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The Huai River (), formerly
romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign lan ...
as the Hwai, is a major river in
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographical and 14 different countries, the in the world after . Covering an area of ap ...

China
. It is located about midway between the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
and
Yangtze The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest , the in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the (Tibetan Plateau) and flows in a generally easterly direction to the . It is ...
, the two longest rivers and largest drainage basins in China, and like them runs from west to east. Historically draining directly into the
Yellow Sea The Yellow Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% o ...

Yellow Sea
, floods have changed the course of the river such that it now primarily discharges into the Yangtze. The Huai is notoriously vulnerable to flooding. The
Qinling–Huaihe Line 210x180px, The Heihe–Tengchong Line divided China into eastern and western halves. The "Qinling–Huaihe Line" further subdivides the eastern half into north and south The Qinling–Huaihe Line () is a reference line used by geographers to disti ...
, formed by the Huai River and the
Qin Mountains The Qinling () or Qin Mountains, formerly known as the Nanshan ("Southern Mountains"), are a major east-west mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mounta ...
, is sometimes regarded as the geographical dividing line between
Northern and southern China Northern China () and Southern China () are two approximate regions within China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in . It is the world's , with a of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geo ...
. This line approximates the January isotherm and the
isohyet A contour line (also isoline, isopleth, or isarithm) of a function of two variables is a curve In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is an object similar to a line (geometry), line, but that does not have to be ...
in China. The Huai River is long with a drainage area of .


Course

The Huai River originates in Tongbai Mountain in
Henan province Henan (; alternatively Honan) is a landlocked province of China, in the central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (), which literally means "central plain" or "midland", although the name is also ap ...
. It flows through southern Henan, northern
Anhui Anhui (; Postal romanization, formerly romanized as Anhwei) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China, part of the East China region. Its provincial capital and largest city is Hefei. The province is l ...

Anhui
, and northern
Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; Postal romanization, formerly romanized Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal Provinces of the People's Republic of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, ...

Jiangsu
where it pools into
Lake Hongze Hongze Lake or Lake Hungtse () is the fourth largest freshwater lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The ...
. Nowadays the Huai River then runs southwards as the Sanhe River by way of the
Gaoyou Lake Gaoyou Lake () is the sixth largest freshwater lake in , it is located between and . In a sense Gaoyou Lake is a manmade lake, and its creation is part of a long story about and hydraulic engineering in ancient China. Gaoyou Lake is now part of t ...
and
Shaobo Lake Shaobo Lake () is a freshwater lake in Jiangsu Province Jiangsu (; ; Postal romanization, formerly romanized Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal Provinces of the People's Republic of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. ...
emptying into Yangtze River at Sanjiangying (三江营) near
Yangzhou Yangzhou, Postal Map Romanization, postal romanization Yangchow, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu Province (Suzhong), East China. Sitting on the north bank of the Yangtze, it borders the provincial capital Nanjing to the southwest, H ...

Yangzhou
. There is also a passage called the Huaihe Sea Entryway and Subei Irrigation Canal that passes
Huai'an Huai'an (), formerly called Huaiyin () until 2001, is a prefecture-level city in central Jiangsu province of East China, Eastern China. Huai'an is situated almost directly south of Lianyungang, southeast of Suqian, northwest of Yancheng, almos ...
empties into the sea at Biandan Port. A separate course runs north by way of the Huaimu River and Huai Shu River and connects the Huai River system with the XinYi River (part of the YiShuSi River system) which exits into the sea at GuanYun. In part to circumvent flooding, in
Jiangsu Jiangsu (; ; Postal romanization, formerly romanized Kiangsu) is an eastern-central coastal Provinces of the People's Republic of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. It is one of the leading provinces in finance, education, ...

Jiangsu
province the Huai river system is interconnected with different waterways and thereby forms part of the
Grand CanalGrand Canal can refer to multiple waterways: * Grand Canal (China) in eastern China * Grand Canal (Ireland), between the River Shannon and Dublin in Ireland * Grand Canal (Venice) in Venice, Italy * Grand Canal d'Alsace in eastern France *Grand Cana ...
.


History

Historically, the Huai River entered the
Yellow Sea The Yellow Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of Saline water, salt water that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of Earth and contains 97% o ...

Yellow Sea
at
Yunti PassYunti or Yinti may refer to either of the following Qing dynasty princes: * Yinzhi, Prince Zhi (1672–1734), whose name is sometimes romanised as Yinti, the Kangxi Emperor's eldest son * Yunti, Prince Xun (1688–1756), also known as Yinti, t ...
(modern day Yunti Village, in Huangwei Town of Xiangshui County) through a broad and level lower course. It was long used to irrigate the surrounding farmlands, and was the centre of an extensive network of canals and tributaries. Beginning in 1194, however, the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
to the north repeatedly changed its course southwards to run into the Huai River. The resulting silting was so heavy that after the Yellow River changed back to its northerly course for the most recent time in 1897, the geography of the Huai River basin was changed significantly by the creation of new high lands, lakes, and the built-up silt of the Yellow River's historical southern course. As a result, water from the midsection of the river could not easily flow into the lower section, while water in the lower section could not find an outlet to the sea. The problem worsened in the
Second World War World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, when the
Nationalist Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a in-group and out-group, group of people),Anthony D. Smith, Smith, Anthony. ''Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History''. Polity (publisher), Polity, ...
government, in an attempt to check the pace of the
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
ese invasion, flooded the lower Huai basin by opening the Yellow River's southern levee. The main stem of the Yellow River flowed through the levee breach for the next nine years, further disrupting the Huai river system. The result of these changes was that water from the Huai River pooled up into
Lake Hongze Hongze Lake or Lake Hungtse () is the fourth largest freshwater lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land Land is the solid surface of the Earth that is not permanently covered by water. The ...
, and then ran southwards towards the Yangtze River. Major and minor floods occurred frequently, with the area suffering droughts in between floods. In the 450 years to 1950, the Huai River saw, on average, 94 major floods per century. Attempts to solve the Huai River's problems have focussed on building outlets for the Huai River into the Yangtze River and the sea. Currently, the major part of the river's flow enters the Yangtze River via Lake Hongze. The
North Jiangsu Main Irrigation Canal The North Jiangsu Main Irrigation Canal () (often called the Subei Canal) is located in the lower reaches of the Huai River The Huai River (), formerly romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the sc ...
also diverts some of its water along its old historical course to the sea, and is planned to be upgraded with a new parallel channel. Several former tributaries also carry some water to the sea.


Tributaries

There are many tributaries of the Huai River. There are 15 main tributaries cover an area of more than 2000 km2 each, and 21 main tributaries have a catchment area larger than 1000 km2. / The main tributaries on the Huai river (listed from upstream to downstream) are as follows:


References


External links


Huai River
{{Authority control Rivers of Jiangsu Rivers of Henan Rivers of Anhui Tributaries of the Yangtze River