches, 2-in-1 PCs, Smart speaker, smart speakers, or other Mobile device, mobile devices. While computers ...
'' was introduced with version 13 in 2019. It is the world's second-most widely installed mobile operating system, after
Android Android may refer to: Science and technology * Android (robot), a humanoid robot or synthetic organism designed to imitate a human * Android (operating system), Google's mobile operating system ** Android (operating system)#Mascot, Unnamed Androi ...

Android
. It is the basis for three other operating systems made by Apple: iPadOS,
tvOS tvOS (formerly Apple TV Software) is an developed by for the 2nd generation and later . It is based on the operating system and has many similar frameworks, technologies, and concepts. The Apple TV Software for the 2nd and 3rd generation A ...

tvOS
, and
watchOS watchOS is the operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) like macOS, Linux, Andro ...
. It is proprietary software, although some parts of it are open source under the
Apple Public Source License The Apple Public Source License (APSL) is the open-source and free software license under which Apple's Darwin operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, computer software, software resourc ...
and other licenses. Unveiled in 2007 for the first-generation iPhone, iOS has since been extended to support other Apple devices such as the
iPod Touch The iPod Touch is a line of iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile devices, includ ...

iPod Touch
(September 2007) and the
iPad iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., which run the iOS and iPadOS mobile operating systems. The iPad (1st generation), first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; the most recent iPad models ar ...

iPad
(introduced: January 2010; availability: April 2010.) , Apple's
App Store An app store (or app marketplace) is a type of platform for computer software called , often in a mobile context. Apps provide a specific set of functions which, by definition, do not include the running of the computer itself. Complex software d ...

App Store
contains more than 2.1 million iOS applications, 1 million of which are native for iPads. These
mobile app A mobile application, also referred to as a mobile app or simply an app, is a computer program In imperative programming In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses Statement (computer science), statements t ...
s have collectively been downloaded more than 130 billion times. Major versions of iOS are released annually. The current stable version,
iOS 15 iOS 15 is the fifteenth and current major release of the iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the compa ...
, was released to the public on September 20, 2021.


History

In 2005, when
Steve Jobs Steven Paul Jobs (; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term ch ...

Steve Jobs
began planning the
iPhone {{Infobox information appliance , name = iPhone , logo = , image = , caption = The front face of an iPhone 13 Pro The iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max are smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. They are the flagship smart ...

iPhone
, he had a choice to either "shrink the Mac, which would be an epic feat of engineering, or enlarge the iPod". Jobs favored the former approach but pitted the
Macintosh Macintosh 128k The Macintosh 128K, originally released as the Apple Macintosh, is the original Apple Inc., Apple Macintosh personal computer. Its beige case consisted of a CRT monitor and came with a keyboard and mouse. A handle built into ...

Macintosh
and
iPod The iPod is a line of portable media player A portable media player (PMP) or digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic ( analog or digital) equipment ...

iPod
teams, led by
Scott Forstall Scott Forstall (born 1969) is an American software engineer, best known for leading the original software development team for the iPhone The iPhone is a line of smartphone A smartphone is a mobile device that combines cellular and ...

Scott Forstall
and
Tony Fadell Anthony Michael Fadell (born March 22, 1969) is an American engineer Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are Professional, professionals who Invention, invent, design, analyze, build and test Machine, machines, complex systems, archit ...

Tony Fadell
, respectively, against each other in an internal competition, with Forstall winning by creating the iPhone OS. The decision enabled the success of the iPhone as a platform for third-party developers: using a well-known desktop operating system as its basis allowed the many third-party Mac developers to write software for the iPhone with minimal retraining. Forstall was also responsible for creating a
software development kit A software development kit (SDK) is a collection of software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in creating and maintaining applica ...
for programmers to build iPhone apps, as well as an
App Store An app store (or app marketplace) is a type of platform for computer software called , often in a mobile context. Apps provide a specific set of functions which, by definition, do not include the running of the computer itself. Complex software d ...

App Store
within
iTunes iTunes () is a , media library, broadcaster, management utility, and the client app for the , developed by It is used to purchase, play, download, and organize digital multimedia, on personal computers running the and operating systems, ...

iTunes
. The operating system was unveiled with the iPhone at the
Macworld Conference & Expo Macworld/iWorld was an information technology trade show with conference tracks dedicated to the Apple Inc., Apple Macintosh platform. It was held annually in the United States during January. Originally ''Macworld Expo'' and then ''Macworld Confere ...
on January 9, 2007, and released in June of that year. At the time of its unveiling in January, Steve Jobs claimed: "iPhone runs OS X" and runs "desktop class applications", but at the time of the iPhone's release, the operating system was renamed "iPhone OS". Initially, third-party native applications were not supported. Jobs' reasoning was that developers could build
web application A web application (or web app) is application software that runs on a web server, unlike computer-based software programs that are run locally on the operating system (OS) of the device. Web applications are accessed by the user through a web brow ...
s through the Safari web browser that "would behave like native apps on the iPhone". In October 2007, Apple announced that a native Software Development Kit (SDK) was under development and that they planned to put it "in developers' hands in February". On March 6, 2008, Apple held a press event, announcing the iPhone SDK. The
iOS App Store The App Store is a digital distribution platform, developed and maintained by Apple Inc., for mobile apps on its iOS and iPadOS operating systems. The store allows users to browse and download apps developed with Apple's iOS Software Developmen ...

iOS App Store
was opened on July 10, 2008, with an initial 500 applications available. This quickly grew to 3,000 in September 2008, 15,000 in January 2009, 50,000 in June 2009, 100,000 in November 2009, 250,000 in August 2010, 650,000 in July 2012, 1 million in October 2013, 2 million in June 2016, and 2.2 million in January 2017. , 1 million apps are natively compatible with the
iPad iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., which run the iOS and iPadOS mobile operating systems. The iPad (1st generation), first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; the most recent iPad models ar ...

iPad
tablet computer. These apps have collectively been downloaded more than 130 billion times. App intelligence firm Sensor Tower has estimated that the App Store will reach 5 million apps by the year 2020. In September 2007, Apple announced the
iPod Touch The iPod Touch is a line of iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile devices, includ ...

iPod Touch
, a redesigned
iPod The iPod is a line of portable media player A portable media player (PMP) or digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic ( analog or digital) equipment ...

iPod
based on the iPhone form factor. On January 27, 2010, Apple introduced their much-anticipated media tablet, the
iPad iPad is a line of tablet computers designed, developed and marketed by Apple Inc., which run the iOS and iPadOS mobile operating systems. The iPad (1st generation), first iPad was released on April 3, 2010; the most recent iPad models ar ...

iPad
, featuring a larger screen than the iPhone and iPod Touch, and designed for web browsing, media consumption, and reading, and offering multi-touch interaction with multimedia formats including newspapers, e-books, photos, videos, music, word processing documents, video games, and most existing iPhone apps using a 9.7-inch screen. It also includes a mobile version of
Safari A safari (; ) is an overland journey to or (in more recent times) observe , especially in or . The so-called animals of Africa – , , , , and – particularly form an important part of the safari market, both for and . Etymology The ...
for web browsing, as well as access to the App Store,
iTunes iTunes () is a , media library, broadcaster, management utility, and the client app for the , developed by It is used to purchase, play, download, and organize digital multimedia, on personal computers running the and operating systems, ...

iTunes
Library, iBookstore, Contacts, and Notes. Content is downloadable via
Wi-Fi Wi-Fi () is a family of wireless network A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes. Wireless networking is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and business installa ...

Wi-Fi
and optional service or synced through the user's computer.
AT&T AT&T Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a s ...
was initially the sole U.S. provider of 3G wireless access for the iPad. In June 2010, Apple rebranded iPhone OS as "iOS". The trademark "IOS" had been used by
Cisco Cisco Systems, Inc. (Cisco) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multina ...

Cisco
for over a decade for its operating system,
IOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile devices, including the iPhone and iPod Touch; the t ...
, used on its routers. To avoid any potential lawsuit, Apple licensed the "IOS" trademark from Cisco. The
Apple Watch Apple Watch is a line of smartwatch A smartwatch is a wearable computer in the form of a watch; modern smartwatches provide a local touchscreen interface for daily use, while an associated smartphone app provides for management and telemetry ...

Apple Watch
smartwatch A smartwatch is a wearable computer in the form of a watch; modern smartwatches provide a local touchscreen interface for daily use, while an associated smartphone app provides for management and telemetry (such as long-term biomonitoring). Whil ...

smartwatch
was announced by Tim Cook on September 9, 2014, being introduced as a product with health and fitness-tracking. It was released on April 24, 2015. It uses
watchOS watchOS is the operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating systems (OS) like macOS, Linux, Andro ...
as operative system, which is based on IOS. On November 22, 2016, a five-second video file originally named "IMG_0942.MP4" started crashing iOS on an increasing count of devices, forcing users to reboot. It gained massive popularity through social media channels and messaging services. In October 2016, Apple opened its first iOS Developer Academy in
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
inside
University of Naples Federico II Main building, university of Naples, Federico II The University of Naples Federico II ( it, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II) is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state o ...
's new campus. The course is completely free, aimed at acquiring specific technical skills on the creation and management of applications for the Apple ecosystem platforms. At the Academy there are also issues of
business administration Business administration (also known as business management) is the administration of a commercial enterprise. It includes all aspects of overseeing and supervising business operations. From the point of view of management Management (or man ...
(business planning and business management with a focus on digital opportunities) and there is a path dedicated to the design of graphical interfaces. Students have the opportunity to participate in the "Enterprise Track", an in-depth training experience on the entire life cycle of an app, from design to implementation, to security,
troubleshooting Troubleshooting is a form of problem solving Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc Ad hoc is a List of Latin phrases, Latin phrase meaning literally 'to this'. In English, it generally signifies a solution designed for a sp ...

troubleshooting
, data storage and cloud usage. As of 2020, the Academy graduated almost a thousand students from all over the world, who have worked on 400 app ideas and have already published about 50 apps on the iOS
App Store An app store (or app marketplace) is a type of platform for computer software called , often in a mobile context. Apps provide a specific set of functions which, by definition, do not include the running of the computer itself. Complex software d ...

App Store
. In the 2018/2019 academic year, students from more than 30 different countries arrived. 35 of these have been selected to attend the Worldwide Developer Conference, the annual Apple Developer Conference held annually in California in early June. On June 3, 2019,
iPadOS iPadOS is a mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system for mobile phones, tablet computer, tablets, smartwatches, 2-in-1 PCs, Smart speaker, smart speakers, or other Mobile device, mobile devices. While computers ...
, the branded version of iOS for iPad, was announced at the 2019 WWDC; it was launched on September 25, 2019.


Features


Interface

The iOS
user interface In the industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction of an object or system or for the implementation of an activity or process, or the result of that plan or specificati ...
is based upon
direct manipulation In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for their application. Computer science is the study of Algori ...
, using
multi-touch In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest commo ...
gestures such as ''swipe'', ''tap'', ''pinch'', and ''reverse pinch''. Interface control elements include sliders, switches, and buttons. Internal
accelerometer An accelerometer is a tool that measures . Proper acceleration is the (the of ) of a body in its own instantaneous ; this is different from coordinate acceleration, which is acceleration in a fixed . For example, an accelerometer at rest on the s ...

accelerometer
s are used by some applications to respond to shaking the device (one common result is the
undo Undo is an interaction technique which is implemented in many computer programs. It erases the last change done to the document, reverting it to an older state. In some more advanced programs, such as graphic processing, undo will negate the la ...

undo
command) or rotating it in
three dimensions Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameter A parameter (from the Ancient Greek language, Ancient Greek wikt:παρά#Ancient Greek, παρά, ''par ...
(one common result is switching between portrait and landscape mode). Various
accessibility Accessibility in the sense considered here refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments so as to be usable by people with disabilities A disability is any condition that makes it more difficult for a person to d ...

accessibility
described in functions enable users with vision and hearing disabilities to properly use iOS. iOS devices boot to the homescreen, the primary navigation and information "hub" on iOS devices, analogous to the desktop found on personal computers. iOS homescreens are typically made up of app icons and
widgets Widget is a placeholder name for an Widget (economics), unnamed, unspecified, or hypothetical manufactured good or product. The word was coined by in his play ' (1924). This meaning has been extended in various ways: Technology Computing * Soft ...
; app icons launch the associated app, whereas widgets display live, auto-updating content, such as a
weather forecast ''Weather and Forecasting'' is a scientific journal In academic publishing Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the ...

weather forecast
, the user's email inbox, or a
news ticker A news ticker (sometimes called a "crawler", "crawl" or "slide") is a primarily horizontal, text-based display either in the form of a graphic that typically resides in the lower third of the screen space on a television station or network (usual ...
directly on the homescreen. Along the top of the screen is a status bar, showing information about the device and its connectivity. The status bar itself contains two elements, the Control Center and the
Notification Center Notification Center is a feature in iOS and macOS macOS (; previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a Proprietary software, proprietary graphical user interface, graphical operating system developed and marketed by Apple In ...
. The Control Center can be "pulled" down from the top right of the notch, on the new iPhones, giving access to various toggles to manage the device more quickly without having to open the Settings. It is possible to manage brightness, volume, wireless connections, music player, etc. Instead, scrolling from the top left to the bottom will open the
Notification Center Notification Center is a feature in iOS and macOS macOS (; previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a Proprietary software, proprietary graphical user interface, graphical operating system developed and marketed by Apple In ...
, which in the latest versions of iOS is very similar to the lockscreen. It displays notifications in chronological order and groups them by application. From the notifications of some apps it is possible to interact directly, for example by replying a message directly from it. Notifications are sent in two modes, the important notifications that are displayed on the lock screen and signaled by a distinctive sound, accompanied by a warning banner and the app badge icon, and the secondary mode where they are displayed in the Notification Center, but they are not shown on the lock screen, nor are they indicated by warning banners, badge icons or sounds. It is possible to choose if notifications from an app can be shown on the lock screen, Notification Center, banner, or all three; whether the banner should be temporary or permanent; activate or deactivate the sound; choose whether to group by app or not and whether to show previews when locked. It is possible to turn off unwanted app notifications. Older notifications are automatically deleted after a few days. A homescreen may be made up of several pages, between which the user can swipe back and forth, one of the ways to do this is to hold down on the "dots" shown on each page and swipe left or right. To the right of the last page, the App Library lists and categorizes apps installed on the device. Apps within each category are arranged based on the frequency of their usage. In addition to a category for suggested apps, a "recent" category lists apps recently installed alongside App Clips recently accessed. Users can search for the app they want or browse them in alphabetical order. iOS also integrates seamlessly with other programming frameworks and technologies, such as
Apple Pay Apple Pay is a mobile payment Mobile payment (also referred to as mobile money, mobile money transfer, and mobile wallet) generally refer to payment services operated under financial regulation and performed from or via a mobile device. Instea ...
,
HomeKit HomeKit is a software framework by Apple Inc., Apple, made available in iOS/iPadOS that lets users configure, communicate with, and control internet of things, smart-home appliances using Apple devices. It provides users with a way to automaticall ...
,
HealthKit Health is the health informatics mobile app announced on June 2, 2014 by Apple Inc. at its Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC). The app is included with iPhones and iPod Touch that run iOS 8 or later. The application hold health data such as ...
, and ResearchKit. On iOS, the main page button is usually located at the top right. To go back in an application there is almost always a "back" button. You can go back in 4 different ways, it varies depending on the context. # Press the "Back" button at the top left of the display # Swipe right from the left edge of the screen (gesture) # Press the "Finish" action at the top right of the screen # Scroll down on the screen content The page title is practically always present and very visible, but it shrinks as the user scrolls down. Navigation destinations that cannot be contained in the bottom tab bar can: be moved to a generic "More" tab or appear as actions in the top left or top right of other destinations. Modal views are single-screen activities that are displayed by swiping into the foreground, while allowing the previous screen to peek up, retreating into the background. You can ignore them by scrolling down or tapping "Back" at the top. Full screen views are media content such as photos or videos that take up the entire screen. They disappear on scrolling down. Occasionally on iOS, important page actions appear on a lower toolbar. Action menus can be activated by any button or by attempting to perform any action. They scroll from bottom to top. On earlier iPhones with home button,
screenshot A screenshot, also known as screen capture or screen grab, is a digital image that shows the contents of a computer display. A screenshot is created by the operating system or software running on the device powering the display. Additionally, sc ...

screenshot
s can be created with the simultaneous press of the
home A home, or domicile, is a space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for one or many Human, humans. It is a fully or semi sheltered space and can have both interior and exterior aspects to it. Homes provide sheltered spaces for ...
and power buttons. In comparison to
Android OS Android is a mobile operating system A mobile operating system is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, computer software, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing) ...

Android OS
, which requires the buttons to be held down, a short press does suffice on iOS. On the more recent iPhones which lack a physical home button, screenshots are captured using the volume-down and power buttons instead. The camera application used a skeuomorphic closing camera shutter animation prior to iOS 7. Since then, it uses a simple short blackout effect. Notable additions over time include HDR photography and the option to save both normal and high dynamic range photographs simultaneously where the former prevents ghosting effects from moving objects (since
iPhone 5 The iPhone 5 is a smartphone that was designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is the List of iOS devices, 6th generation iPhone, succeeding the iPhone 4S and preceding both the iPhone 5S and iPhone 5C, 5C. It was formally unveiled as part of ...

iPhone 5
,
iOS 6 iOS 6 is the iOS version history, sixth major release of the iOS mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc, being the successor to iOS 5. It was announced at the company's Apple Worldwide Developers Conference, Worldwide Developers Confere ...
), automatic HDR adjustment (
iOS 7.1 iOS 7 is the seventh major release of the iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile de ...
), "live photo" with short video bundled to each photo if enabled (
iPhone 6s The iPhone 6S and iPhone 6S Plus (stylized and marketed as iPhone 6s and iPhone 6s Plus) are smartphones that were designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered ...
,
iOS 9 iOS 9 is the ninth major release of the iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile de ...
), and a
digital zoom Image: Digital zoom example.png, Digital zoom has been used to create the middle photo from within the top photo. The image quality has been lost. No quality is lost however, with the lens zoomed-in optically for the bottom photo. Typically, the dig ...
shortcut (
iPhone 7 Plus The iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus are smartphone A smartphone is a Mobile device, portable device that combines Mobile phone, mobile telephone and Mobile computing, computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature ph ...
,
iOS 10 iOS 10 is the tenth major release of the iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile de ...
). Some camera settings such as video resolution and frame rate are not adjustable through the camera interface itself, but are outsourced to the system settings. A new feature in
iOS 13 iOS 13 is the iOS version history, thirteenth major release of the iOS mobile operating system developed by Apple Inc. for their iPhone, iPod Touch, and HomePod lines. The successor to iOS 12 on those devices, it was announced at the company's ...
called "context menus" shows related actions when you touch and hold an item. When the context menu is displayed, the background is blurred. To choose from a few options, a selection control is used. Selectors can appear anchored at the bottom or in line with the content (called date selectors). Date selectors take on the appearance of any other selection control, but with a column for day, month, and optionally year. Alerts appear in the center of the screen, but there are also alerts that scroll up from the bottom of the screen (called "action panels"). Destructive actions (such as eliminating any element) are colored red. The official font of iOS is
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (dis ...
. It is designed for small text readability, and is used throughout the operating system, including third-party apps. The icons are 180x180px in size for iPhones with a larger screen, usually models over 6 inches, including
iPhone 11 Pro The iPhone 11 Pro and iPhone 11 Pro Max are smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic ...
and iPhone 8 Plus, while it's 120x120px on iPhones with smaller displays.


Applications

iOS devices come with preinstalled apps developed by Apple including Mail, Maps, TV, Music, FaceTime, Wallet, Health, and many more. Applications (" apps") are the most general form of application
software Software is a collection of instructions Instruction or instructions may refer to: Computing * Instruction, one operation of a processor within a computer architecture instruction set * Computer program, a collection of instructions Music * I ...

software
that can be installed on iOS. They are downloaded from the official catalog of the
App Store An app store (or app marketplace) is a type of platform for computer software called , often in a mobile context. Apps provide a specific set of functions which, by definition, do not include the running of the computer itself. Complex software d ...

App Store
digital store, where apps are subjected to security checks before being made available to users. In June 2017, Apple updated its guidelines to specify that app developers will no longer have the ability to use custom prompts for encouraging users to leave reviews for their apps. IOS applications can also be installed directly from an IPA file provided by the software distributor, via unofficial ways. They are written using
iOS Software Development Kit The iOS SDK (iOS Software Development Kit), formerly the iPhone SDK, is a software development kit (SDK) developed by Apple Inc. The kit allows for the development of mobile apps on Apple's iOS operating system. While originally developing iPho ...
(SDK) and, often, combined with
Xcode Xcode is Apple's integrated development environment#REDIRECT Integrated development environment {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ... (IDE) for macOS macOS (; previously Mac OS X and later OS  ...
, using officially supported programming languages, including
Swift The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT), legally S.W.I.F.T. SCRL, is a Belgian Belgian may refer to: * Something of, or related to, Belgium Belgium, ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien officially the ...
and
Objective-C Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm Program, programme, programmer, or programming may refer to: Business and management * Program management, the process of m ...
. Other companies have also created tools that allow for the development of native iOS apps using their respective programming languages. Applications for iOS are mostly built using components of
UIKit Cocoa Touch is the application development environment for building software programs to run on iOS iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operatin ...
, a programming framework. It allows applications to have a consistent look and feel with the OS, nevertheless offering customization. Elements automatically update along with iOS updates, automatically including new interface rules. UIKit elements are very adaptable, this allows developers to design a single app that looks the same on any iOS device. In addition to defining the iOS interface, UIKit defines the functionality of the application. At first, Apple did not intend to release an SDK to developers, because they did not want third-party apps to be developed for iOS, building web apps instead. However, this technology never entered into common use, this led Apple to change its opinion, so in October 2007 the SDK for developers was announced, finally released on March 6, 2008. The SDK includes an inclusive set of development tools, including an audio mixer and an iPhone simulator. It is a free download for
Mac Mac or MAC most commonly refers to: * Mac, Gaelic for "son", a Celtic onomastics, prefix to family names often appearing in Gaelic names * Mackintosh, a raincoat made of rubberized cloth * Macintosh, a brand of computers and operating systems mad ...

Mac
users. It is not available for
Microsoft Windows Microsoft Windows, commonly referred to as Windows, is a group of several proprietary {{Short pages monitor