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International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American
multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign state that comprises two or more nat ...
technology corporation headquartered in
Armonk, New York Armonk is a Hamlet (New York), hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) in the administrative divisions of New York#Town, town of North Castle, New York, located in Westchester County, New York, Westchester County. As of the 2010 census, Armonk ...
, with operations in over 171 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in
Endicott, New York Endicott is a village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a ...
by trust businessman
Charles Ranlett Flint Charles Ranlett Flint (January 24, 1850 – February 26, 1934) was the founder of the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) was a holding company A holding company is a company whose primar ...

Charles Ranlett Flint
, as the
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) was a holding company A holding company is a company whose primary business is holding a controlling interest in the securities of other companies. A holding company usually does not produce ...
(CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924. IBM is incorporated in New York. IBM produces and sells computer
hardware Hardware may refer to: Technology Computing and electronics * Computer hardware, physical parts of a computer * Digital electronics, electronics that operate on digital signals * Electronic component, device in an electronic system used to affect e ...

hardware
,
middleware Middleware is a type of computer software Software is a collection of instructions that tell a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern com ...

middleware
and
software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions that tell a computer how to work. This is in contrast to Computer hardware, hardware, from which the system is built and actually performs the work. At the low level lang ...

software
, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from
mainframe computer A mainframe computer, informally called a mainframe or big iron, is a computer used primarily by large organizations for critical applications like bulk data processing for tasks such as census, censuses, industry and consumer statistics, ent ...
s to
nanotechnology Nanotechnology, also shortened to nanotech, is the use of matter on an atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havi ...

nanotechnology
. IBM is also a major research organization, holding the record for most annual U.S.
patents A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. There are many types of intellectual property, and some countries recognize more than ...
generated by a business () for 28 consecutive years. Inventions by IBM include the
automated teller machine An automated teller machine (ATM) or cash machine (in British English) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, funds ...
(ATM), the
floppy disk A floppy disk or floppy diskette (sometimes casually referred to as a floppy or diskette) is a type of disk storage Disk storage (also sometimes called drive storage) is a general category of storage mechanisms where data is recorded by vario ...

floppy disk
, the
hard disk drive A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive, or fixed disk is an electro-mechanical data storage device File:Reel-to-reel recorder tc-630.jpg, On a reel-to-reel tape recorder (Sony TC-630), the recorder is data storage equipment an ...

hard disk drive
, the
magnetic stripe card A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of Magnetic storage, storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card. The magnetic stripe, sometimes called swipe card or ma ...
, the
relational database A relational database is a digital database In , a database is an organized collection of stored and accessed electronically from a . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal techniques. The (DBMS) is the tha ...
, the
SQL programming language
SQL programming language
, the UPC barcode, and
dynamic random-access memory Dynamic random-access memory (dynamic RAM or DRAM) is a type of random-access memory, random-access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a memory cell (computing), memory cell, usually consisting of a tiny capacitor and a tr ...
(DRAM). The
IBM mainframe IBM mainframes are large computer systems produced by IBM since 1952. During the 1960s and 1970s, IBM dominated the large computer market. Current mainframe computers in IBM's line of business computers are developments of the basic design of the ...
, exemplified by the
System/360 The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978. It was the first family of computers designed to cover the complete range of applications, f ...
, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s. IBM is one of 30 companies included in the
Dow Jones Industrial Average The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), Dow Jones, or simply the Dow (), is a price-weighted measurement stock market index In finance, a stock index, or stock market index, is an Index (economics), index that measures a stock market, or ...

Dow Jones Industrial Average
and one of the world's largest employers, with over 345,000 employees . At least 70% of IBM employees are based outside the United States, and the country with the largest number of IBM employees is India.


History

IBM was founded in 1911 in
Endicott, New York Endicott is a village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a ...
, as the
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) was a holding company A holding company is a company whose primary business is holding a controlling interest in the securities of other companies. A holding company usually does not produce ...
(CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924. IBM is incorporated in New York and has operations in over 170 countries. In the 1880s, technologies emerged that would ultimately form the core of International Business Machines (IBM). Julius E. Pitrap patented the computing scale in 1885; Alexander Dey invented the dial recorder (1888);
Herman Hollerith Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an American businessman, inventor, and statistician who developed an electromechanical tabulating machine The tabulating machine was an electromechanical In engineering ...
(1860–1929) patented the
Electric Tabulating Machine The tabulating machine was an electromechanical In engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. T ...
; and
Willard Bundy The Bundy Manufacturing Company was a 19th-century American manufacturer of timekeeping devices that went through a series of mergers, eventually becoming part of International Business Machines International Business Machines Corporation ( ...
invented a
time clock A time clock, sometimes known as a clock card machine or punch clock or time recorder, is a device that records start and end times for hourly employees (or those on flexi-time) at a place of business. In mechanical time clocks, this was accomplis ...
to record a worker's arrival and departure time on a paper tape in 1889. On June 16, 1911, their four companies were
amalgamated Amalgamation is the process of combining or uniting multiple entities into one form. Amalgamation, amalgam, and other derivatives may refer to: Mathematics and science * Amalgam (chemistry), the combination of mercury with another metal ** Pan am ...
in New York State by
Charles Ranlett Flint Charles Ranlett Flint (January 24, 1850 – February 26, 1934) was the founder of the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) was a holding company A holding company is a company whose primar ...

Charles Ranlett Flint
forming a fifth company, the
Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) was a holding company A holding company is a company whose primary business is holding a controlling interest in the securities of other companies. A holding company usually does not produce ...
(CTR) based in
Endicott, New York Endicott is a village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a ...
. The five companies had 1,300 employees and offices and plants in Endicott and
Binghamton Binghamton is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. I ...
, New York;
Dayton, Ohio Dayton () is the sixth-largest city in the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspa ...
;
Detroit, Michigan (strait) , nicknames = The Motor City, Motown, Renaissance City, Techno City, City of the Straits, The D, D-Town, Hockeytown, The Automotive Capital of the World, Rock City, The 313, The Arsenal of Democracy, The Town Th ...

Detroit, Michigan
; Washington, D.C.; and
Toronto Toronto (, ) is the capital city of the Provinces and territories of Canada, Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016 in 2016, it is the List of the largest municipalities in Canada by population, most p ...

Toronto
. They manufactured machinery for sale and lease, ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders, meat and cheese slicers, to tabulators and punched cards.
Thomas J. Watson, Sr. Thomas John Watson Sr. (February 17, 1874 – June 19, 1956) was an American businessman. He served as the chairman and CEO of IBM, International Business Machines (IBM). He oversaw the company's growth into an international force from 1914 to ...
, fired from the
National Cash Register Company NCR Corporation, previously known as National Cash Register, is an American software, managed and professional services, consulting and technology company. It manufactures self-service kiosks, point-of-sale terminals, automated teller machine ...
by John Henry Patterson, called on Flint and, in 1914, was offered a position at CTR. Watson joined CTR as general manager then, 11 months later, was made President when court cases relating to his time at NCR were resolved. Having learned Patterson's pioneering business practices, Watson proceeded to put the stamp of NCR onto CTR's companies. He implemented sales conventions, "generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and had an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker". His favorite slogan, "
THINK Thought (or thinking) encompasses an "aim-oriented flow of ideas and associations that can lead to a reality-oriented conclusion". Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is still no consensus as to how it ...
", became a mantra for each company's employees. During Watson's first four years, revenues reached $9 million ($ today) and the company's operations expanded to Europe, South America, Asia and Australia. Watson never liked the clumsy hyphenated name "Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company" and on February 14, 1924, chose to replace it with the more expansive title "International Business Machines" which had previously been used as the name of CTR's Canadian Division.Belden (1962) p. 125 By 1933, most of the subsidiaries had been merged into one company, IBM. In 1937, IBM's tabulating equipment enabled organizations to process huge amounts of data. Its clients included the
U.S. Government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the national government of the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or Ameri ...
, during its first effort to maintain the employment records for 26 million people pursuant to the
Social Security Act The Social Security Act of 1935 is a law enacted by the 74th United States Congress The 74th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate ...

Social Security Act
, and Hitler's
Third Reich Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...
, for the tracking of Jews and other persecuted groups, largely through the German subsidiary
Dehomag Dehomag was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...
. The social security-related business gave an 81% increase in revenue from 1935 to 1939. In 1949, Thomas Watson, Sr., created IBM World Trade Corporation, a subsidiary of IBM focused on foreign operations. In 1952, he stepped down after almost 40 years at the company helm, and his son
Thomas Watson, Jr. Thomas John Watson Jr. (January 14, 1914 – December 31, 1993) was an American businessman, political figure, Army Air Forces pilot, and philanthropist. Son of IBM Corporation International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an America ...
was named president. IBM built the
Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator The IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York ...
, an electromechanical computer, during World War II. It offered its first commercial stored-program computer, the
vacuum tube A vacuum tube, electron tube, valve (British usage), or tube (North America), is a device that controls electric current An electric current is a stream of charged particle In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστή ...
based
IBM 701 The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New ...
, in 1952. The
IBM 305 RAMAC The IBM 305 RAMAC was the first commercial computer that used a moving-head hard disk drive A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive, or fixed disk is an electro-mechanical data storage device File:Reel-to-reel recorder tc-630. ...
introduced the
hard disk drive A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive, or fixed disk is an electro-mechanical data storage device File:Reel-to-reel recorder tc-630.jpg, On a reel-to-reel tape recorder (Sony TC-630), the recorder is data storage equipment an ...

hard disk drive
in 1956. The company switched to transistorized designs with the 7000 and
1400 Year 1400 ( MCD) was a leap year starting on ThursdayA leap year starting on Thursday is any year with 366 days (i.e. it includes 29 February) that begins on Thursday Thursday is the day of the week between Wednesday Wednesday is the day ...
series, beginning in 1958. In 1956, the company demonstrated the first practical example of
artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstra ...

artificial intelligence
when Arthur L. Samuel of IBM's
Poughkeepsie Poughkeepsie ( , officially the City of Poughkeepsie, separate from the Town of Poughkeepsie around it) is a city in the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S ...
, New York, laboratory programmed an
IBM 704 The IBM 704, introduced by IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founde ...
not merely to play checkers but "learn" from its own experience. In 1957, the
FORTRAN Fortran (; formerly FORTRAN) is a general-purpose, compiled language, compiled imperative programming, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numerical analysis, numeric computation and computational science, scientific com ...

FORTRAN
scientific programming language was developed. In 1961, IBM developed the SABRE reservation system for
American Airlines American Airlines, Inc. (AA or AAL) is a major American airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. It is the World's largest airlines, world's largest airline when measured by fleet size, scheduled p ...

American Airlines
and introduced the highly successful typewriter. In 1963, IBM employees and computers helped NASA track the orbital flights of the Mercury astronauts. A year later, it moved its corporate headquarters from New York City to
Armonk, New York Armonk is a Hamlet (New York), hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) in the administrative divisions of New York#Town, town of North Castle, New York, located in Westchester County, New York, Westchester County. As of the 2010 census, Armonk ...
. The latter half of the 1960s saw IBM continue its support of space exploration, participating in the 1965 Gemini flights, 1966 Saturn flights, and 1969 lunar mission. IBM also developed and manufactured the Saturn V's Instrument Unit and Apollo spacecraft guidance computers. On April 7, 1964, IBM announced the first computer system family, the
IBM System/360 The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978. It was the first family of computers designed to cover the complete range of applications, fr ...
. It spanned the complete range of commercial and scientific applications from large to small, allowing companies for the first time to upgrade to models with greater computing capability without having to rewrite their applications. It was followed by the
IBM System/370 The IBM System/370 (S/370) is a model range of IBM mainframe computers announced on June 30, 1970 as the successors to the IBM System/360, System/360 family. The series mostly maintains backward compatibility with the S/360, allowing an easy ...
in 1970. Together the 360 and 370 made the
IBM mainframe IBM mainframes are large computer systems produced by IBM since 1952. During the 1960s and 1970s, IBM dominated the large computer market. Current mainframe computers in IBM's line of business computers are developments of the basic design of the ...
the dominant
mainframe computer A mainframe computer, informally called a mainframe or big iron, is a computer used primarily by large organizations for critical applications like bulk data processing for tasks such as census, censuses, industry and consumer statistics, ent ...
and the dominant computing platform in the industry throughout this period and into the early 1980s. They and the operating systems that ran on them such as
OS/VS1 Operating System/Virtual Storage 1, or OS/VS1, is a discontinued IBM mainframe computer operating system designed to be run on IBM System/370 hardware. It was the successor to the OS/360 and successors#MFT, Multiprogramming with a Fixed number of T ...
and
MVS Multiple Virtual Storage, more commonly called MVS, was the most commonly used operating system An operating system (OS) is system software System software is software designed to provide a platform for other software. Examples of system ...

MVS
, and the middleware built on top of those such as the
CICS IBM CICS (Customer Information Control System) is a family of mixed-language application servers that provide online transaction management and connectivity for applications on IBM mainframe IBM mainframes are large computer systems produced by ...

CICS
transaction processing monitor, had a near-monopoly-level marketshare and became the thing IBM was most known for during this period. In 1969, the United States of America alleged that IBM violated the
Sherman Antitrust Act The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 (, ) is a United States antitrust law In the United States, antitrust law is a collection of federal and state government laws that regulate the conduct and organization of business corporations and are genera ...
by monopolizing or attempting to monopolize the general-purpose electronic digital computer system market, specifically computers designed primarily for business, and subsequently alleged that IBM violated the antitrust laws in IBM's actions directed against leasing companies and plug-compatible peripheral manufacturers. Shortly after, IBM unbundled its software and services in what many observers believed was a direct result of the lawsuit, creating a competitive market for software. In 1982 the Department of Justice dropped the case as "without merit.” Also in 1969, IBM engineer
Forrest Parry Forrest Corry Parry (July 4, 1921 – December 31, 2005) was the IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. ...
invented the
magnetic stripe card A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of Magnetic storage, storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card. The magnetic stripe, sometimes called swipe card or ma ...
that would become ubiquitous for credit/debit/ATM cards, driver's licenses, rapid transit cards, and a multitude of other identity and access control applications. IBM pioneered the manufacture of these cards, and for most of the 1970s, the data processing systems and software for such applications ran exclusively on IBM computers. In 1974, IBM engineer
George J. Laurer George Joseph Laurer III (September 23, 1925 – December 5, 2019) was an American engineer for IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with ...
developed the
Universal Product Code The Universal Product Code (UPC; redundantly: UPC code) is a barcode symbology A barcode or bar code is a method of representing data in a visual, machine-readable form. Initially, barcodes represented data by varying the widths and spacings ...
. IBM and the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject to international law. Its o ...
first introduced financial swaps to the public in 1981, when they entered into a swap agreement. The
IBM PC The IBM Personal Computer (model 5150, commonly known as the IBM PC) is the first computer released in the IBM PC model line and the basis for the IBM PC compatible IBM PC compatible computers are similar to the original IBM PC The IBM P ...

IBM PC
, originally designated IBM 5150, was introduced in 1981, and it soon became an industry standard. In 1991 IBM spun out its printer manufacturing into a new business called
Lexmark Lexmark International, Inc. is a privately held A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a corporation not owned by the government, non-governmental organizations and by a relatively small number of shareholders or comp ...

Lexmark
. In 1993, IBM posted an $8 billion loss – at the time the biggest in American corporate history.
Lou Gerstner Louis Vincent "Lou" Gerstner Jr. (born March 1, 1942) is an American businessman, best known for his tenure as chairman of the board and chief executive officer of IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multin ...
was hired as CEO from
RJR Nabisco RJR Nabisco, Inc., was an American conglomerate Conglomerate or conglomeration may refer to: * Conglomerate (company) * Conglomerate (geology) * Conglomerate (mathematics) In popular culture: * The Conglomerate (American group), a production cre ...
to turn the company around. In 2002 IBM acquired
PwC PricewaterhouseCoopers is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a s ...
consulting. In 2005, the company sold its personal computer business to Chinese technology company
Lenovo Lenovo Group Limited, often shortened to Lenovo ( , Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencie ...

Lenovo
and, in 2009, it acquired software company
SPSS Inc. SPSS Inc. was a software house A software company is a company whose primary products are various forms of software, software technology, distribution, and software product development. They make up the software industry. Types There are a num ...
Later in 2009, IBM's
Blue Gene Blue Gene is an IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in En ...
supercomputing program was awarded the
National Medal of Technology and Innovation The National Medal of Technology and Innovation (formerly the National Medal of Technology) is an honor granted by the President of the United States to American inventors and innovators who have made significant contributions to the development o ...

National Medal of Technology and Innovation
by U.S. President
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government ...

Barack Obama
. In 2011, IBM gained worldwide attention for its
artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstra ...

artificial intelligence
program Watson, which was exhibited on ''
Jeopardy! ''Jeopardy!'' is an American television game show created by Merv Griffin. The show features a quiz competition in which contestants are presented with general knowledge clues in the form of answers, and must phrase their responses in the form ...
'' where it won against game-show champions
Ken Jennings Kenneth Wayne Jennings III (born May 23, 1974) is an American game show contestant and host, author, and television presenter. He is the highest-earning American game show contestant, having won money on five different game shows, including $4 ...

Ken Jennings
and
Brad Rutter Bradford Gates Rutter (born January 31, 1978) is an American game show A game show is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions develope ...
. The company also celebrated its 100th anniversary in the same year on June 16. In 2012 IBM announced it has agreed to buy
Kenexa Kenexa, an IBM Company, provides employment Employment is the relationship between two parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; cropped away black ...
and
Texas Memory Systems Texas Memory Systems, Inc. (TMS) was an American corporation that designed and manufactured solid-state disks (SSDs) and digital signal processors (DSPs). TMS was founded in 1978 and that same year introduced their first solid-state drive, followe ...
, and a year later it also acquired
SoftLayer Technologies SoftLayer Technologies, Inc. (now IBM Cloud IBM Cloud is a set of cloud computing services for business offered by the information technology company IBM. It combines platform as a service (PaaS) with infrastructure as a service (IaaS). The plat ...
, a
web hosting service A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service The Internet ( or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer network A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication ...
, in a deal worth around $2 billion. Also that year, the company designed a
video surveillance Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video camera A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition (as opposed to a movie camera, which records images on filmstock, film ...

video surveillance
system for
Davao City , officially the ( ceb, Dakbayan sa Dabaw; tl, Lungsod ng Davao), is a in the , . The city has a total land area of , making it the largest city in the Philippines in terms of land area. It is the third-most populous city in the Philipp ...
. In 2014, IBM announced it would sell its
x86 x86 is a family of instruction set architecture In computer science, an instruction set architecture (ISA), also called computer architecture, is an abstract model of a computer. A device that executes instructions described by that ISA, ...

x86
server division to Lenovo for $2.1 billion. Also that year, IBM began announcing several major partnerships with other companies, including
Apple Inc. Apple Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...
, Twitter, Facebook,
Tencent Tencent Holdings Ltd., also known as Tencent, is a Chinese multinational entertainment conglomerate and holdings company, and it is the largest gaming company in the world. Its social application WeChat had 1.225 billion monthly active users ...
,
Cisco Cisco Systems, Inc. (Cisco) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multina ...

Cisco
,
UnderArmour Under Armour, Inc. is an American sports equipment Sporting equipment, also called sporting goods, are the tools, materials, apparel, and gear used to compete in a sport and varies depending on the sport. The equipment ranges from balls, nets, ...
,
Box File:Box with cover MET DP241878.jpg, alt=A small, elaborate box, featuring a hinged lid, two swing doors at the front and a small pull-out drawer; the interior is entirely red and features small items that seem to be part of a toilette set, An el ...
,
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multination ...

Microsoft
,
VMware VMware, Inc. is an American cloud computing Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern ...
, CSC,
Macy's Macy's (originally R. H. Macy & Co.) is an American chain founded in 1858 by Rowland Hussey Macy Rowland Hussey Macy Sr. (August 30, 1822 – March 29, 1877) was an American businessman who founded the department store chain R. H. Macy and Comp ...

Macy's
,
Sesame Workshop Sesame Workshop (SW), originally known as the Children's Television Workshop (CTW), is an American nonprofit organization that has been responsible for the production of several educational children's programs—including its first and best-known, ...
, the parent company of
Sesame Street ''Sesame Street'' is an American educational Education is the process of facilitating learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, value (personal and cultural), values, attitudes, ...
, and
Salesforce.com Salesforce is an American cloud-based software company headquartered in San Francisco, California San Francisco (/Help:IPA/English, ˌsæn fɹənˈsɪskoʊ/; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially t ...
. In 2015, IBM announced three major acquisitions: Merge Healthcare for $1 billion, data storage vendor
Cleversafe IBM Cloud Object Storage is a service offered by IBM International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company ...
, and all digital assets from
The Weather Company The Weather Company is a weather forecasting Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time. People have attempted to predict the weather Weat ...
, including
Weather.com The Weather Company is a weather forecasting and information technology company that owns and operates weather.com and Weather Underground (weather service), Weather Underground. The Weather Company has been a subsidiary of the Watson & Cloud Pla ...
and the Weather Channel
mobile app A mobile application, also referred to as a mobile app or simply an app, is a computer program In imperative programming In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses Statement (computer science), statements t ...
. Also that year, IBM employees created the film ''
A Boy and His Atom ''A Boy and His Atom'' is a 2013 stop-motion animated short film released on YouTube YouTube is an American online video sharing and social media platform owned by Google. It was launched on February 14, 2005 by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, ...
'', which was the first molecule movie to tell a story. In 2016, IBM acquired video conferencing service
Ustream IBM Cloud Video (formerly Ustream) is an American live video streaming Livestreaming refers to online streaming media simultaneously recorded and broadcast in real-time. It is often referred to simply as streaming, but this abbreviated term is amb ...
and formed a new cloud video unit. In April 2016, it posted a 14-year low in quarterly sales. The following month,
Groupon Groupon is an American global e-commerce E-commerce (electronic commerce) is the activity of electronically buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet The Internet (Capitalization of Internet, or interne ...
sued IBM accusing it of patent infringement, two months after IBM accused Groupon of patent infringement in a separate lawsuit. In 2015, IBM bought the
digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology a ...
part of
The Weather Company The Weather Company is a weather forecasting Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time. People have attempted to predict the weather Weat ...
;, Truven Health Analytics for $2.6 billion in 2016, and in October 2018, IBM announced its intention to acquire
Red Hat Red Hat, Inc. is an American that provides products to enterprises. Founded in 1993, Red Hat has its corporate headquarters in , with other offices worldwide. Red Hat has become associated to a large extent with its enterprise operating sys ...
for $34 billion, which was completed on July 9, 2019. IBM announced in October 2020 that it would divest the Managed Infrastructure Services unit of its Global Technology Services division into a new public company. The new company
NewCoNewCo or Newco is a generic name for proposed corporate spin-off A corporate spin-off, also known as a spin-out, or starburst or hive-off, is a type of corporate action A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a comp ...
, now known as ''Kyndryl'', will have 90,000 employees, 4,600 clients in 115 countries, with a backlog of $60 billion. IBM's spin off will be greater than any of its previous divestitures, and welcomed by investors. In January 2021, IBM appointed Martin Schroeter, who had been IBM's CFO from 2014 through the end of 2017, as CEO of Kyndryl. IBM has regularly sold off low margin assets while shifting its focus to higher-value, more profitable
markets Market may refer to: *Market (economics) *Market economy *Marketplace, a physical marketplace or public market Geography *Märket, an island shared by Finland and Sweden Art, entertainment, and media Films *Market (1965 film), ''Market'' (1965 ...
. Examples include: *1991: Spun off its
printer Printers may be: Technology * Printer (publishing) In publishing, printers are both companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personality, legal entity representing an association of people, whether Natural person, natural, Legal ...
and manufacturing division, the IBM Information Products Corporation, to
Lexmark Lexmark International, Inc. is a privately held A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a corporation not owned by the government, non-governmental organizations and by a relatively small number of shareholders or comp ...

Lexmark
*2005 and 2014, respectively: Sold its personal computer (
ThinkPad#REDIRECT ThinkPad ThinkPad is a line of business-oriented laptop computers and tablets designed, developed and marketed by Lenovo Lenovo Group Limited, often shortened to Lenovo ( ), is a Chinese multinational corporation, multinational t ...

ThinkPad
/
ThinkCentre The ThinkCentre is a line of business-oriented desktop computers A desktop computer is a personal computer File:Crystal Project computer.png, upright=0.9, An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes ...
) and
x86 x86 is a family of instruction set architecture In computer science, an instruction set architecture (ISA), also called computer architecture, is an abstract model of a computer. A device that executes instructions described by that ISA, ...

x86
-based server businesses to
Lenovo Lenovo Group Limited, often shortened to Lenovo ( , Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencie ...

Lenovo
*2015: IBM adopted a "
fabless Fabless manufacturing is the design and sale of hardware devices and semiconductor chip An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small ...
" model with
semiconductors A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity Electrical resistivity (also called specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property of a material that quantifies how strongly it resists electric curren ...

semiconductors
design, while offloading manufacturing to
GlobalFoundries GlobalFoundries Inc. (GF or GloFo) is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinationa ...
*2002–2020: Acquired (2002),
SPSS SPSS Statistics is a statistical software Statistical software are specialized computer program A computer program is a collection of instructions that can be executed by a computer to perform a specific task. A computer program is usuall ...

SPSS
(2009),
The Weather Company The Weather Company is a weather forecasting Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time. People have attempted to predict the weather Weat ...
(2016),
Red Hat Red Hat, Inc. is an American that provides products to enterprises. Founded in 1993, Red Hat has its corporate headquarters in , with other offices worldwide. Red Hat has become associated to a large extent with its enterprise operating sys ...
(2019), and European cloud consultant Nordcloud(2020) *2021: IBM spun-off its managed infrastructure services unit into a new public company named Kyndryl. IBM also announced the acquisition of US based enterprise software company
Turbonomic Turbonomic is an enterprise software Software is a collection of instructions that tell a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern compute ...
for $1.5 Billion.


Headquarters and offices

IBM is headquartered in
Armonk, New York Armonk is a Hamlet (New York), hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) in the administrative divisions of New York#Town, town of North Castle, New York, located in Westchester County, New York, Westchester County. As of the 2010 census, Armonk ...
, a community north of Midtown Manhattan. A nickname for the company is the "Colossus of Armonk". Its principal building, referred to as CHQ, is a glass and stone edifice on a parcel amid a 432-acre former apple orchard the company purchased in the mid-1950s. There are two other IBM buildings within walking distance of CHQ: the North Castle office, which previously served as IBM's headquarters; and the Louis V. Gerstner, Jr., Center for Learning (formerly known as IBM Learning Center (ILC)), a resort hotel and training center, which has 182 guest rooms, 31 meeting rooms, and various amenities. IBM operates in 174 countries , with mobility centers in smaller markets areas and major campuses in the larger ones. In New York City, IBM has several offices besides CHQ, including the Watson (computer), IBM Watson headquarters at Astor Place in Manhattan. Outside of New York, major campuses in the United States include Austin, Texas; Research Triangle Park, Research Triangle Park (Raleigh-Durham), North Carolina; IBM Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota; and IBM Research - Almaden, Silicon Valley, California. IBM's real estate holdings are varied and globally diverse. Towers occupied by IBM include 1250 René-Lévesque (Montreal, Canada) and One Atlantic Center (Atlanta, Georgia, USA). In Beijing, China, IBM occupies Pangu Plaza, the city's List of tallest buildings in Beijing, seventh tallest building and overlooking Beijing National Stadium, Beijing National Stadium ("Bird's Nest"), home to the 2008 Summer Olympics. IBM India, IBM India Private Limited is the Indian subsidiary of IBM, which is headquartered at Bangalore, Karnataka. It has facilities in Ahmedabad, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Pune, Gurugram, Noida, Bhubaneshwar, Surat, Coimbatore, Visakhapatnam, Hyderabad, Bangalore and Jamshedpur. Other notable buildings include the IBM Rome Software Lab (Rome, Italy), Hursley House (Winchester, UK), 330 North Wabash (Chicago, Illinois, United States), the Cambridge Scientific Center (Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States), the IBM Toronto Software Lab (Toronto, Canada), the IBM Building, Johannesburg (Johannesburg, South Africa), the IBM Building (Seattle) (Seattle, Washington, United States), the IBM Hakozaki Facility (Tokyo, Japan), the IBM Yamato Facility (Yamato, Japan), the IBM Canada Head Office Building (Ontario, Canada) and the Watson IoT Headquarters (Munich, Germany). Defunct IBM campuses include the IBM Somers Office Complex (Somers, New York) and Tour Descartes (Paris, France). The company's contributions to industrial architecture and design include works by Marcel Breuer, Eero Saarinen, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and I.M. Pei. Van der Rohe's building in Chicago was recognized with the 1990 Honor Award from the National Building Museum. IBM was recognized as one of the Top 20 Best Workplaces for Commuters by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2005, which recognized Fortune 500 companies that provided employees with excellent Commuting, commuter benefits to help reduce traffic and air pollution. In 2004, concerns were raised related to IBM's contribution in its early days to pollution in its original location in Endicott, New York#Pollution, Endicott, New York.


Finance

For the fiscal year 2020, IBM reported earnings of $5.6 billion, with an annual revenue of $73.6 billion. IBM's revenue has fallen for 8 of the last 9 years. IBM's market capitalization was valued at over $127 billion as of April 2021. IBM ranked No. 38 on the 2020 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. IBM has been criticized for using "financial engineering" to hit its quarterly earnings targets, rather than investing for the longer term.


Carbon footprint

IBM reported Total carbon footprint, CO2e emissions (Direct + Indirect) for the twelve months ending 31 December 2020 at 621 Kt (-324 /-34.3% y-o-y).


Products and services

IBM has a large and diverse portfolio of products and services. , these offerings fall into the categories of cloud computing,
artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstra ...

artificial intelligence
, commerce, data and analytics, Internet of things (IoT), IT infrastructure, Mobile computing, mobile, digital workplace and cybersecurity. IBM Cloud includes infrastructure as a service (IaaS), software as a service (SaaS) and platform as a service (PaaS) offered through public, private and hybrid Cloud computing#Deployment models, cloud delivery models. For instance, the IBM Bluemix PaaS enables developers to quickly create complex websites on a pay-as-you-go model. IBM SoftLayer is a dedicated server, managed hosting and cloud computing provider, which in 2011 reported hosting more than 81,000 servers for more than 26,000 customers. IBM also provides Cloud Data Encryption Services (ICDES), using cryptographic splitting to secure customer data. IBM also hosts the industry-wide cloud computing and mobile technologies conference InterConnect each year. Computer hardware, Hardware designed by IBM for these categories include IBM's IBM Power microprocessors, Power microprocessors, which are employed inside many video game console, console gaming systems, including Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, and Nintendo's Wii U. IBM Secure Blue is encryption hardware that can be built into microprocessors, and in 2014, the company revealed TrueNorth, a neuromorphic CMOS integrated circuit and announced a $3 billion investment over the following five years to design a neural chip that mimics the human brain, with 10 billion neurons and 100 trillion synapses, but that uses just 1 kilowatt of power. In 2016, the company launched Flash file system, all-flash arrays designed for small and midsized companies, which includes software for data compression, provisioning, and snapshots across various systems. IT outsourcing also represents a major service provided by IBM, with more than 60 data centers worldwide. alphaWorks is IBM's source for emerging software technologies, and
SPSS SPSS Statistics is a statistical software Statistical software are specialized computer program A computer program is a collection of instructions that can be executed by a computer to perform a specific task. A computer program is usuall ...

SPSS
is a computer program, software package used for statistical analysis. IBM's
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suite provides employment and Employee retention, retention solutions, and includes the BrassRing, an applicant tracking system used by thousands of companies for recruiting. IBM also owns
The Weather Company The Weather Company is a weather forecasting Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time. People have attempted to predict the weather Weat ...
, which provides weather forecasting and includes weather.com and Weather Underground (weather service), Weather Underground. Smarter Planet is an initiative that seeks to achieve economic growth, near-term efficiency, sustainable development, and societal progress, targeting opportunities such as smart grids, water management systems, solutions to traffic congestion, and greener buildings. Services provisions include Redbooks, which are publicly available online books about best practices with IBM products, and developerWorks, a website for software developers and IT professionals with how-to articles and tutorials, as well as software downloads, code samples, discussion forums, podcasts, blogs, wikis, and other resources for developers and technical professionals. IBM Watson is a technology platform that uses natural language processing and machine learning to reveal insights from large amounts of unstructured data. Watson was debuted in 2011 on the American game-show ''
Jeopardy! ''Jeopardy!'' is an American television game show created by Merv Griffin. The show features a quiz competition in which contestants are presented with general knowledge clues in the form of answers, and must phrase their responses in the form ...
'', where it competed against champions
Ken Jennings Kenneth Wayne Jennings III (born May 23, 1974) is an American game show contestant and host, author, and television presenter. He is the highest-earning American game show contestant, having won money on five different game shows, including $4 ...

Ken Jennings
and
Brad Rutter Bradford Gates Rutter (born January 31, 1978) is an American game show A game show is a genre Genre () is any form or type of communication in any mode (written, spoken, digital, artistic, etc.) with socially-agreed-upon conventions develope ...
in a three-game tournament and won. Watson has since been applied to business, healthcare, developers, and universities. For example, IBM has partnered with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to assist with considering treatment options for oncology patients and for doing melanoma screenings. Also, several companies have begun using Watson for call centers, either replacing or assisting customer service agents. In January 2019, IBM introduced its first commercial Quantum computing, quantum computer IBM Q System One. IBM also provides infrastructure for the New York City Police Department through their IBM Cognos Analytics to perform data visualizations of CompStat crime data. In March 2020, it was announced that IBM will build the first quantum computer in Germany. The computer should allow researchers to harness the technology without falling foul of the EU's increasingly assertive stance on data sovereignty.


Research

Research has been a part of IBM since its founding, and its organized efforts trace their roots back to 1945, when the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory was founded at Columbia University in New York City, converting a renovated fraternity house on Manhattan's West Side into IBM's first laboratory. Now, IBM Research constitutes the largest industrial research organization in the world, with 12 labs on 6 continents. IBM Research is headquartered at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center in New York, and facilities include the IBM Almaden Research Center, Almaden lab in California, Austin lab in Texas, IBM Research-Australia, Australia lab in Melbourne, IBM Research – Brazil, Brazil lab in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, China lab in Beijing and Shanghai, Ireland lab in Dublin, IBM Haifa Research Laboratory, Haifa lab in Israel, India lab in Delhi and Bangalore, IBM Tokyo Research Laboratory, Tokyo lab, IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Zurichlab and Africa lab in Nairobi. In terms of investment, IBM's R&D expenditure totals several billion dollars each year. In 2012, that expenditure was approximately $6.9 billion. Recent allocations have included $1 billion to create a business unit for IBM Watson, Watson in 2014, and $3 billion to create a next-gen semiconductor along with $4 billion towards growing the company's "strategic imperatives" (cloud, analytics, mobile, security, social) in 2015. IBM has been a leading proponent of the Open Source Initiative, and began supporting Linux in 1998. The company invests billions of dollars in services and software based on Linux through the IBM Linux Technology Center, which includes over 300 Linux kernel developers. IBM has also released code under different open source licenses, such as the Cross-platform, platform-independent software framework Eclipse (software), Eclipse (worth approximately $40 million at the time of the donation), the three-sentence International Components for Unicode (International Components for Unicode, ICU) license, and the Java (programming language), Java-based relational database management system (RDBMS) Apache Derby. IBM's open source involvement has not been trouble-free, however (see ''SCO v. IBM''). Famous inventions and developments by IBM include: the Automated teller machine, Automated teller machine (ATM), DRAM, Dynamic random access memory (DRAM), the Keypunch, electronic keypunch, the swap (finance), financial swap, the
floppy disk A floppy disk or floppy diskette (sometimes casually referred to as a floppy or diskette) is a type of disk storage Disk storage (also sometimes called drive storage) is a general category of storage mechanisms where data is recorded by vario ...

floppy disk
, the
hard disk drive A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive, or fixed disk is an electro-mechanical data storage device File:Reel-to-reel recorder tc-630.jpg, On a reel-to-reel tape recorder (Sony TC-630), the recorder is data storage equipment an ...

hard disk drive
, the
magnetic stripe card A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of Magnetic storage, storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card. The magnetic stripe, sometimes called swipe card or ma ...
, the
relational database A relational database is a digital database In , a database is an organized collection of stored and accessed electronically from a . Where databases are more complex they are often developed using formal techniques. The (DBMS) is the tha ...
, Reduced instruction set computing, RISC, the Sabre (computer system), SABRE airline reservation system, SQL, the Universal Product Code, Universal Product Code (UPC) bar code, and the virtual machine. Additionally, in 1990 company scientists used a scanning tunneling microscope to arrange 35 IBM (atoms), individual xenon atoms to spell out the company acronym, marking the first structure assembled one atom at a time. A major part of IBM research is the generation of
patents A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. There are many types of intellectual property, and some countries recognize more than ...
. Since its first patent for a traffic signaling device, IBM has been one of the world's most prolific patent sources. As of 2020, the company holds the record for most
patents A patent is a type of intellectual property Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. There are many types of intellectual property, and some countries recognize more than ...
generated by a business, marking 28 consecutive years for the achievement. Five IBM employees have received the Nobel Prize: Leo Esaki, of the Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y., in 1973, for work in semiconductors; Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer, of the Zurich Research Center, in 1986, for the scanning tunneling microscope; and Georg Bednorz and K. Alex Müller, Alex Müller, also of Zurich, in 1987, for research in superconductivity. The Turing Award has been won by six IBM employees, including the first female recipient Frances E. Allen. Ten National Medal of Technology, National Medals of Technology (USA) and five National Medal of Science, National Medals of Science (USA) have been awarded to IBM employees. Current research includes a collaboration with the University of Michigan to see computers act as an academic advisor for undergraduate computer science and engineering students at the university, and a partnership with AT&T, combining their cloud and Internet of Things (IoT) platforms to make them interoperable and to provide developers with easier tools. The company is also involved in research into advanced algorithms and machine learning and their decision-making processes. To that end, the company recently released an analysis tool for how and why algorithms make decisions while scanning for biases in automated decision-making.


Brand and reputation

IBM is nicknamed ''Big Blue'' in part due to its blue logo and color scheme, and also partially since IBM once had a de facto dress code of white shirts with blue suits. The company logo has undergone several changes over the years, with its current "8-bar" logo designed in 1972 by graphic designer Paul Rand. It was a general replacement for a 13-bar logo, since period photocopiers did not render large areas well. Aside from the logo, IBM used Helvetica as a corporate typeface for 50 years, until it was replaced in 2017 by the custom-designed IBM Plex. IBM has a valuable brand as a result of over 100 years of operations and marketing campaigns. Since 1996, IBM has been the exclusive technology partner for the Masters Tournament, one of the four Men's major golf championships, major championships in professional golf, with IBM creating the first Masters.org (1996), the first course cam (1998), the first iPhone app with live streaming (2009), and first-ever live 4K Ultra High Definition feed in the United States for a major sporting event (2016). As a result, IBM CEO Ginni Rometty became the third female member of the Master's governing body, the Augusta National Golf Club. IBM is also a major sponsor in professional tennis, with engagements at the US Open (tennis), U.S. Open, The Championships, Wimbledon, Wimbledon, the Australian Open, and the French Open. The company also sponsored the Olympic Games from 1960 to 2000, and the National Football League from 2003 to 2012. In 2012, IBM's brand was valued at $75.5 billion and ranked by ''Interbrand'' as the third-best brand worldwide. That same year, it was also ranked the top company for leaders (''Fortune (magazine), Fortune''), the number two green company in the U.S. (''Newsweek''), the second-most respected company (''Barron's (newspaper), Barron's''), the fifth-most admired company (''Fortune (magazine), Fortune''), the 18th-most innovative company (''Fast Company (magazine), Fast Company''), and the number one in Information technology consulting, technology consulting and number two in outsourcing (Vault.com, Vault). In 2015, Forbes ranked IBM as the fifth-most valuable brand, and for 2020, the Drucker Institute named IBM the No. 3 best-managed company.


People and culture


Employees

IBM has one of the largest workforces in the world, and employees at Big Blue are referred to as "IBMers". The company was among the first corporations to provide Life insurance#Group life insurance, group life insurance (1934), survivor benefits (1935), training for women (1935), paid vacations (1937), and training for disabled people (1942). IBM hired its first black salesperson in 1946, and in 1952, CEO Thomas J. Watson, Jr. published the company's first written equal opportunity policy letter, one year before the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education and 11 years before the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Human Rights Campaign has rated IBM 100% on its index of gay-friendliness every year since 2003, with IBM providing same-sex partners of its employees with Health insurance, health benefits and an anti-discrimination clause. Additionally, in 2005, IBM became the first major company in the world to commit formally to not use genetic testing, genetic information in employment decisions; and in 2017, IBM was named to ''Working Mother''s 100 Best Companies List for the 32nd consecutive year. IBM has several leadership development and recognition programs to recognize employee potential and achievements. For early-career high potential employees, IBM sponsors leadership development programs by discipline (e.g., general management (GMLDP), human resources management, human resources (HRLDP), finance (FLDP)). Each year, the company also selects 500 IBM employees for the IBM Corporate Service Corps (CSC), which gives top employees a month to do humanitarian aid, humanitarian work abroad. For certain interns, IBM also has a program called Extreme Blue that partners top business and technical students to develop high-value technology and compete to present their business case to the company's CEO at internship's end. The company also has various designations for exceptional individual contributors such as Senior Technical Staff Member (STSM), Research Staff Member (RSM), Distinguished Engineer (DE), and Distinguished Designer (DD). Prolific inventors can also achieve patent plateaus and earn the designation of IBM Master Inventor, Master Inventor. The company's most prestigious designation is that of IBM Fellow. Since 1963, the company names a handful of Fellows each year based on technical achievement. Other programs recognize years of service such as the Quarter Century Club established in 1924, and sellers are eligible to join the Hundred Percent Club, composed of IBM salesmen who meet their quotas, convened in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Each year, the company also selects 1,000 IBM employees annually to award the Best of IBM Award, which includes an all-expenses-paid trip to the awards ceremony in an exotic location. IBM's culture has evolved significantly over its century of operations. In its early days, a dark (or gray) suit, white shirt, and a "sincere" tie constituted the public uniform for IBM employees. During IBM's management transformation in the 1990s, CEO Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. relaxed these codes, normalizing the dress and behavior of IBM employees. The company's culture has also given to different plays on the company acronym (IBM), with some saying it stands for "I've Been Moved" due to relocations and layoffs, others saying it stands for "I'm By Myself" pursuant to a prevalent work-from-anywhere norm, and others saying it stands for "I'm Being Mentored" due to the company's open door policy and encouragement for mentoring at all levels. In terms of labor relations, the company has traditionally resisted labor union organizing, although unions represent some IBM workers outside the United States. In Japan, IBM employees also have an American football team complete with pro stadium, cheerleaders and televised games, competing in the Japanese X-League as the "IBM Big Blue (X-League), Big Blue". In 2015, IBM started giving employees the option of choosing Macintosh, Mac as their primary work device, next to the option of a personal computer, PC or a Linux distribution. In 2016, IBM eliminated forced rankings and changed its annual performance review system to focus more on frequent feedback, coaching, and skills development.


IBM alumni

Many IBM employees have achieved notability outside of work and after leaving IBM. In business, former IBM employees include
Apple Inc. Apple Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...
CEO Tim Cook, former Electronic Data Systems, EDS CEO and politician Ross Perot,
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multination ...

Microsoft
chairman John W. Thompson, SAP SE, SAP co-founder Hasso Plattner, Gartner founder Gideon Gartner, Advanced Micro Devices, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) CEO Lisa Su,Cadence (CDNS)
CEO Anirudh Devgan, former Citizens Financial Group CEO Ellen Alemany, former Yahoo! chairman Alfred Amoroso, former AT&T CEO C. Michael Armstrong, former Xerox Corporation CEOs David T. Kearns and G. Richard Thoman, former Fair Isaac Corporation CEO Mark N. Greene, Citrix Systems co-founder Ed Iacobucci, ASOS.com chairman Brian McBride (director), Brian McBride, former
Lenovo Lenovo Group Limited, often shortened to Lenovo ( , Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencie ...

Lenovo
CEO Steve Ward (businessman), Steve Ward, and former Teradata CEO Kenneth Simonds. In government, alumna Patricia Roberts Harris served as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, the first List of African American United States Cabinet Secretaries, African American List of female United States Cabinet Secretaries, woman to serve in the United States Cabinet. Samuel K. Skinner served as U.S. Secretary of Transportation and as the White House Chief of Staff. Alumni also include U.S. Senators Mack Mattingly and Thom Tillis; Wisconsin governor Scott Walker (politician), Scott Walker; former U.S. Ambassadors Vincent Obsitnik (U.S. Ambassador to Slovakia, Slovakia), Arthur K. Watson (U.S. Ambassador to France, France), and Thomas Watson Jr. (U.S. Ambassador to Russia, Soviet Union); and former United States House of Representatives, U.S. Representatives Todd Akin, Glenn Andrews, Robert Garcia (New York politician), Robert Garcia, Katherine Harris, Amo Houghton, Jim Ross Lightfoot, Thomas J. Manton, Donald W. Riegle Jr., and Ed Zschau. Others are NASA astronaut Michael J. Massimino, Canadian Astronaut Corps, Canadian astronaut and former Governor General of Canada, Governor General Julie Payette, noted musician Dave Matthews, Harvey Mudd College president Maria Klawe, Western Governors University president emeritus Robert Mendenhall, former University of Kentucky president Lee T. Todd Jr., NFL referee Bill Carollo, former Rangers F.C. chairman John McClelland (businessman), John McClelland, and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature J. M. Coetzee. Thomas Watson Jr. also served as the List of national presidents of the Boy Scouts of America, 11th national president of the Boy Scouts of America.


Board and shareholders

The company's 15 member board of directors are responsible for overall corporate management and includes the current or former CEOs of Anthem (company), Anthem, Dow Chemical Company, Dow Chemical, Johnson and Johnson, Royal Dutch Shell, United Parcel Service, UPS, and The Vanguard Group, Vanguard as well as the presidents of Cornell University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and a retired Admiral of the Navy (United States), U.S. Navy admiral. In 2011, IBM became the first technology company Warren Buffett's holding company Berkshire Hathaway invested in. Initially he bought 64 million shares costing 10.5 billion dollars. Over the years he increased his IBM holdings however he reduced it by 94.5% to 2.05 million shares at the end of 2017. By May 2018 he was completely out of IBM.


See also

* List of electronics brands * List of largest Internet companies * List of largest manufacturing companies by revenue * Tech companies in the New York City metropolitan region * Top 100 US Federal Contractors


References


Further reading

* * * * * * * * * * * * . * * * * *


External links

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