Dukes and Electors of Brunswick-LüneburgGeorge, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, is considered the first member of the House of Hanover. When the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was divided in 1635, George inherited the Principality of Calenberg and moved his residence to Hanover. His son, Christian Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Christian Louis, inherited the Principality of Lüneburg from George's brother. Calenberg and Lüneburg were then shared between George's sons until united in 1705 under his grandson, also called George, who subsequently became George I of Great Britain. All held the title ''Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg''. George died in 1641 and was succeeded by: *Christian Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Christian Louis, 1st son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1641–1648) and Prince of Lüneburg (1648–1665). He relinquished Calenburg when he became Prince of Lüneburg. *George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, George William, 2nd son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1648–1665) and Prince of Lüneburg (1665–1705). He relinquished Calenburg when he became Prince of Lüneburg on the death of his brother, Christian Louis. *John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, John Frederick, 3rd son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1665–1679). *Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Ernest Augustus, 4th son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1679–1698). He became Prince of Calenberg on the death of his brother John Frederick. He was elevated to prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1692. Ernest Augustus's wife, Sophia of Hanover, Sophia of the Palatinate, was declared heiress of the throne of England by the Act of Settlement 1701, Act of Settlement of 1701, which decreed Roman Catholics could not accede to the throne. Sophia was at that time the senior eligible Protestant descendant of James I of England. *George I of Great Britain, George Louis, son of Duke Ernest Augustus and Sophia, became Elector and Prince of Calenberg in 1698 and Prince of Lüneburg when his uncle George William died in 1705. He inherited his mother's claim to the throne of Great Britain when she died in 1714.
Monarchs of Great Britain, Ireland, and HanoverGeorge Louis became the first British monarch of the House of Hanover as George I in 1714.. The dynasty provided six British monarchs: ''Of the Kingdoms of and :'' * George I ( 1714–1727) (Georg Ludwig = George Louis) *George II of Great Britain, George II ( 1727–1760) (Georg August = George Augustus) *George III of the United Kingdom, George III ( 1760–1801) ''Of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland:'' *George III of the United Kingdom, George III ( 1801–1820) *George IV of the United Kingdom, George IV ( 1820–1830) *William IV of the United Kingdom, William IV ( 1830–1837) *Queen Victoria, Victoria ( 1837–1901). George I, George II, and George III also served as electors and dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, informally, Electors of (cf. ''Personal union#Hanover, personal union''). From 1814, when Hanover became a kingdom, the British monarch was also King of Hanover.
Kings of Hanover after the breakup of the personal unionAfter the death of William IV in 1837, the following kings of Hanover continued the dynasty: * Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover (r. 1837–1851) * George V of Hanover, George V (r. 1851–1866, deposed)
Prince-bishops of OsnabrückAt the end of the Thirty Years' War, the Peace of Westphalia (1648) awarded the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück alternately to a Catholic bishop and to a cadet branch of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Since the treaty gave cadets priority over heirs and reigning princes, Osnabrück became a form of appanage (in alternation) of the House of Hanover. * Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg (r. 1662–1698), fourth son of George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg * Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany (r. 1715–1728), sixth son of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg * Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (r. 1764–1802), second son of George III of the United Kingdom, George III Osnabrück was German mediatization, mediatized to Hanover in 1803.
Dukes of BrunswickIn 1884, the senior branch of the House of Welf became extinct. By semi-Salic law, the House of Hanover would have acceded to the , but there had been strong Prussian pressure against having George V of Hanover or his son, the Ernest Augustus, 3rd Duke of Cumberland, Duke of Cumberland, succeed to a member state of the German Empire, at least without strong conditions, including swearing to the German constitution. By a law of 1879, the Duchy of Brunswick established a temporary council of regency to take over at the Duke's death, and if necessary appoint a regent. The Duke of Cumberland proclaimed himself Duke of Brunswick at the Duke's death, and lengthy negotiations ensued, but were never resolved. Prince Albrecht of Prussia, Prince Albert of Prussia was appointed regent; after his death in 1906, Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg succeeded him. The Duke of Cumberland's eldest son died in a car accident in 1912; the father renounced Brunswick in favor of his younger son Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, Ernest Augustus, who married the Kaiser's daughter Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia, Victoria Louise the same year, swore allegiance to the German Empire, and was allowed to ascend the throne of the Duchy in November 1913. He was a major-general during the First World War; but he was overthrown as Duke of Brunswick in 1918. His father was also deprived of his British titles in 1919, for "bearing arms against Great Britain". After having left Brunswick Palace, the duke and his family moved back to their exile seat ''Cumberland Castle'' at Gmunden, Austria, but in 1924 he received Blankenburg Castle (Harz), Blankenburg Castle and some other estates in a settlement with the Free State of Brunswick, and moved there in 1930. A few days before Blankenburg was handed over to the Red Army by British and US forces in late 1945, to become part of East Germany, the family was able to quickly move to Marienburg Castle (Hanover) with all their furniture, transported by British army trucks, on the order of King George VI. Duke Ernest Augustus died at Marienburg Castle in 1953. His Herrenhausen Palace in Hanover had been completely destroyed during World War II. His eldest son, Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987), Prince Ernest Augustus, sold his remaining property at Herrenhausen Gardens in 1961, but kept the nearby ''Princely House'', a small palace built in 1720 by George I for his daughter Anna Louise. It is now his grandson Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1983), Ernest Augustus's private home, along with Marienburg Castle.
ClaimantsThe later heads of the House of Hanover have been: * George V of Hanover, George V (1866–1878) * Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale (1878–1923) * Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick (1923–1953), son of the previous * Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover (1914–1987), Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover (1953–1987) * Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1954), Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover (1987–present) ** Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1983), Ernest Augustus, Hereditary Prince of Hanover (heir apparent) The family has been resident in Austria since 1866 and thus took on Austrian nationality besides their German and British. Since the later king Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Ernest Augustus had been created Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh by his father George III of the United Kingdom, George III in 1799, these British peerages were inherited by his descendants. In 1914 the title of a Prince of Great Britain and Ireland was additionally granted to the members of the house by King George V of the United Kingdom, George V. These peerages and titles however were suspended under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917. However, the title ''Royal Prince of Great Britain and Ireland'' had been entered into the family's German passports, together with the German titles, in 1914. After the German Revolution of 1918–19, with the abolishment of nobility's privileges, titles officially became parts of the last name. So, curiously, the British prince's title is still part of the family's last name in their German passports, while it is no longer mentioned in their British documents. On 29 August 1931, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, as head of the House of Hanover, declared the formal resumption, for himself and his dynastic descendants, of use of his former British princely title as a secondary pretender, title of pretense, which style, "Royal Prince of Great Britain and Ireland", his grandson, the current head of the house, also called Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1954), Ernest Augustus, continues to claim. He has the right to petition under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917 for the restoration of his ancestors' suspended British peerages ''Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale'' and ''Earl of Armagh'', but he has not done so. His father, another Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987), Ernest Augustus, did, however, successfully claim British nationality after World War II by virtue of a hitherto overlooked (and since repealed) provision of the Sophia Naturalization Act 1705.''Attorney-General v HRH Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover''  1 All ER 49 According to the decision taken by a court of the House of Lords, all family members bear the last name ''House of Guelph, Guelph'' in the UK and are styled Royal Highnesses in their documents.
List of members
Patrilineal descent#Oberto I, 912–975 #Otbert II, Margrave of Milan, Oberto Obizzo, 940–1017 #Albert Azzo I, Margrave of Milan, 970–1029 #Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan, d. #Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, 1037–1101 #Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, 1074–1126 #Henry X, Duke of Bavaria, 1108–1139 #Henry the Lion, 1129–1195 #William of Winchester, Lord of Lunenburg, 1184–1213 #Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1204–1252 #Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1236–1279 #Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1268–1318 #Magnus the Pious, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1304–1369 #Magnus II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1328–1373 #Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1362–1434 #Frederick II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1408–1478 #Otto V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1439–1471 #Henry the Middle, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Heinrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1468–1532 #Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1497–1546 #William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1535–1592 #George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1582–1641 #Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, 1629–1698 #George I of Great Britain, 1660–1727 #George II of Great Britain, 1683–1760 #Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1707–1751 #George III of the United Kingdom, 1738–1820 #Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, 1771–1851 #George V of Hanover, 1819–1878 #Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 1845–1923 #Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, 1887–1953 #Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987), Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover, 1914–1987 #Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (born 1954), Ernst August, Prince of Hanover, b. 1954 #Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1983), Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover, b. 1983
LegacyMany towns and provinces across the Territorial evolution of the British Empire, British Empire were named after the ruling House of Hanover and its members, among them the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia, U.S. towns Hanover, Massachusetts, Hanover, New Hampshire, Hanover, Pennsylvania, Hanover Township, Jo Daviess County, Illinois, counties Hanover County, Virginia, Caroline County, Virginia, Brunswick County, Virginia, New Hanover County, North Carolina, Brunswick County, North Carolina, King George County, Virginia, places named Georgia (disambiguation)#United States, Georgia in New Jersey, Vermont, Arkansas and South Dakota, seven towns in the U.S. and Canada named after Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Charlotte, furthermore the Canadian province of New Brunswick and towns Hanover, Ontario, Guelph, Ontario, and Victoria, British Columbia, in South Africa the town Hanover, Northern Cape, in Australia the state Victoria (Australia) and the town Adelaide, in the UK six and in the US thirteen towns named Brunswick, furthermore one each in Australia and New Zealand, and worldwide more than fifty towns named Victoria. There are also numerous streets and squares, such as Hanover Square, Westminster, Hanover Square (Manhattan), Hanover Square, Syracuse or Queen Street, Brisbane with its intersections named after members of the House. Georgian architecture gives distinction to the architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830 in most English-speaking countries.
See also* British monarchs' family tree#House of Hanover, Family tree of the Hanover's British monarchs * Georgian era for kings George I, II, III, IV * History of Hanover
Further reading* Black, Jeremy. ''The Hanoverians: The History of a Dynasty'' (2004), 288 pp. * Black, Jeremy. "Georges I & II: Limited monarchs." ''History Today'' 53.2 (2003): 11+ *Fraser, Flora. ''Princesses: The Six Daughters of George III''. Knopf, 2005. *Plumb, J. H. ''The First Four Georges''. Revised ed. Hamlyn, 1974. *Redman, Alvin. ''The House of Hanover''. Coward-McCann, 1960. * Robertson, Charles. ''England under the Hanoverians'' (1911
Historiography* Bultmann, William A. "Early Hanoverian England (1714–1760): Some Recent Writings," in Elizabeth Chapin Furber, ed. ''Changing views on British history: essays on historical writing since 1939'' (Harvard University Press, 1966), pp 181–205 * O’Gorman, Frank. “The Recent Historiography of the Hanoverian Regime.” ''Historical Journal'' 29#4 (1986): 1005–1020. * Snyder, Henry L. "Early Georgian England," in Richard Schlatter, ed., ''Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing since 1966'' (Rutgers UP, 1984), pp 167 – 196, historiography