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Db2 is a family of
data management Data management comprises all disciplines related to managing data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sense, data are a set of values of qualitative property, qualitative or ...
products, including
database server A database server is a server which uses a database application that provides database services to other computer programs or to computers, as defined by the client–server software modeling, model. Database, Database management systems (DBMSs) fr ...
s, developed by
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
. They initially supported the
relational model The relational model (RM) for database In computing, a database is an organized collection of Data (computing), data stored and accessed electronically from a computer system. Where databases are more complex they are often developed using form ...
, but were extended to support object–relational features and non-relational structures like
JSON JSON (JavaScript Object Notation, pronounced ; also ) is an open standard An open standard is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm ...
and
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable fro ...

XML
. The brand name was originally styled as DB/2, then DB2 until 2017 and finally changed to its present form.


History

Historically, and unlike other database vendors, IBM produced a platform-specific Db2 product for each of its major operating systems. However, in the 1990s IBM changed track and produced a Db2 common product, designed with a mostly common code base for L-U-W (Linux-Unix-Windows); DB2 for System z and DB2 for
IBM i IBM i (the ''i'' standing for ''integrated'') is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system software include operating sys ...

IBM i
are different. As a result, they use different drivers. DB2 traces its roots back to the beginning of the 1970s when
Edgar F. Codd Edgar Frank "Ted" Codd (19 August 1923 – 18 April 2003) was an English computer scientist who, while working for IBM, invented the relational model for database A database is an organized collection of data Data are units of informat ...
, a researcher working for IBM, described the theory of relational databases, and in June 1970 published the model for data manipulation. In 1974, the IBM San Jose Research center developed a relational DBMS, System R, to implement Codd's concepts. A key development of the System R project was the Structured Query Language (
SQL SQL ( ''S-Q-L'', "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific languageA domain-specific language (DSL) is a computer languageA computer language is a method of communication with a computer A computer is a machine that can b ...

SQL
). To apply the relational model, Codd needed a relational-database language he named DSL/Alpha. At the time, IBM didn't believe in the potential of Codd's ideas, leaving the implementation to a group of programmers not under Codd's supervision. This led to an inexact interpretation of Codd's relational model, that matched only part of the prescriptions of the theory; the result was Structured English QUEry Language or SEQUEL. When IBM released its first relational-database product, they wanted to have a commercial-quality sublanguage as well, so it overhauled SEQUEL, and renamed the revised language Structured Query Language (SQL) to differentiate it from SEQUEL and also because the acronym "SEQUEL" was a trademark of the UK-based Hawker Siddeley aircraft company. IBM bought Metaphor Computer Systems to utilize their GUI interface and encapsulating SQL platform that had already been in use since the mid 80's. In parallel with the development of SQL, IBM also developed
Query by Example Query by Example (QBE) is a database query language for relational databases. It was devised by Moshé M. Zloof at IBM Research during the mid-1970s, in parallel to the development of SQL. It is the first graphical query language, using visual table ...
(QBE), the first graphical query language. IBM's first commercial relational-database product, SQL/DS, was released for the
DOS/VSE z/VSE (''Virtual Storage Extended'') is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, computer software, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing), services for computer program ...
and
VM/CMS VM (often: VM/CMS) is a family of IBM virtual machine operating systems used on IBM mainframes System/370, System/390, zSeries, System z and compatible systems, including the Hercules (emulator), Hercules emulator for personal computers. The fi ...
operating systems in 1981. In 1976, IBM released Query by Example for the VM platform where the table-oriented front-end produced a linear-syntax language that drove transactions to its relational database. Later, the QMF feature of DB2 produced real SQL, and brought the same "QBE" look and feel to DB2. The inspiration for the mainframe version of DB2's architecture came in part from IBM IMS, a
hierarchical database A hierarchical database model is a data model A data model (or datamodel) is an abstract model that organizes elements of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the ...

hierarchical database
, and its dedicated database-manipulation language, IBM DL/I. The name DB2 (IBM Database 2), was first given to the Database Management System or
DBMS In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithm of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest comm ...

DBMS
in 1983 when IBM released DB2 on its
MVS Multiple Virtual Storage, more commonly called MVS, was the most commonly used operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system ...

MVS
mainframe platform. For some years DB2, as a full-function DBMS, was exclusively available on
IBM mainframe IBM mainframes are large computer systems produced by IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The com ...
s. Later, IBM brought DB2 to other platforms, including
OS/2 OS/2 (Operating System/2) is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci. As a result of a feud between the two companies over how to position OS/2 re ...
,
UNIX Unix (; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser Multi-user software is computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast t ...

UNIX
, and
MS Windows Microsoft Windows, commonly referred to as Windows, is a group of several proprietary {{Short pages monitor LUW 11.1, and in June 2016, it was released. In mid-2017, IBM re-branded its DB2 and dashDB product offerings and amended their names to "Db2". On June 27, 2019, IBM released Db2 11.5, the AI Database. It added AI functionality to improve query performance as well as capabilities to facilitate AI application development.


Db2 (LUW) Family

Db2 embraces a "hybrid data" strategy to unify and simplify the entire ecosystem of data management, integration and analytical engines for both on-premises and cloud environments to gain value from typically siloed data sources. The strategy allows access, sharing and analyzing all types of data - structured, semi-structured or unstructured - wherever it's stored or deployed.


Db2 Database

Db2 Database is a relational database that delivers advanced data management and analytics capabilities for transactional workloads. This operational database is designed to deliver high performance, actionable insights, data availability and reliability, and it is supported across Linux, Unix and Windows operating systems. The Db2 database software includes advanced features such as in-memory technology (IBM BLU Acceleration), advanced management and development tools, storage optimization, workload management, actionable compression and continuous data availability (IBM pureScale).


Db2 Warehouse

"Data warehousing" was first mentioned in a 1988 IBM Systems Journal article entitled, "An Architecture for Business Information Systems." This article illustrated the first use-case for data warehousing in a business setting as well as the results of its application. Traditional transaction processing databases were not able to provide the insight business leaders needed to make data-informed decisions. A new approach was needed to aggregate and analyze data from multiple transactional sources to deliver new insights, uncover patterns and find hidden relationships among the data. Db2 Warehouse, with capabilities to normalize data from multiple sources, performs sophisticated analytic and statistical modeling, provides businesses these features at speed and scale. Increases in computational power resulted in an explosion of data inside businesses generally and data warehouses specifically. Warehouses grew from being measured in GBs to TBs and PBs. As both the volume and variety of data grew, Db2 Warehouse adapted as well. Initially purposed for star and snowflake schemas, Db2 Warehouse now includes support for the following data types and analytical models, among others: * Relational data * Non-Relational data * XML data * Geospatial data * RStudio * Apache Spark * Embedded Spark Analytics engine * Multi-Parallel Processing * In-memory analytical processing * Predictive Modeling algorithms Db2 Warehouse uses Docker containers to run in multiple environments: on-premise, private cloud and a variety of public clouds, both managed and unmanaged. Db2 Warehouse can be deployed as software only, as an appliance and in Intel x86, Linux and mainframe platforms. Built upon IBM's Common SQL engine, Db2 Warehouse queries data from multiple sources—Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, Teradata, open source, Netezza and others. Users write a query once and data returns from multiple sources quickly and efficiently.


Db2 on Cloud/Db2 Hosted

Db2 on Cloud: Formerly named “dashDB for Transactions”
Db2 on Cloud
is a fully managed, cloud SQL database with a high-availability option featuring a 99.99 percent uptime SLA. Db2 on Cloud offers independent scaling of storage and compute, and rolling security updates. Db2 on Cloud is deployable on both
IBM Cloud IBM Cloud is a set of cloud computing services for business offered by the information technology company IBM. It combines platform as a service (PaaS) with infrastructure as a service (IaaS). The platform scales and supports both small development ...
and Amazon Web Services (AWS). Key features include: * Elasticity: Db2 on Cloud offers independent scaling of storage and compute through the user interface and API, so businesses can burst on compute during peak demand and scale down when demand falls. Storage is also scalable, so organizations can scale up as their storage needs grow. * Backups and Recovery: Db2 on Cloud provides several disaster recovery options: (1) Fourteen days’ worth of back-ups, (2) point in time restore options, (3) 1-click failover to the DR node at an offsite data center of user's choice. * Encryption: Db2 on Cloud complies with data protection laws and includes at-rest database encryption and SSL connections. The Db2 on Cloud high availability plans offer rolling security updates and all database instances include daily backups. Security patching and maintenance is managed by the database administrator. * High availability options: Db2 on Cloud provides a 99.99% uptime service level agreement on the high availability option. Highly available option allows for updates and scaling operations without downtime to applications running on Db2 on Cloud, using Db2's HADR technology. * Data federation: A single query displays a view of all your data by accessing data distributed across Db2 on-premises and/or Db2 Warehouse on-premises or in the cloud. * Private networking: Db2 on Cloud can be deployed on an isolated network that is accessible through a secure Virtual Private Network (VPN). Db2 Hosted: Formally named “DB2 on Cloud”
Db2 Hosted
is an unmanaged, hosted version of Db2 on Cloud's transactional, SQL cloud database. Key features: * Server control: Db2 Hosted provides custom software for direct server installation. This reduces application latency and integrates with a business's current data management set up. Db2 Hosted offers exact server configuration based on the needs of the business. * Encryption: Db2 Hosted supports SSL connections. * Elasticity: Db2 Hosted allows for independent scaling of compute and storage to meet changing business needs.


Db2 Warehouse on Cloud

Formerly named “dashDB for Analytics”
Db2 Warehouse on Cloud
is a fully managed, elastic, cloud data warehouse built for high-performance analytics and
machine learning Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that can improve automatically through experience and by the use of data. It is seen as a part of artificial intelligence. Machine learning algorithms build a model based on sample data ...

machine learning
workloads. Key features include: * Autonomous cloud service: Db2 Warehouse on Cloud runs on an autonomous platform-as-a-service, and is powered by Db2's autonomous self-tuning engine. Day-to-day operations, including database monitoring, uptime checks and failovers, are fully automated. Operations are supplemented by a DevOps team that are on-call to handle unexpected system failures. * Optimized for analytics: Db2 Warehouse on Cloud delivers high performance on complex analytics workloads by utilizing IBM BLU Acceleration, a collection of technologies pioneered by
IBM Research IBM Research is the research and development division for IBM, an American Multinational corporation, multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. IBM Research is the largest ...
that features four key optimizations: (1) a columnar organized storage model, (2) in-memory processing, (3) querying of compressed data sets, and (4) data skipping. * Manage highly concurrent workloads: Db2 Warehouse on Cloud includes an Adaptive Workload Management technology that automatically manages resources between concurrent workloads, given user-defined resource targets. This technology ensures stable and reliable performance when tackling highly concurrent workloads. * Built-in machine learning and geospatial capabilities: Db2 Warehouse on Cloud comes with in-database machine learning capabilities that allow users to train and run machine learning models on Db2 Warehouse data without the need for data movement. Examples of algorithms include Association Rules,
ANOVA Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical model A statistical model is a mathematical model A mathematical model is a description of a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that ...
,
k-means ''k''-means clustering is a method of vector quantization Vector quantization (VQ) is a classical quantization technique from signal processing Signal processing is an electrical engineering subfield that focuses on analysing, modifying, an ...
, Regression, and Naïve Bayes. Db2 Warehouse on Cloud also supports spatial analytics with Esri compatibility, supporting Esri data types such as GML, and supports native Python drivers and native Db2 Python integration into Jupyter Notebooks. * Elasticity: Db2 Warehouse on Cloud offers independent scaling of storage and compute, so organizations can customize their data warehouses to meet the needs of their businesses. For example, customers can burst on compute during peak demand, and scale down when demand falls. Users can also expand storage capacity as their data volumes grow. Customers can scale their data warehouse through the Db2 Warehouse on Cloud web console or API. * Data security: Data is encrypted at-rest and in-motion by default. Administrators can also restrict access to sensitive data through data masking, row permissions, and role-based security, and can utilize database audit utilities to maintain audit trails for their data warehouse. *
Polyglot persistence Polyglot persistence is a term that refers to using multiple data storage technologies for varying data storage needs across an application or within smaller components of an application. Such varying data storage needs could arise in both the case ...
: Db2 Warehouse on Cloud is optimized for polyglot persistence of data, and supports relational (columnar and row-oriented tables), geospatial, and
NoSQL A NoSQL (originally referring to "non-SQL SQL ( ''S-Q-L'', "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or fo ...
document (
XML Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntactically distinguishable fro ...

XML
,
JSON JSON (JavaScript Object Notation, pronounced ; also ) is an open standard An open standard is a standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm ...
,
BSON BSON () is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets of operations known as Computer program, programs. Thes ...
) models. All data is subject to advanced data compression. * Deployable on multiple cloud providers: Db2 Warehouse on Cloud is currently deployable on
IBM Cloud IBM Cloud is a set of cloud computing services for business offered by the information technology company IBM. It combines platform as a service (PaaS) with infrastructure as a service (IaaS). The platform scales and supports both small development ...
and Amazon Web Services (AWS). .


Db2 BigSQL

In 2018 the IBM SQL product was renamed and is now known as IBM Db2 Big SQL (Big SQL). Big SQL is an enterprise-grade, hybrid ANSI-compliant SQL on the
Hadoop Apache Hadoop () is a collection of open-source Open source is source code that is made freely available for possible modification and redistribution. Products include permission to use the source code, design documents, or content of the product ...

Hadoop
engine delivering massively parallel processing (MPP) and advanced data query. Additional benefits include low latency, high performance, security, SQL compatibility and federation capabilities. Big SQL offers a single database connection or query for disparate sources such as HDFS, RDMS, NoSQL databases, object stores and WebHDFS. Exploit Hive, Or to exploit Hbase and Spark and whether on the cloud, on premises or both, access data across Hadoop and relational data bases. Users (data scientists and analysts) can run smarter ad hoc and complex queries supporting more concurrent users with less hardware compared to other SQL options for Hadoop. Big SQL provides an ANSI-compliant SQL parser to run queries from unstructured streaming data using new APIs. Through the integration with the IBM Common SQL Engine, Big SQL was designed to work with all the Db2 family of offerings, as well as with the IBM Integrated Analytics System. Big SQL is a part of the IBM Hybrid Data Management Platform, a comprehensive IBM strategy for flexibility and portability, strong data integration and flexible licensing.


Db2 Event Store

Db2 Event Store targets the needs of the
Internet of things The Internet of things (IoT) describes the network of physical objects—"things" or objects—that are embedded with sensors, software, and other technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data with other devices and systems over ...

Internet of things
(IOT), industrial, telecommunications, financial services, online retail and other industries needing to perform real-time analytics on streamed high volume, high velocity data. It became publicly available in June 2017. It can store and analyze 250 billion events in a day with just 3 server nodes with its high speed data capture and analytics capabilities. The need to support AI and machine learning was envisioned from the start by including IBM Watson Studio into the product, and integrating Jupyter notebooks for collaborative app and model development. Typically combined with streaming tools, it provides persistent data by writing the data out to object storage in an open data format (Apache Parquet). Built on Spark, Db2 Event Store is compatible with Spark Machine Learning, Spark SQL, other open technologies, as well as the Db2 family Common SQL Engine and all languages supported – including Python, GO, JDBC, ODBC, and more.


Db2 for IBM i

In 1994, IBM renamed the integrated relational database of the
OS/400 IBM i (the ''i'' standing for ''integrated'') is an operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, computer software, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing), services for compute ...
to ''DB2/400'' to indicate comparable functionality to DB2 on other platforms. Despite this name, it is not based on DB2 code, but instead it evolved from the
IBM System/38 The System/38 is a discontinued minicomputer A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct compe ...
integrated database. The product is currently named ''IBM Db2 for i''.


Other Platforms

* Db2 for Linux, UNIX and Windows (informally known as Db2 LUW) * Db2 for
z/OS z/OS is a 64-bit In computer architecture, 64-bit Integer (computer science), integers, Memory address, memory addresses, or other Data#Uses%20of%20data%20in%20computing, data units are those that are 64 bits (8 Octet (computing), octet ...
(mainframe) * Db2 for
VSE VSE may refer to: Education * University of Economics, Prague alt=, 300x300px, The Vencovský Auditorium (Vencovského aula) The Prague University of Economics and Business ''(''originally'': the University of Economics, Prague; cs, Vysoká ...
& VM * Db2 on
IBM Cloud IBM Cloud is a set of cloud computing services for business offered by the information technology company IBM. It combines platform as a service (PaaS) with infrastructure as a service (IaaS). The platform scales and supports both small development ...
*Db2 on
Amazon Web Services Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a subsidiary of Amazon Amazon usually refers to: * Amazons In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Ancient Greek: Ἀμαζόνες ''Amazónes'', singular Ἀμαζών ''Amazōn'') are portrayed in a number of an ...
(AWS) Db2 for z/OS is available in its traditional product packaging, or in th
Value Unit Edition
which allows customers to instead pay a one-time charge. Db2 also powers IBM InfoSphere Warehouse, which offers data warehouse capabilities. InfoSphere Warehouse is available for z/OS. It includes several BI features such as ETL,
data mining Data mining is a process of extracting and discovering patterns in large data set A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, or items of information, often numeric. In a more technical sens ...
,
OLAPOnline analytical processing, or OLAP (), is an approach to answer multi-dimensional analyticalIn statistics, econometrics, and related fields, multidimensional analysis (MDA) is a data analysis process that groups data into two categories: data dime ...
acceleration, and in-line analytics. Db2 11.5 for Linux, UNIX and Windows, contains all of the functionality and tools offered in the prior generation of DB2 and InfoSphere Warehouse on Linux, UNIX and Windows.


Technical information

Db2 can be administered from either the command-line or a GUI. The command-line interface requires more knowledge of the product but can be more easily scripted and automated. The GUI is a multi-platform Java client that contains a variety of wizards suitable for novice users. Db2 supports both SQL and
XQuery XQuery (XML Query) is a query and functional programming In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques ...
. DB2 has native implementation of XML data storage, where XML data is stored as XML (not as relational data or CLOB data) for faster access using XQuery. Db2 has APIs for
Rexx Rexx (Restructured Extended Executor) is a programming language that can be interpreted or compiled In computing, a compiler is a computer program that Translator (computing), translates computer code written in one programming language (t ...
,
PL/I PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced and sometimes written PL/1) is a procedural, imperative Imperative may refer to: *Imperative mood, a grammatical mood (or mode) expressing commands, direct requests, and prohibitions *Imperative prog ...
,
COBOL COBOL (; an acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (lingui ...

COBOL
, RPG,
Fortran Fortran (; formerly FORTRAN) is a general-purpose, compiled language, compiled imperative programming, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numerical analysis, numeric computation and computational science, scientific com ...

Fortran
,
C++ C++ () is a general-purpose programming language In computer software, a general-purpose programming language is a programming language dedicated to a general-purpose, designed to be used for writing software in a wide variety of application ...

C++
, C,
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...
,
.NET The domain name A domain name is an identification string String or strings may refer to: *String (structure), a long flexible structure made from threads twisted together, which is used to tie, bind, or hang other objects Arts, enterta ...
CLI CLI may refer to: Computing * Command-line interface, of a computer program * Command-line interpreter or command language interpreter; see List of command-line interpreters * Call Level Interface, an SQL database management API * Common Language ...
,
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...
,
Python Python may refer to: * Pythonidae The Pythonidae, commonly known as pythons, are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Africa, Asia, and Australia. Among its members are some of the largest snakes in the world. Ten genera and 42 species ...
,
Perl Perl is a family of two high-level High-level and low-level, as technical terms, are used to classify, describe and point to specific Objective (goal), goals of a systematic operation; and are applied in a wide range of contexts, such as, for ...
,
PHP PHP is a general-purpose scripting language A scripting language or script language is a programming language A programming language is a formal language comprising a Instruction set architecture, set of instructions that produce various k ...

PHP
,
Ruby A ruby is a pink-ish red to blood-red colored gemstone A gemstone (also called a fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly spea ...
, and many other programming languages. Db2 also supports integration into the
Eclipse ECLiPSe is a software system for the development and deployment of Constraint Programming Constraint programming (CP) is a paradigm for solving combinatorial Combinatorics is an area of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Gr ...
and
Visual Studio Microsoft Visual Studio is an integrated development environment An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other ...
integrated development environment An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically ...
s. pureQuery is
IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the C ...

IBM
's data access
platform Platform may refer to: Technology * Computing platform, a framework on which applications may be run * Platform game, a genre of video games * Car platform, a set of components shared by several vehicle models * Weapons platform, a system or s ...
focused on applications that access data. pureQuery supports both
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...
and
.NET The domain name A domain name is an identification string String or strings may refer to: *String (structure), a long flexible structure made from threads twisted together, which is used to tie, bind, or hang other objects Arts, enterta ...
. pureQuery provides access to data in
database In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and sof ...

database
s and in-memory Java
objects Object may refer to: General meanings * Object (philosophy) An object is a philosophy, philosophical term often used in contrast to the term ''Subject (philosophy), subject''. A subject is an observer and an object is a thing observed. For mo ...
via its
tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use tool use by animals, simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tools dates back Paleolithic, hun ...
s,
API In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes and development of both computer hardware , hardware and so ...

API
s, and runtime environment as delivered in ''IBM Data Studio Developer'' and ''IBM Data Studio pureQuery Runtime''.


Error processing

An important feature of Db2
computer programs In imperative programming, a computer program is a sequence of instructions in a programming language that a computer can execute or interpret. In declarative programming, a ''computer program'' is a Set (mathematics), set of instructions. A comp ...
is error handling. The SQL communications area (''SQLCA'') structure was once used exclusively within a Db2 program to return error information to the
application program Application software (app for short) is computing software designed to carry out a specific task other than one relating to the operation of the computer itself, typically to be used by end-users. Examples of an application Application may refer ...
after every
SQL SQL ( ''S-Q-L'', "sequel"; Structured Query Language) is a domain-specific languageA domain-specific language (DSL) is a computer languageA computer language is a method of communication with a computer A computer is a machine that can b ...

SQL
statement was executed. The primary, but not singularly useful, error diagnostic is held in the field SQLCODE within the SQLCA block. The DB2 SQL return codes, SQL return code values are: * 0 means successful execution. * A positive number means successful execution with one or more warnings. An example is +100, which means no rows found. * A negative number means unsuccessful with an error. An example is -911, which means a lock timeout (or deadlock) has occurred, triggering a rollback. Later versions of Db2 added functionality and complexity to the execution of SQL. Multiple errors or warnings could be returned by the execution of an SQL statement; it may, for example, have initiated a database trigger and other SQL statements. Instead of the original SQLCA, error information should now be retrieved by successive executions of a GET DIAGNOSTICS statement. See SQL Return Codes, SQL return codes for a more comprehensive list of common SQLCODEs.


See also

* Comparison of relational database management systems * Comparison of database tools * List of relational database management systems * List of column-oriented DBMSes * Data Language Interface


References


External links

*
IBM Db2 trial and downloads

Db2 - IBM Data for developers

Made in IBM Labs: New IBM Software Accelerates Decision Making in the Era of Big Data

What's new in DB2 10.5 for Linux, UNIX, and WindowsDb2 Tutorial
{{DEFAULTSORT:Db2 IBM DB2 Cross-platform software Relational database management systems IBM software RDBMS software for Linux Client-server database management systems Proprietary database management systems IBM Information Management software, Db2 Express-C