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The is the
lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apache County *Chambers, Nebraska *Chambers, We ...
of the
National Diet The is Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Go ...

National Diet
of
Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an in ...

Japan
. The
House of Councillors The is the upper house of the National Diet The is Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Se ...
is the upper house. The composition of the House is established by and of the
Constitution of Japan The Constitution of Japan (Shinjitai are the simplified forms of kanji are a set of logographic In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured ...
. The House of Representatives has 465 members, elected for a four-year term. Of these, 176 members are elected from 11 multi-member constituencies by a party-list system of
proportional representation#REDIRECT Proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. The concept applies mainly to geographical, and to ideolog ...

proportional representation
, and 289 are elected from single-member constituencies. 233 seats are required for a majority. The overall voting system used to elect the House of Representatives is a parallel system, a form of
semi-proportional representation Semi-proportional representation characterizes multi-winner electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and Referendum, referendums are conducted and how their results are determined. Po ...
. Under a parallel system the allocation of list seats does not take into account the outcome in the single seat constituencies. Therefore, the overall allocation of seats in the House of Representatives is not proportional, to the advantage of larger parties. In contrast, in bodies such as the German ''
Bundestag The Bundestag (, "Federal diet (assembly), Diet") is the Germany, German Federalism, federal parliament. It is the only body that is directly elected by the German people on the federal level. It can be compared to a lower house similar to the ...

Bundestag
'' or the
New Zealand Parliament The New Zealand Parliament ( mi, Pāremata Aotearoa) is the unicameral legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Monarchy of New Zealand, Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen i ...
the election of single-seat members and party list members is linked, so that the overall result respects proportional representation fully or to some degree. The House of Representatives is the more powerful of the two houses, able to override vetoes on bills imposed by the House of Councillors with a two-thirds majority. The last election for the House of Representatives was held on 31 October 2021 in which the Liberal Democratic Party won a majority government with 261 seats. Along with their coalition partner, Komeito, which won 32 seats, the governing coalition holds 293 seats in total.


Right to vote and candidature

* Japanese nationals aged 18 years and older may vote (prior to 2016, the voting age was 20). * Japanese nationals aged 25 years and older may run for office in the lower house.


Differences between the Upper and Lower Houses

The House of Representatives has several powers not given to the House of Councillors. If a bill is passed by the
lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apache County *Chambers, Nebraska *Chambers, We ...
(the House of Representatives) but is voted down by the upper house (the
House of Councillors The is the upper house of the National Diet The is Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Se ...
) the House of Representatives can override the decision of the House of Councillors by a two-thirds vote in the affirmative. However, in the case of
treaties A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relati ...

treaties
, the
budget A budget is a financial plan In general usage, a financial plan is a comprehensive evaluation of an individual's current pay and future financial state by using current known variables to predict future income, asset values and withdrawal p ...
, and the selection of the prime minister, the House of Councillors can only delay passage, but not block the legislation. As a result, the House of Representatives is considered the more powerful house. Members of the House of Representatives, who are elected to a maximum of four years, sit for a shorter term than members of the
House of Councillors The is the upper house of the National Diet The is Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Se ...
, who are elected to full six-year terms. The lower house can also be dissolved by the Prime Minister or the passage of a nonconfidence motion, while the House of Councillors cannot be dissolved. Thus the House of Representatives is considered to be more sensitive to public opinion, and is termed the "lower house". While the legislative term is nominally 4 years, early elections for the lower house are very common, and the median lifespan of postwar legislatures has in practice been around 3 years.


Current composition

For a list of majoritarian members and proportional members from Hokkaidō, see the List of members of the Diet of Japan.


Latest election result


Election results for major parties since 1958

Shaded * green: Ruling party/coalition before and after the lower house election * red: Ruling party/coalition ''until'' the election = Change of government as a result of the lower house election * blue: Ruling party/coalition ''after'' the election = Change of government as a result of the lower house election * none: Opposition before and after the election ''Note that the composition of the ruling coalition may change between lower house elections, e.g. after upper house elections. Parties who vote with the government in the Diet, but are not part of the cabinet (e.g. SDP & NPH after the 1996 election) are not shaded.''


Parallel electoral system (since 1996)

, - ! style="background:#e9e9e9" , Parties ! style="background:#e9e9e9" , Segment !
1996 1996 was designated as: * International Year for the Eradication of Poverty Events January * January 3 Events Pre-1600 * 69 – The Roman legions on the Rhine refuse to declare their allegiance to Galba Galba (; born Servius Sulpi ...
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications The is a cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbon ...
(MIC/Sōmushō)
第41回衆議院議員総選挙結果
/ref> !!
2000 2000 was designated as the International Year for the Culture of Peace and the World Mathematics, Mathematical Year. Popular culture holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millennium due to a tendency of group ...
MIC
第42回衆議院議員総選挙結果
/ref> !!
2003 2003 was designated the International Year of the Fresh Water Fresh water or freshwater is any naturally occurring liquid or frozen water containing low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids Total dissolved ...
MIC
衆議院議員総選挙・最高裁判所裁判官国民審査結果調
/ref> !!
2005 2005 was designated as the International Year for Sport and Physical Education and the International Year of MicrocreditImage:YOmicrocredit2005.jpg, right International Year of Microcredit is a special event of the United Nations which took pl ...
MIC
平成17年9月11日執行 衆議院議員総選挙・最高裁判所裁判官国民審査結果調
/ref> !!
2009 2009 was designated as: *International Year of Astronomy 200px, Euro gold and silver commemorative coins (Austria)#2009 Coinage, International Year of Astronomy commemorative coin. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) was a year-l ...
MIC
平成21年8月30日執行 衆議院議員総選挙・最高裁判所裁判官国民審査結果調
/ref> !!
2012 2012 was designated as: *International Year of Cooperatives2012 was designated as the International Year of Cooperatives by the United Nations General Assembly on 18 December 2009. The designation has honored the use of cooperative organiz ...
!!
2014 2014 was designated as: * International Year of Crystallography * International Year of Family Farming * International Year of Small Island Developing States * International Year of Solidarity with the Palestinian People __TOC__ Events Jan ...
!!
2017 2017 was designated as International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development2017 was declared as the International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development by the United Nations General Assembly on 4 December 2015 relating to sustainab ...
, - ! colspan="2" , Total seats !! 500 !! 480 !! 480 !! 480 !! 480 !! 480 !! 475 !! 465 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="5",
Liberal Democratic Party Several political party, political parties from around the world have been called the Liberal Democratic Party or Liberal Democrats. These parties usually follow a liberal democracy, liberal democratic ideology. Active parties Former parties ...
(LDP) ''Jiyū Minshutō'' , , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", FPTP , 38.6% , , 41.0% , , 43.9% , , 47.8% , , 38.6% , , 43.0% , , 48.1% , , 48.21% , - , 169 , , 177 , , 168 , , 219 , , 64 , , 237 , , 223 , , 226 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", PR , 32.8% , , 28.3% , , 35.0% , , 38.1% , , 26.7% , , 27.6% , , 33.1% , , 33.28% , - , 70 , , 56 , , 69 , , 77 , , 55 , , 57 , , 68 , , 66 , - , style="text-align:left;", Total seats , , style="background:#cfc;", 239 , , style="background:#cfc;", 233 , , style="background:#cfc;", 237 , , style="background:#cfc;", 296 , , style="background:#fcc;", 119 , , style="background:#ccf;", 294 , , style="background:#cfc;", 291 , , style="background:#cfc;", 284 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="5",
Constitutional Democratic Party ) , newspaper = ''Rech Rech may refer to: People * Almine Rech, French art dealer * Anthony Rech (born 1992), French ice hockey player * Bianca Rech (born 1981), German football player * Erich Rech, List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cr ...
(CDP) ''Rikken Minshutō'' , , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", FPTP , colspan="7" rowspan="5" , – , , 8.75% , - , 18 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", PR , 19.88% , - , 37 , - , style="text-align:left;", Total seats , , 55 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="5", ''Kibō no Tō'' , , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", FPTP , colspan="7" rowspan="5" , – , , 20.64% , - , 18 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", PR , 17.36% , - , 32 , - , style="text-align:left;", Total seats , , 50 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="5",
Democratic Party of Japan The was a centrist Centrism is a political outlook or position that involves acceptance and/or support of a balance of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant ...
(DPJ) ''Minshutō'' (1996–2014)
Democratic PartyDemocratic Party most often refers to: *Democratic Party (United States) Democratic Party and similar terms may also refer to: Active parties Africa *Botswana Democratic Party *Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea *Gabonese Democratic Party *Democ ...
(DP) ''Minshintō'' (2017) , , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", FPTP , 10.6% , , 27.6% , , 36.7% , , 36.4% , , 47.4% , , 22.8% , , 22.5% , , rowspan="5" , ''no party
nominations,
≈14 members
elected''
, - , 17 , , 80 , , 105 , , 52 , , 221 , , 27 , , 38 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", PR , 16.1% , , 25.2% , , 37.4% , , 31.0% , , 42.4% , , 15.9% , , 18.3% , - , 35 , , 47 , , 72 , , 61 , , 87 , , 30 , , 35 , - , style="text-align:left;", Total seats , , 52 , , 127 , , 177 , , 113 , , style="background:#ccf;", 308 , , style="background:#fcc;", 57 , , 73 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="5",
Japan Restoration Party The , also referred to in English as the Japan Restoration Association, was a Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat ...
(JRP) ''Nippon Ishin no Kai'' (2012)
Japan Innovation Party The was a political party in Japan. It was launched on 22 September 2014, following the merger of the Japan Restoration Party headed by Tōru Hashimoto, and the Unity Party, led by Kenji Eda. On 27 March 2016 the party merged with the Democrat ...

Japan Innovation Party
(JIP) ''Ishin no Tō'' (2014) , , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", FPTP , colspan="5" rowspan="5" , – , , 11.6% , , 8.2% , , 3.18% , - , 14 , , 11 , , 3 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", PR , 20.3% , , 15.7% , , 6.07% , - , 40 , , 30 , , 8 , - , style="text-align:left;", Total seats , , 54 , , 41 , , 11 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="5", (New) Komeito (K/NK/NKP/CGP/NCGP/etc.) ''Kōmeitō'' , , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", FPTP , rowspan="5" , – , , 2.0% , , 1.5% , , 1.4% , , 1.1% , , 1.4% , , 1.5% , , 1.5% , - , 7 , , 9 , , 8 , , 0 , , 9 , , 9 , , 8 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", PR , 13.0% , , 14.8% , , 13.3% , , 11.4% , , 11.8% , , 13.7% , , 12.51% , - , 24 , , 25 , , 23 , , 21 , , 22 , , 26 , , 21 , - , style="text-align:left;", Total seats , style="background:#cfc;", 31 , , style="background:#cfc;", 34 , , style="background:#cfc;", 31 , , style="background:#fcc;", 21 , , style="background:#ccf;", 31 , , style="background:#cfc;", 35 , , style="background:#cfc;", 29 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="5",
Japanese Communist Party The Japanese Communist Party (JCP; ja, 日本共産党, ''Nihon Kyōsan-tō'') is a List of political parties in Japan, political party in Japan and one of the largest non-governing communist parties in the world. The JCP advocates for the es ...
(JCP) ''Nihon Kyōsantō'' , , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", FPTP , 12.6% , , 12.1% , , 8.1% , , 7.2% , , 4.2% , , 7.8% , , 13.3% , , 9.02% , - , 2 , , 0 , , 0 , , 0 , , 0 , , 0 , , 1 , , 1 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", PR , 13.1% , , 11.2% , , 7.8% , , 7.2% , , 7.0% , , 6.1% , , 11.4% , , 7.9% , - , 24 , , 20 , , 9 , , 9 , , 9 , , 8 , , 20 , , 11 , - , style="text-align:left;", Total seats , , 26 , , 20 , , 9 , , 9 , , 9 , , 8 , , 21 , , 12 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="5",
Social Democratic Party The name Social Democratic Party or Social Democrats has been used by many Political party, political parties in various countries around the world. Such parties are most commonly aligned to social democracy as their Ideologies of parties, pol ...
(SDP) ''Shakai Minshutō'' , , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", FPTP , 2.2% , , 3.8% , , 2.9% , , 1.5% , , 1.9% , , 0.7% , , 0.8% , , 1.15% , - , 4 , , 4 , , 1 , , 1 , , 3 , , 1 , , 1 , , 1 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", PR , 6.4% , , 9.4% , , 5.1% , , 5.5% , , 4.2% , , 2.3% , , 2.5% , , 1.69% , - , 11 , , 15 , , 5 , , 6 , , 4 , , 1 , , 1 , , 1 , - , style="text-align:left;", Total seats , , style="background:#fcc;", 15 , , 19 , , 6 , , 7 , , style="background:#ccf;", 7 , , 2 , , 2 , , 2 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="5", New Frontier Party (NFP) ''Shinshintō'' (1996)
Liberal Party The Liberal Party is any of many political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, ...
''Jiyūtō'' (2000)
Tomorrow Party of Japan , also known as the Japan Future Party, was a List of political parties in Japan, Japanese political party, formed on 28 November 2012 by Governor of Shiga Prefecture Yukiko Kada and dissolved in May 2013. Kada created the party as an alternative ...
(TPJ) ''Nippon Mirai no Tō'' (2012)
People's Life Party The was a political party in Japan that merged with the Democratic Party for the People on 26 April 2019. It had 2 out of the 475 seats in the House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies in many count ...
(PLP) ''Seikatsu no Tō'' (2014)
Liberal Party (LP) ''Jiyūtō'' (2017) , , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", FPTP , 28.0% , , 3.4% , , colspan="3" rowspan="5" , – , , 5.0% , , 1.0% , , rowspan="5" , ''no party
nominations,
2 members
elected''
, - , 96 , , 4 , , 2 , , 2 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", PR , 28.0% , , 11.0% , , 5.7% , , 1.9% , - , 60 , , 18 , , 7 , , 0 , - , style="text-align:left;", Total seats , , 156 , , 22 , , 9 , , 2 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="5",
Your Party was a Japanese political party. It is also the name of a parliamentary caucus composed by Yoshimi Watanabe is a Japanese politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that ...
(YP) ''Minna no Tō'' , , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", FPTP , colspan="4" rowspan="5" , – , , 0.8% , , 4.7% , , colspan="2" rowspan="5" , – , - , 2 , , 4 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", PR , 4.2% , , 8.7% , - , 3 , , 14 , - , style="text-align:left;", Total seats , , 5 , , 19 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="5",
Conservative Party Conservative Party may refer to: Europe Current *Croatian Conservative Party, *Conservative Party (Czech Republic) *Conservative People's Party (Denmark) *Conservative Party of Georgia *Conservative Party (Norway) *Conservative Party (UK) Histor ...
''Hoshutō'' (2000)
New Conservative Party ''Hoshu Shintō'' (2003) , , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", FPTP , rowspan="5" , – , , 2.0% , , 1.3% , , colspan="5" rowspan="5" , – , - , 7 , , 4 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", PR , 0.4% , , – , - , 0 , , – , - , style="text-align:left;", Total seats , , style="background:#cfc;", 7 , , style="background:#cfc;", 4 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="5",
New Party Harbinger The New Party Sakigake (新党さきがけ ''Shintō Sakigake''), also known as the New Harbinger Party, was a political party in Japan that broke away from the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) on 22 June 1993. The party was created by Masayosh ...
(NPH) ''Shintō Sakigake'' , , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", FPTP , 1.3% , , colspan="7" rowspan="5" , – , - , 2 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", PR , 1.0% , - , 0 , - , style="text-align:left;", Total seats , , style="background:#fcc;", 2


SNTV multi-member districts (1947–1993)

, - ! style="background:#e9e9e9" , Parties !
1958 Events January * January 1 – The European Economic Community (EEC) comes into being. * January 3 – The West Indies Federation is formed. * January 4 ** Edmund Hillary's Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition completes the ...
Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications The is a cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbon ...
, statistics bureau
衆議院議員総選挙の党派別当選者数及び得票数(昭和33年~平成5年)
/ref> !!
1960 It is also known as the "Year of Africa is referred to as the Year of Africa because of a series of events that took place during the year—mainly the independence of seventeen African nations—that highlighted the growing Pan-Africanism, ...
!!
1963 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the . There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in s). This day is known as since the day marks the beginning of the year. __TOC__ ...
!!
1967 Events January * January 1 – Canada begins a year-long celebration of the 100th anniversary of Canadian Confederation, Confederation, featuring the Expo 67 World's Fair. * January 4 – The Doors release their début album ''The Doors ( ...
!!
1969 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of th ...
!!
1972 Within the context of Coordinated Universal Time Coordinated Universal Time or UTC is the primary time standard A time standard is a specification for measuring time: either the rate at which time passes; or points in time; or both. ...
!!
1976 Events January * January January is the first month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , r ...
!!
1979 Events January * January 1 January 1 or 1 January is the first day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 364 days remaining until the end of the year (365 in leap years). This day is known as New Year's Day since the day ...
!!
1980 Events January * January 4 Events Pre-1600 *46 BC – Julius Caesar fights Titus Labienus in the Battle of Ruspina. *871 – Battle of Reading (871), Battle of Reading: Æthelred of Wessex and his brother Alfred the Great, Alf ...
!!
1983 The year 1983 saw both the contested beginning of the Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and d ...
!!
1986 The year 1986 was designated as the International Year of Peace by the United Nations. Events January * January 1 **In Northern Ireland, during The Troubles, police officers James McCandless (39) and Michael Williams (24) are killed by a Pr ...
!!
1990 Important events of 1990 include the Reunification of Germany German reunification (german: link=no, Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of ...
!!
1993 1993 was designated as: * International Year for the World's Indigenous People The year 1993 in the Kwajalein Atoll Kwajalein Atoll (; Marshallese: ) is part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands The Marshall Islands, officiall ...
, - ! Total seats !! 467 !! 467 !! 467 !! 486 !! 486 !! 491 !! 511 !! 511 !! 511 !! 511 !! 512 !! 512 !! 511 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2",
Liberal Democratic Party Several political party, political parties from around the world have been called the Liberal Democratic Party or Liberal Democrats. These parties usually follow a liberal democracy, liberal democratic ideology. Active parties Former parties ...
(LDP) ''Jiyū Minshutō'' , 57.8% , , 57.6% , , 54.7% , , 48.8% , , 47.6% , , 46.8% , , 41.8% , , 44.6% , , 47.9% , , 48.9% , , 49.4% , , 46.1% , , 36.7% , - style="background:#cfc;" , 287 , , 296 , , 283 , , 277 , , 288 , , 271 , , 249 , , 248 , , 284 , , 250 , , 300 , , 275 , , style="background:#fcc;", 223 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2",
Japan Socialist Party The , also known as the JSP, was a socialist political party in Japan that existed from 1945 to 1996. The party was founded by members of several former Proletarian parties in Japan, 1925–1932, proletarian parties that existed before World War ...
(JSP) ''Nihon Shakaitō'' , 32.9% , , 27.6% , , 29.0% , , 27.9% , , 21.4% , , 21.9% , , 20.7% , , 19.7% , , 19.3% , , 19.5% , , 17.2% , , 24.4% , , 15.4% , - , 166 , , 145 , , 144 , , 140 , , 90 , , 118 , , 123 , , 107 , , 107 , , 112 , , 85 , , 136 , , style="background:#ccf;", 70 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2",
Japan Renewal Party The was a Japanese political party that existed in the early 1990s. It was founded in 1993 by 44 members of the Liberal Democratic Party (Japan), Liberal Democratic Party led by Tsutomu Hata and Ichirō Ozawa. It was instrumental in ending the LDP ...
(JRP) ''Shinseitō'' , colspan="12" rowspan="2", – , , 10.1% , - , style="background:#ccf;", 55 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", Kōmeitō (K/KP/CGP/etc.) ''Kōmeitō'' , colspan="3" rowspan="2" , – , , 5.4% , , 10.9% , , 8.5% , , 11.0% , , 9.8% , , 9.0% , , 10.1% , , 9.4% , , 8.0% , , 8.1% , - , 25 , , 47 , , 29 , , 55 , , 57 , , 33 , , 58 , , 56 , , 45 , , style="background:#ccf;", 51 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2",
Japan New Party The was a Japanese political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties ...
(JNP) ''Nihon Shintō'' , colspan="12" rowspan="2" , – , , 8.0% , - , style="background:#ccf;", 35 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2", Democratic Socialist Party (DSP) ''Minshatō'' , rowspan="2" , – , , 8.8% , , 7.4% , , 7.4% , , 7.7% , , 7.0% , , 6.3% , , 6.8% , , 6.6% , , 7.3% , , 6.4% , , 4.8% , , 3.5% , - , 17 , , 23 , , 30 , , 31 , , 19 , , 29 , , 35 , , 32 , , 38 , , 26 , , 14 , , style="background:#ccf;", 15 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2",
Japanese Communist Party The Japanese Communist Party (JCP; ja, 日本共産党, ''Nihon Kyōsan-tō'') is a List of political parties in Japan, political party in Japan and one of the largest non-governing communist parties in the world. The JCP advocates for the es ...
(JCP) ''Nihon Kyōsantō'' , 2.6% , , 2.9% , , 4.0% , , 4.8% , , 6.8% , , 10.5% , , 10.4% , , 10.4% , , 9.8% , , 9.3% , , 8.8% , , 8.0% , , 7.7% , - , 1 , , 3 , , 5 , , 5 , , 14 , , 38 , , 17 , , 39 , , 29 , , 26 , , 26 , , 16 , , 15 , - , style="text-align:left;" rowspan="2",
New Party Harbinger The New Party Sakigake (新党さきがけ ''Shintō Sakigake''), also known as the New Harbinger Party, was a political party in Japan that broke away from the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) on 22 June 1993. The party was created by Masayosh ...
(NPH) ''Shintō Sakigake'' , colspan="12" rowspan="2" , – , , 3.5% , - , style="background:#ccf;", 13


History


Meiji period (1890-1912)

The Japanese parliament, then known as the Imperial Diet, was established in 1890 as a result of the 1889
Meiji Constitution The Constitution of the Empire of Japan (Kyūjitai are the traditional forms of kanji are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system. They are used alongside the Japanese language, Japanes ...
. It was modeled on the parliaments of several Western countries, particularly the
German Empire The German Empire or the Imperial State of Germany,, officially '.Herbert Tuttle Herbert Tuttle (1846–1894) was an American historian. Biography Herbert Tuttle was born in Bennington, Vermont Bennington is a New England town, town ...
and the United Kingdom, because of the
Emperor Meiji also called or was the 122nd emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the monarch and the head of the Imperial House of Japan, Imperial Family of Japan. Under the Constitution of Japan, he is defined as the symbol of the Japanese state a ...
's westernizing reforms. The Imperial Diet consisted of two chambers, the elected House of Representatives which was the lower house, and the House of Peers which was the upper house. This format was similar to the
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...

House of Lords
in the
Westminster system The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ...
, or the Herrenhaus in
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
, where the upper house represented the
aristocracy Aristocracy ( grc-gre, ἀριστοκρατία , from 'excellent', and , 'rule') is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: A ...
. Both houses, and also the Emperor, had to agree on legislation, and even at the height of party-based constitutional government, the House of Peers could simply vote down bills deemed too liberal by the
Meiji oligarchy The Meiji oligarchy was the new ruling class of Meiji period The is an era An era is a span of time defined for the purposes of chronology 222px, Joseph Scaliger's ''De emendatione temporum'' (1583) began the modern science of chron ...
, such as the introduction of
women's suffrage Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote in elections. Beginning in the mid-19th century, aside from the work being done by women for broad-based economic and political equality and for social reforms, women sought to change voting law ...
, increases in local autonomy, or
trade union A trade union (or a labor union in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native ...
rights. The
prime minister A prime minister or a premier is the head of the cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transpa ...
and his government served at the Emperor's pleasure, and could not be removed by the Imperial Diet. However, the right to vote on, and if necessary to block, legislation including the budget, gave the House of Representatives leverage to force the government into negotiations. After an early period of frequent confrontation and temporary alliances between the cabinet and political parties in the lower house, parts of the Meiji oligarchy more sympathetic to political parties around
Itō Hirobumi Duke Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a , or of a member of , or . As rulers, dukes are ranked below s, s, s, s, and sovereign s. As royalty or nobility, they are ranked below princes of nobility and grand dukes. The ...

Itō Hirobumi
and parts of the liberal parties eventually formed a more permanent alliance, in the form of the
Rikken Seiyūkai The was one of the main political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about politics, and pa ...
in 1900. The confidence of the House of Representatives was never a formal requirement to govern, but between 1905 and 1918, only one cabinet took office that did not enjoy majority support in the House of Representatives.


Taisho and early Showa periods (1912-1937)

During the Taishō political crisis in 1913, a
no-confidence vote A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes in the reverse as a motion of confidence or vote of confidence, is a statement or vote about whether a person in a Authority, position of responsibility (govern ...
against the third Katsura government, accompanied by major demonstrations outside the Diet, was followed shortly by resignation. Subsequently, in the period often referred to as Taishō democracy, it became increasingly customary to appoint many ministers, including several prime ministers, from the House of Representatives –
Hara Takashi was a Japanese politician A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking an elected legal seat, seat in government. Politicians propose, support, and create laws that govern the land and, by extension, its ...

Hara Takashi
was the first commoner to become prime minister in 1918. In the same year, the Rice Riots had confronted the government with an unprecedented scale of domestic unrest, and a
German Revolution German(s) may refer to: * Germany (of or related to) **Germania (historical use) * Germans, citizens of Germany, people of German ancestry, or native speakers of the German language ** For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law **Germ ...
brought the Prusso-German monarchy to an end, the very system Meiji oligarchs had used as the main model for the Meiji constitution to consolidate and preserve Imperial power. Even
Yamagata Aritomo ''Gensui (Imperial Japanese Army), Gensui'' Prince , also known as Prince Yamagata Kyōsuke, was a senior-ranking Japanese people, Japanese military commander, twice-elected Prime Minister of Japan, and a leading member of the ''genrō'', an ...

Yamagata Aritomo
and other oligarchs that had been fundamentally opposed to political parties, became more inclined to cooperate with the still mainly
bourgeoisie Bourgeoisie (; ) is a polysemous Polysemy ( or ; from grc-gre, πολύ-, , "many" and , , "sign") is the capacity for a word or phrase to have multiple meanings, usually related by contiguity of meaning within a semantic fieldIn linguist ...

bourgeoisie
parties, to prevent a rise of socialism or other movements that might threaten Imperial rule. Socialist parties would not be represented in significant numbers in the lower house until the 1930s. The initially very high
census suffrage Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote). In some languages, and occasionally in English, the right to vote is called a ...
requirement was reduced several times, until the introduction of
universal male suffrage Universal manhood suffrage is a form of voting rights Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote Voting is a method ...
in 1925. The electoral system to the House of Representatives was also fundamentally changed several times: between systems of "small" mostly single- and few multi-member electoral districts (1890s, 1920, 1924), "medium" mostly multi-member districts (1928–1942) and "large" electoral districts (usually only one, rarely two city and one counties district per prefecture; 1900s and 1910s), using
first-past-the-post In a first-past-the-post electoral system (FPTP or FPP; sometimes formally called single-member plurality voting or SMP; sometimes called choose-one voting for single-member districts, in contrast to ranked voting, ranked-choice voting), voter ...
in single-member districts,
plurality-at-large voting Multiple non-transferable vote (MNTV), also known as plurality-at-large voting, block vote, block voting, or party block voting is a non-proportional Proportionality, proportion or proportional may refer to: Mathematics * Proportionality (mathem ...
(1890s) or
single non-transferable vote#REDIRECT Single non-transferable vote {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
in the multi-member districts. Influence of the House of Representatives on the government increased, and the party cabinets of the 1920s brought Japan apparently closer to a
parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
of government, and there were several reforms to the upper house in 1925. However, the balance of powers between the two houses and the influential role of extra-constitutional actors such as the Genrō (who still selected the prime minister) or the military (that had brought down several cabinets) remained in essence untouched. Within a year of the
Japanese invasion of Manchuria The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army ''Kantō-gun'' , image=Kwantung Army Headquarters.JPG , image_size=300px , caption=Kwantung Army headquarters in Hsinking, Manchukuo Manchukuo, officiall ...
in September 1931, a series of assassinations and coup attempts followed. Party governments were replaced by governments of "national unity" (''kyokoku itchi'') which were dominated by nobles, bureaucrats and increasingly the military.


World War II and aftermath (1937-1947)

After the
Marco Polo Bridge Incident The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, also known as the Lugou Bridge Incident () or the Double-Seven Incident (), was a July 1937 battle between Republic of China (1912–1949), China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army. Si ...
and the start of war in 1937, the influence of the Imperial Diet was further diminished, though never fully eliminated, by special laws such as the
National Mobilization Law was legislated in the Diet of Japan by Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe on 24 March 1938 to put the national economy of the Empire of Japan The was a historical nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactm ...
and expanded powers for cabinet agencies such as the Planning Board. The House of Representatives in the Empire had a four-year term and could be dissolved by the Emperor. In contrast, members of the House of Peers had either
life tenure A life tenure or service during good behaviour is a term of office A term of office is the length of time a person serves in a particular elected office An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate Mandate most often refers ...
(subject to revocation by the Emperor) or a seven-year term in the case of members elected in mutual peerage elections among the three lower peerage ranks, top taxpayer and academic peerage elections. During the war, the term of the members of the House of Representatives elected in the last pre-war election of 1937 was extended by one year. In the 1946 election to the House of Representatives, held under the U.S.-led
Allied occupation of Japan The Allied occupation of Japan at the end of World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the va ...
, women's suffrage was introduced, and a system of "large" electoral districts (one or two per prefecture) with
limited voting Limited voting (also known as the limited vote method) is a voting system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and referendums A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a ...
was used. A change in the electoral law in April 1945 had for the first time allocated 30 seats to the established colonies of the Empire: Karafuto (
Sakhalin Sakhalin; ja, 樺太 ''Karafuto'') is the largest island of Russia. It is the northernmost island of the Japanese Archipelago, Japanese archipelago, and is administered as part of the Sakhalin Oblast. Sakhalin is situated in the Pacific Ocean ...

Sakhalin
),
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
, and Chōsen (
Korea Korea is a region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental ...

Korea
); but this change was never implemented. Similarly, Korea and Taiwan were granted several appointed members of the House of Peers in 1945. In 1946, both houses of the Imperial Diet (together with the Emperor) passed the postwar constitution which took effect in 1947. The Imperial Diet was renamed the National Diet, the House of Peers was replaced by an elected upper house called the House of Councillors, and the House of Representatives would now be able to override the upper house in important matters. The constitution also gave the Diet exclusive legislative authority, without involvement of the Emperor, and explicitly made the cabinet responsible to the Diet and requires that the prime minister has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives.


Late Showa period (1947-1989)

The Diet first met under the new constitution on 20 May 1947. Four days later,
Tetsu Katayama was a Japanese politician who was Prime Minister of Japan from 1947 to 1948. He bears the distinction of having been the first socialist to serve as Prime Minister of Japan, and the first Prime Minister of post-war Japan. Early life He was ...

Tetsu Katayama
of the Democratic Socialist Party became Japan's first socialist prime minister and the first since the introduction of parliamentarianism. Since the end of US rule in 1952, it has been the norm that the prime minister dissolves the House of Representatives before its 4-year term expires. Only once, in 1976, did the House last a full 4 years. It has become tradition to give nicknames to each dissolution, usually referencing a major political issue or controversy. One infamous example was on 14 March 1953, when
Shigeru Yoshida (22 September 1878 – 20 October 1967) was a Japanese diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a st ...

Shigeru Yoshida
dissolved the House and called for new election, after he resorted to name calling people during a meeting of the budget committee. This came to be known as the ''"you idiot" dissolution''.Dissolving the House of Representatives: A Powerful Political Tool - nippon.com
/ref>


Recent history (since 1989)


Members (since 1990)


See also

*
National Diet The is Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of Japan.svg , alt_coat = Go ...

National Diet
*
House of Councillors (Japan) The is the upper house of the National Diet of Japan. The House of Representatives (Japan), House of Representatives is the lower house. The House of Councillors is the successor to the pre-war House of Peers (Japan), House of Peers. If the tw ...
*
List of districts of the House of Representatives of Japan , the House of Representatives of Japan The is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an uni ...
*
List of Speakers of the House of Representatives of Japan The is the presiding officer of the House of Representatives (Japan), House of Representatives of Japan, and together with the President of the House of Councillors, the Speaker is also the head of the Government of Japan, legislative branch of ...
* Sekihairitsu, the system used in elections for the House of Representatives to determine the order of candidates on a proportional representation list


References


External links


House of Representatives Website (in English)
– Official site of the House of Representatives
House of Representatives Internet TV
Official site {{DEFAULTSORT:House Of Representatives Of Japan Government of Japan National lower houses, Japan National Diet