HOME

TheInfoList




The House of Hanover (german: Haus von Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
royal house A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press 200px, The Pitt Building in Cambridge, which u ...
that ruled
Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in German ...
,
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...

Great Britain
, and Ireland at various times during the 17th to 20th centuries. The house originated in 1635 as a
cadet branch #REDIRECT Cadet branch In history and heraldry Heraldry () is a discipline relating to the design, display and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, ...
of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, growing in prestige until Hanover became an Electorate in 1692.
George IGeorge I or 1 may refer to: People * Patriarch George I of Alexandria (floruit, fl. 621–631) * George I of Constantinople (d. 686) * George I of Antioch (d. 790) * George I of Abkhazia (ruled 872/3–878/9) * George I of Georgia (d. 1027) * Yuri D ...
became the first Hanoverian monarch of
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...

Great Britain
and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in ...

Ireland
in 1714. At
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
's death in 1901, the throne of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
passed to her eldest son
Edward VII Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of Engla ...

Edward VII
, a member of the
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (; german: Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty. It takes its name from its oldest domain, the Ernestine duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, but its members later sat on the thrones of the United Ki ...

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
. The last reigning members of the House lost the
Duchy of Brunswick The Duchy of Brunswick (german: Herzogtum Braunschweig) was a historical German state. Its capital city, capital was the city of Braunschweig, Brunswick (''Braunschweig''). It was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick ...
in 1918 when Germany became a republic. The formal name of the house was the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Hanover line. The senior line of Brunswick-Lüneburg, which ruled Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, became extinct in 1884. The House of Hanover is now the only surviving branch of the
House of Welf The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century. Origins The (Younger) House of Welf is the older ...
, which is the senior branch of the
House of Este The House of Este (, , ) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Re ...
. The current head of the House of Hanover is Ernst August, Prince of Hanover.


History


Dukes and Electors of Brunswick-Lüneburg

George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg was the first member of the House of Hanover. When the
Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (german: Herzogtum Braunschweig und Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Late Modern era within the Holy Roman ...
was divided in 1635, George inherited the
Principality of Calenberg A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of ...
and moved his residence to Hanover. His son, Christian Louis, inherited the
Principality of Lüneburg The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) ...
from George's brother. Calenberg and Lüneburg were then shared between George's sons until united in 1705 under his grandson, also called George, who subsequently became
George I of Great Britain George I (George Louis; ; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of G ...
. All held the title ''Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg''. George died in 1641 and was succeeded by: * Christian Louis, 1st son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1641–1648) and Prince of Lüneburg (1648–1665). He relinquished Calenburg when he became Prince of Lüneburg. * George William, 2nd son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1648–1665) and Prince of Lüneburg (1665–1705). He relinquished Calenburg when he became Prince of Lüneburg on the death of his brother, Christian Louis. * John Frederick, 3rd son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1665–1679). * Ernest Augustus, 4th son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1679–1698). He became Prince of Calenberg on the death of his brother John Frederick. He was elevated to
prince-elector The prince-electors (german: Kurfürst pl. , cz, Kurfiřt, la, Princeps Elector), or electors for short, were the members of the that elected the of the . From the 13th century onwards, the prince-electors had the privilege of who would ...
of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
in 1692. Ernest Augustus's wife,
Sophia of the Palatinate Sophia means "wisdom" in Greek language, Greek. It may refer to: *Sophia (wisdom) *Sophia (Gnosticism) *Sophia (given name) Places *Niulakita or Sophia, an island of Tuvalu *Sophia, Georgetown, a ward of Georgetown, Guyana *Sophia, North Carolina ...

Sophia of the Palatinate
, was declared heiress of the throne of England by the Act of Settlement of 1701, which decreed
Roman Catholics The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ri ...
could not accede to the throne. Sophia was at that time the senior eligible Protestant descendant of
James I of England James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Kingdom of Ireland, Ireland as James I from the Union of the Crowns, union of the Scottish and ...

James I of England
. * George Louis, son of Duke Ernest Augustus and Sophia, became Elector and Prince of Calenberg in 1698 and Prince of Lüneburg when his uncle George William died in 1705. He inherited his mother's claim to the throne of Great Britain when she died in 1714.


Monarchs of Great Britain, Ireland, and Hanover

George Louis became the first British monarch of the House of Hanover as George I in 1714.. The dynasty provided six British monarchs: ''Of the Kingdoms of
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...

Great Britain
and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in ...

Ireland
'' (changed in 1801 to ''the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereig ...

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
''): #
George IGeorge I or 1 may refer to: People * Patriarch George I of Alexandria (floruit, fl. 621–631) * George I of Constantinople (d. 686) * George I of Antioch (d. 790) * George I of Abkhazia (ruled 872/3–878/9) * George I of Georgia (d. 1027) * Yuri D ...
( 1714–1727) (Georg Ludwig = George Louis) #
George IIGeorge II or 2 may refer to: People * George II of Antioch (seventh century AD) * George II of Armenia (late ninth century) * George II of Abkhazia (916–960) * Patriarch George II of Alexandria (1021–1051) * George II of Georgia (1072–1089) * ...
( 1727–1760) (Georg August = George Augustus) #
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the ...

George III
( 1760–1820) #
George IV George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of ...

George IV
( 1820–1830) #
William IV William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England ...

William IV
( 1830–1837) #
Victoria Victoria most commonly refers to: * Victoria (Australia), a state of the Commonwealth of Australia * Victoria, British Columbia, provincial capital of British Columbia, Canada * Victoria (mythology), Roman goddess of Victory * Victoria, Seychelles ...

Victoria
( 1837–1901). George I, George II, and George III also served as electors and dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, informally, Electors of
Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in German ...
(cf. ''
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...
''). From 1814, when Hanover became a kingdom, the British monarch was also
King of Hanover The King of Hanover (German language, German: ''König von Hannover'') was the official title of the head of state and Hereditary monarchy, hereditary ruler of the Kingdom of Hanover, beginning with the proclamation of the List of British monarch ...
. Upon the death of William IV in 1837, the personal union of the thrones of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
and Hanover ended. Succession to the Hanoverian throne was regulated by semi-
Salic law#REDIRECT Salic law The Salic law ( or ; la, Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Franks, Salian Frankish Civil law (legal system), civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis I, Clovis. The written text is in La ...
(agnatic-cognatic), which gave priority to all male lines before female lines, so that it passed not to Queen Victoria but to her uncle, the
Duke of Cumberland Duke of Cumberland is a British peerage, peerage title that was conferred upon junior members of the British Royal Family, named after the Historic counties of England, historic county of Cumberland. History The Earl of Cumberland, Earldom of Cumbe ...
. In 1901, when Queen Victoria, the last British monarch provided by the House of Hanover, died, her son and heir
Edward VII Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of Engla ...

Edward VII
became the first British Monarch of the
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (; german: Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty. It takes its name from its oldest domain, the Ernestine duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, but its members later sat on the thrones of the United Ki ...

House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
, Edward taking his family name from that of his father,
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha german: link=no, Franz Albert August Karl Emanuel , house = , father = Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Ernest I (german: Ernst Anton Karl Ludwig; 2 January 178429 January 1844) was the last sovereign duke of Saxe-Coburg- ...

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
.


Kings of Hanover after the breakup of the personal union

After the death of William IV in 1837, the following kings of Hanover continued the dynasty: *
Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover Ernest Augustus (german: Ernst August; 5 June 177118 November 1851) was King of Hanover The King of Hanover (German language, German: ''König von Hannover'') was the official title of the head of state and Hereditary monarchy, hereditary rule ...
(r. 1837–1851) *
George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A co ...
(r. 1851–1866, deposed) The
Kingdom of Hanover The Kingdom of Hanover (german: Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Han ...
ended in 1866 when it was annexed by
Kingdom of Prussia The Kingdom of Prussia (german: Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female m ...
and the king of Hanover (and duke of Cumberland) was forced to go into exile in Austria. The 1866 rift between the houses of Hanover and Hohenzollern was settled by the 1913 marriage of
Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia Princess Victoria Louise Adelaide Matilda Charlotte of Prussia (German language, German: ''Viktoria Luise Adelheid Mathilde Charlotte''; 13 September 1892 – 11 December 1980) was the only daughter and the last child of German Emperor Wilhelm II, ...

Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia
to
Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick '' , house = Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th ...
, the last king's grandson.


Prince-bishops of Osnabrück

At the end of the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western ...
, the
Peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the ...
(1648) awarded the
Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück The Prince-Bishopric of OsnabrückAlso known as the Prince-Bishopric of Osnaburg) (german: link=no, Hochstift Osnabrück; Fürstbistum Osnabrück, Bistum Osnabrück) was an ecclesiastical principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can ...
alternately to a Catholic bishop and to a cadet branch of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Since the treaty gave cadets priority over heirs and reigning princes, Osnabrück became a form of
appanage An appanage, or apanage (; french: apanage ), is the grant of an estate, title, office or other thing of value to a younger child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture Primogeniture ( ) is ...
(in alternation) of the House of Hanover. *
Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg Ernest Augustus (german: Ernst August; 20 November 1629 – 23 January 1698) was ruler of the Principality of Lüneburg The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lünebur ...
(r. 1662–1698), fourth son of George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg *
Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany (17 September 1674 – 14 August 1728), was the younger brother of George I of Great Britain ) , house = Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the Ge ...
(r. 1715–1728), sixth son of
Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg Ernest Augustus (german: Ernst August; 20 November 1629 – 23 January 1698) was ruler of the Principality of Lüneburg The Principality of Lüneburg (later also referred to as Celle) was a territorial division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lünebur ...
*
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (Frederick Augustus; 16 August 1763 – 5 January 1827) was the second son of George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland ...

Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
(r. 1764–1802), second son of
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the ...

George III
Osnabrück was mediatized to Hanover in 1803.


Dukes of Brunswick

In 1884, the senior branch of the
House of Welf The House of Welf (also Guelf or Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th to 20th century and Emperor Ivan VI of Russia in the 18th century. Origins The (Younger) House of Welf is the older ...
became extinct. By semi-
Salic law#REDIRECT Salic law The Salic law ( or ; la, Lex salica), or the was the ancient Salian Franks, Salian Frankish Civil law (legal system), civil law code compiled around AD 500 by the first Frankish King, Clovis I, Clovis. The written text is in La ...
, the House of Hanover would have acceded to the
Duchy of Brunswick The Duchy of Brunswick (german: Herzogtum Braunschweig) was a historical German state. Its capital city, capital was the city of Braunschweig, Brunswick (''Braunschweig''). It was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick ...
, but there had been strong Prussian pressure against having George V of Hanover or his son, the
Duke of Cumberland Duke of Cumberland is a British peerage, peerage title that was conferred upon junior members of the British Royal Family, named after the Historic counties of England, historic county of Cumberland. History The Earl of Cumberland, Earldom of Cumbe ...
, succeed to a member state of the German Empire, at least without strong conditions, including swearing to the German constitution. By a law of 1879, the Duchy of Brunswick established a temporary council of regency to take over at the Duke's death, and if necessary appoint a regent. The Duke of Cumberland proclaimed himself Duke of Brunswick at the Duke's death, and lengthy negotiations ensued, but were never resolved. Prince Albert of Prussia was appointed regent; after his death in 1906,
Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg (german: Herzog Johann Albrecht zu Mecklenburg; given names ''John Albert Ernest Constantine Frederick Henry''; 8 December 1857 – 16 February 1920) was a member of the House of Mecklenburg-Schwerin who served as ...
succeeded him. The Duke of Cumberland's eldest son died in a car accident in 1912; the father renounced Brunswick in favor of his younger son Ernest Augustus, who married the Kaiser's daughter the same year, swore allegiance to the German Empire, and was allowed to ascend the throne of the Duchy in November 1913. He was a major-general during the
First World War World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a that began on 28 July 1914 and ended on 11 November 1918. It involved much of , as well as , the and , and was also fought ...
; but he was overthrown as Duke of Brunswick in 1918. His father was also deprived of his British titles in 1919, for "bearing arms against Great Britain". After having left
Brunswick Palace Brunswick Palace (german: Braunschweiger Schloss or ''Braunschweiger Residenzschloss'') on the ''Bohlweg'' in the centre of the city of Brunswick Brunswick is the historical English name for the German city of Braunschweig (Low German: ''Brunswiek' ...
, the duke and his family moved back to their exile seat Cumberland Castle at
Gmunden Gmunden () is a town in Upper Austria, Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of ...

Gmunden
, Austria, but in 1924 he received Blankenburg Castle and some other estates in a settlement with the
Free State of Brunswick The Free State of Brunswick () was a state of the German Reich ''German Reich'' (german: Deutsches Reich, ) was the constitutional name for the German nation state A nation state is a state in which a great majority shares the same culture ...
, and moved there in 1930. A few days before Blankenburg was handed over to the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; rus, links= ...
by British and US forces in late 1945, to become part of
East Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current ...
, the family was able to quickly move to
Marienburg Castle (Hanover) Marienburg Castle is a Gothic revival castle in Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state (''Land'') situated in Northern Germany, northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest ...
with all their furniture, transported by British army trucks, on the order of King
George VI George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was and the s of the from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952. He was concurrently the last until August 1947, when the was dissolved. Known as "B ...

George VI
. Duke Ernest Augustus died at Marienburg Castle in 1953. His
Herrenhausen Palace Herrenhausen Palace (German: ''Schloss Herrenhausen'') is a former royal summer residence of the House of Hanover The House of Hanover (german: Haus von Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a Germans, German dynasty, roya ...
in Hanover had been completely destroyed during World War II. His eldest son, Prince Ernest Augustus, sold his remaining property at
Herrenhausen Gardens The Herrenhausen Gardens (german: Herrenhäuser Gärten, ) of Herrenhausen Palace Herrenhausen Palace (German: ''Schloss Herrenhausen'') is a former royal summer residence of the House of Hanover in the Herrenhausen district of the Germ ...
in 1961, but kept the nearby Princely House, a small palace built in 1720 by George I for his daughter Anna Louise. It is now his grandson Ernest Augustus's private home, along with Marienburg Castle.


Claimants

The later heads of the House of Hanover have been: *
George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A co ...
(1866–1878) *
Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover en, Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick , house = Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make ...
, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale (1878–1923) *
Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick '' , house = Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th ...
(1923–1953), son of the previous * Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover (1953–1987) * Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover (1987–present) ** Ernest Augustus, Hereditary Prince of Hanover (
heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state A head of state ...
) The family has been resident in Austria since 1866 and thus took on Austrian nationality besides their German and British. Since the later king Ernest Augustus had been created
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale was a title in the Peerage of Great Britain The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerage A peerage is a legal system historically comprising various hereditary titles (and sometimes Life peer, n ...
and
Earl of Armagh Earl () is a rank of the nobility in Britain. The title originates in the Old English word ''eorl'', meaning "a man of noble birth or rank". The word is cognate with the Scandinavia Scandinavia, Sami languages, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''S ...
by his father
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the ...

George III
in 1799, these British peerages were inherited by his descendants. In 1914 the title of a
Prince of Great Britain and Ireland upHRH the_Prince_of_Wales_and_elder_son_of_the_Prince_William,_Duke_of_Cambridge.html" "title="Elizabeth II">the Queen, grandson of Charles, Prince of Wales">the Prince of Wales and elder son of the Prince William, Duke of Cambridge">Duke of Cam ...
was additionally granted to the members of the house by King
George V George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A co ...

George V
. These peerages and titles however were suspended under the
Titles Deprivation Act 1917 The Titles Deprivation Act 1917 is an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or council). In most coun ...
. However, the title ''Royal Prince of Great Britain and Ireland'' had been entered into the family's German passports, together with the German titles, in 1914. After the
German Revolution of 1918–19 German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = Ge ...
, with the abolishment of nobility's privileges, titles officially became parts of the last name. So, curiously, the British prince's title is still part of the family's last name in their German passports, while it is no longer mentioned in their British documents. On 29 August 1931,
Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick '' , house = Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th ...
, as head of the House of Hanover, declared the formal resumption, for himself and his dynastic descendants, of use of his former British princely title as a secondary title of pretense, which style, "Royal Prince of Great Britain and Ireland", his grandson, the current head of the house, also called Ernest Augustus, continues to claim. He has the right to petition under the
Titles Deprivation Act 1917 The Titles Deprivation Act 1917 is an Act of Parliament Acts of parliament, sometimes referred to as primary legislation, are texts of law passed by the Legislature, legislative body of a jurisdiction (often a parliament or council). In most coun ...
for the restoration of his ancestors' suspended British peerages ''Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale'' and ''Earl of Armagh'', but he has not done so. His father, another Ernest Augustus, did, however, successfully claim British nationality after World War II by virtue of a hitherto overlooked (and since repealed) provision of the Sophia Naturalization Act 1705.''Attorney-General v HRH Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover'' 9571 All ER 49 According to the decision taken by a court of the
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...

House of Lords
, all family members bear the last name ''
Guelph Guelph ( ; 2016 Canadian Census The 2016 Canadian Census is the most recent detailed enumeration of Canadian Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, histor ...
'' in the UK and are styled
Royal Highness Royal Highness is a style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating something * Fashion, ...

Royal Highness
es in their documents.


List of members


Patrilineal descent

#
Oberto I Oberto I Obizzo (also known as Otbert) (died 15 October 975) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian ...
, 912–975 # Oberto Obizzo, 940–1017 #
Albert Azzo I, Margrave of Milan Albert Atto I ( it, Alberto Azzo or ''Adalberto Azzo'') (c. 970 died before 1018 or in 1029) was an Italian nobleman. He was a member of the Obertenghi (or Adalbertini) family. From 1014 onward, he was margrave of Milan and count of Luni, Genoa a ...
, 970–1029 # Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan, died 997 or 1009 # Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, 1037–1101 # Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, 1074–1126 # Henry X, Duke of Bavaria, 1108–1139 # Henry the Lion, 1129–1195 # William of Winchester, Lord of Lunenburg, 1184–1213 # Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1204–1252 # Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1236–1279 # Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1268–1318 # Magnus the Pious, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1304–1369 # Magnus II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1328–1373 # Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1362–1434 # Frederick II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1408–1478 # Otto V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1439–1471 # Henry the Middle, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Heinrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1468–1532 # Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1497–1546 # William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1535–1592 # George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1582–1641 # Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, 1629–1698 #
George I of Great Britain George I (George Louis; ; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of G ...
, 1660–1727 # George II of Great Britain, 1683–1760 # Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1707–1751 # George III of the United Kingdom, 1738–1820 #
Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover Ernest Augustus (german: Ernst August; 5 June 177118 November 1851) was King of Hanover The King of Hanover (German language, German: ''König von Hannover'') was the official title of the head of state and Hereditary monarchy, hereditary rule ...
, 1771–1851 # George V of Hanover, 1819–1878 #
Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover en, Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick , house = Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make ...
, 1845–1923 #
Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick '' , house = Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th ...
, 1887–1953 # Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987), Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover, 1914–1987 # Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (born 1954), Ernst August, Prince of Hanover, b. 1954 # Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1983), Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover, b. 1983


Legacy

Many towns and provinces across the Territorial evolution of the British Empire, British Empire were named after the ruling House of Hanover and its members, among them the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia, U.S. towns Hanover, Massachusetts, Hanover, New Hampshire, Hanover, Pennsylvania, Hanover Township, Jo Daviess County, Illinois, counties Hanover County, Virginia, Caroline County, Virginia, Brunswick County, Virginia, New Hanover County, North Carolina, Brunswick County, North Carolina, King George County, Virginia, places named Georgia (disambiguation)#United States, Georgia in New Jersey (e.g. New Brunswick, New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ), Vermont, Arkansas and South Dakota, seven towns in the U.S. and Canada named after Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Charlotte, furthermore the Canadian province of New Brunswick and towns Hanover, Ontario, Guelph, Ontario, and Victoria, British Columbia, in South Africa the town Hanover, Northern Cape, in Australia the state Victoria (Australia) and the city Adelaide, in the UK six and in the US thirteen towns named Brunswick, furthermore one each in Australia and New Zealand, and worldwide more than fifty towns named Victoria. There are also numerous streets and squares, such as Hanover Square, Westminster, Hanover Square (Manhattan), Hanover Square, Syracuse or Queen Street, Brisbane with its intersections named after members of the House. Georgian architecture gives distinction to the architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830 in most English-speaking countries.


See also

* British monarchs' family tree#House of Hanover, Family tree of the Hanover's British monarchs * Georgian era for kings George I, II, III, IV * History of Hanover


Explanatory notes


References


Further reading

* * * * * * * * *


Historiography

* Bultmann, William A. "Early Hanoverian England (1714–1760): Some Recent Writings," in Elizabeth Chapin Furber, ed. ''Changing views on British history: essays on historical writing since 1939'' (Harvard University Press, 1966), pp 181–205 * * Snyder, Henry L. "Early Georgian England," in Richard Schlatter, ed., ''Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing since 1966'' (Rutgers UP, 1984), pp. 167–196, historiography


External links

*
Official website of the House of Welf





House of Hanover
Archive.org
British Hanoverian Family tree
{{DEFAULTSORT:Hanover House of House of Hanover, Germany–United Kingdom relations European royal families History of Hanover (region) New Hanover County, North Carolina