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''Huaxia'' is a historical concept representing the
Chinese nation ''Zhonghua minzu'' (; "Chinese nation") is a key political term in modern Chinese nationalism related to the concepts of nation-building, ethnic group, ethnicity, and race (human categorization), race in the Chinese nationality. ''Zhonghua ...
, and came from the self-awareness of a common cultural ancestry by the various
confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in i ...
s of pre-
QinQin may refer to: Dynasties and states * Qin (state) (秦), a major state during the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China * Qin dynasty (秦), founded by the Qin state in 221 BC and ended in 206 BC * Daqin (大秦), ancient Chinese name for the Roman Empi ...

Qin
ancient
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
people.


Etymology

According to the ''
Zuo zhuan The ''Zuo Zhuan'' (; ), generally translated ''The Zuo Tradition'' or ''The Commentary of Zuo'', is an ancient Chinese narrative history that is traditionally regarded as a commentary on the ancient Chinese chronicle ''Spring and Autumn Annals' ...

Zuo zhuan
'', ''xia'' () signified the "grandness" in the ceremonial etiquette of China, while ''hua'' () was used in reference to the "beauty" in the
clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel, and attire) are items worn on the body. Typically, clothing is made of fabrics or textiles, but over time it has included garments made from a ...
that the Chinese people wore ().


History


Origin

Huaxia refers to a confederation of tribes—living along the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
—who were the ancestors of what later became the
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
ethnic group in China. During the
Warring States The Warring States period () was an era in characterized by warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation. It followed the and concluded with the that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimate ...
(475–221 BCE), the self-awareness of the Huaxia identity developed and took hold in ancient China. Initially, ''Huaxia'' defined mainly a civilized society that was distinct and stood in contrast to what was perceived as the
barbaric A barbarian is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. They ...
peoples around them. The Huaxia identity arose in the Eastern Zhou period as a reaction to the increased conflict with the Rong and Di peoples who migrated into the Zhou lands and extinguished some Zhou states.


Modern usage

Although still used in conjunction, the
Chinese character Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system. Written language is an invention in that it ...

Chinese character
s for ''hua'' and ''xia'' are also used separately as autonyms. The official Chinese names of both the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
(PRC) and the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...

Republic of China
(ROC) use the term ''Huaxia'' in combination with the term ''Zhongguo'' (, translated as "Middle Kingdom"), that is, as ''Zhonghua'' (). The PRC's official Chinese name is ''Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo'' (), while that of the ROC is ''Zhonghua Minguo'' (). The term ''Zhongguo'' is confined by its association to a state, whereas ''Zhonghua'' mainly concerns culture. The latter is being used as part of the nationalist term ''
Zhōnghuá Mínzú ''Zhonghua minzu'' (; "Chinese nation") is a key political term in modern Chinese nationalism The current Flag of China, national flag of the China, People's Republic of China (1949–present), representing a variety of Chinese national ...
'' which is an all Chinese nationality in the sense of a multi-ethnic
national identity National identity is a person's identity or sense of belonging to one or more states or to one or more nations A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language A language is a structured system of communication us ...
. The term ''Huaren'' () for a Chinese person is an abbreviation of ''Huaxia'' with ''ren'' (, person). ''Huaren'' in general is used for people of Chinese ethnicity, in contrast to ''Zhongguoren'' () which usually (but not always) refers to citizens of China. Although some may use ''Zhongguoren'' to refer to the Chinese ethnicity, such usage is not accepted by some in Taiwan. In overseas Chinese communities in countries such as
Singapore Singapore (), officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign state, sovereign island city-state in maritime Southeast Asia. It lies about one degree of latitude () north of the equator, off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, bor ...

Singapore
and
Malaysia Malaysia ( ; ) is a country in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions ...

Malaysia
, ''Huaren'' or ''Huaqiao'' (overseas Chinese) is used as they are not citizens of China.


See also

*
Xia dynasty #REDIRECT Xia dynasty The Xia dynasty is the first dynasty in traditional Chinese historiography. According to tradition, the Xia dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great, after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors, gave the thr ...

Xia dynasty
, the first dynasty according to traditional Chinese historiography. *
Yan Huang Zisun Yan Huang Zisun () is a term that represents the Chinese people and refers to an ethnocultural identity based on a common ancestry associated with a mythological origin. This term is connected to Yandi (炎帝) and Huangdi (黃帝), in which bo ...
, literally the "Descendants of Yan and Huang" *
Zhongyuan Zhongyuan (), the Central Plains, also known as Zhongtu (, lit. 'central land') and Zhongzhou (, lit. 'central region'), commonly refers to the lower and middle reaches of the Yellow River, centered on the region between Luoyang to Kaifeng. It h ...

Zhongyuan
, the central regions associated with Huaxia *
Names of China The names of China include the many contemporary and historical appellations given in various languages for the East Asian country known as ''Zhōngguó'' (/, "central state") in its official language An official language, also called state lang ...
*
Zhonghua Zhōnghuá or Chung¹-hua² is a term that means "''relating to China''" (), in a cultural, ethnic, or literary sense. It is used in the following terms: People's Republic of China * ', the Chinese name for the People's Republic of China ...


References

{{Reflist Ancient peoples of China Chinese words and phrases Han Chinese Names of China