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The House of Hanover (german: Haus Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a German royal house that ruled
Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 (2017) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in German ...
, Great Britain, and Ireland at various times during the 17th to 20th centuries. The house originated in 1635 as a cadet branch of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, growing in prestige until Hanover became an Electorate in 1692. George I became the first Hanoverian monarch of
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...
and
Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish ...
in 1714. At
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was Li ...

Queen Victoria
's death in 1901, the throne of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
passed to her eldest son
Edward VII Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert ...
, a member of the
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (; german: Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty. It takes its name from its oldest domain, the Ernestine duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, but its members later sat on the thrones of the United Ki ...
. The last reigning members of the House lost the
Duchy of Brunswick The Duchy of Brunswick (german: Herzogtum Braunschweig) was a historical German state. Its capital city, capital was the city of Braunschweig, Brunswick (''Braunschweig''). It was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick ...
in 1918 when Germany became a republic. The formal name of the house was the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Hanover line. The senior line of Brunswick-Lüneburg, which ruled Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, became extinct in 1884. The House of Hanover is now the only surviving branch of the House of Welf, which is the senior branch of the
House of Este The House of Este (, , ) was an Italian city-states, Italian princely family, linked with several contemporary royal dynasties, including the House of Habsburg and the British royal family. The elder branch of the House of Este, known as the House ...
. The current head of the House of Hanover is Ernst August, Prince of Hanover.


History


Dukes and Electors of Brunswick-Lüneburg

George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, is considered the first member of the House of Hanover. When the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg was divided in 1635, George inherited the Principality of Calenberg and moved his residence to Hanover. His son, Christian Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Christian Louis, inherited the Principality of Lüneburg from George's brother. Calenberg and Lüneburg were then shared between George's sons until united in 1705 under his grandson, also called George, who subsequently became George I of Great Britain. All held the title ''Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg''. George died in 1641 and was succeeded by: *Christian Louis, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Christian Louis, 1st son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1641–1648) and Prince of Lüneburg (1648–1665). He relinquished Calenburg when he became Prince of Lüneburg. *George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, George William, 2nd son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1648–1665) and Prince of Lüneburg (1665–1705). He relinquished Calenburg when he became Prince of Lüneburg on the death of his brother, Christian Louis. *John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, John Frederick, 3rd son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1665–1679). *Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Ernest Augustus, 4th son of Duke George, Prince of Calenberg (1679–1698). He became Prince of Calenberg on the death of his brother John Frederick. He was elevated to prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1692. Ernest Augustus's wife, Sophia of Hanover, Sophia of the Palatinate, was declared heiress of the throne of England by the Act of Settlement 1701, Act of Settlement of 1701, which decreed Roman Catholics could not accede to the throne. Sophia was at that time the senior eligible Protestant descendant of James I of England. *George I of Great Britain, George Louis, son of Duke Ernest Augustus and Sophia, became Elector and Prince of Calenberg in 1698 and Prince of Lüneburg when his uncle George William died in 1705. He inherited his mother's claim to the throne of Great Britain when she died in 1714.


Monarchs of Great Britain, Ireland, and Hanover

George Louis became the first British monarch of the House of Hanover as George I in 1714.. The dynasty provided six British monarchs: ''Of the Kingdoms of
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...
and
Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish ...
:'' * George I ( 1714–1727) (Georg Ludwig = George Louis) *George II of Great Britain, George II ( 1727–1760) (Georg August = George Augustus) *George III of the United Kingdom, George III ( 1760–1801) ''Of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland:'' *George III of the United Kingdom, George III ( 1801–1820) *George IV of the United Kingdom, George IV ( 1820–1830) *William IV of the United Kingdom, William IV ( 1830–1837) *Queen Victoria, Victoria ( 1837–1901). George I, George II, and George III also served as electors and dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, informally, Electors of
Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 (2017) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by population, 13th-largest city in German ...
(cf. ''Personal union#Hanover, personal union''). From 1814, when Hanover became a kingdom, the British monarch was also King of Hanover. File:Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1816-1837).svg, Arms of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom (1816–1837) File:King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (3).jpg, George I (1714–1727) File:George II by Thomas Hudson.jpg, George II of Great Britain, George II (1727–1760) File:Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg, George III of the United Kingdom, George III (1760–1820) File:George IV 1821 color.jpg, George IV of the United Kingdom, George IV (1820–1830) File:William IV.jpg, William IV of the United Kingdom, William IV (1830–1837) File:Queen Victoria 1843.jpg, Queen Victoria, Victoria (1837–1901) In 1837, the personal union of the thrones of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...
and Hanover ended with the death of William IV. Succession to the Hanoverian throne was regulated by semi-Salic law (agnatic-cognatic), which gave priority to all male lines before female lines, so that it passed not to Queen Victoria but to her uncle, the Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Duke of Cumberland. In 1901, when Queen Victoria, the last British monarch provided by the House of Hanover, died, her son and heir
Edward VII Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert ...
became the first British Monarch of the
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (; german: Haus Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is a German dynasty. It takes its name from its oldest domain, the Ernestine duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, but its members later sat on the thrones of the United Ki ...
, Edward taking his family name from that of his father, Albert, Prince Consort, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. File:Kensington Palace - DSCF0295.JPG, Kensington Palace File:St James Palace, London 1.jpg, St James's Palace File:Windsor Castle at Sunset - Nov 2006.jpg, Windsor Castle File:Palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh.jpg, Holyrood Palace


Kings of Hanover after the breakup of the personal union

After the death of William IV in 1837, the following kings of Hanover continued the dynasty: * Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover (r. 1837–1851) * George V of Hanover, George V (r. 1851–1866, deposed) File:Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Hanover.svg, Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Hanover 1837 File:Ernest Augustus I of Hanover.PNG, Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover (1837–1851) File:GeorgeVHannover.jpg, King George V of Hanover (1851–1866) The Kingdom of Hanover came to an end in 1866 when it was annexed by Kingdom of Prussia and the king of Hanover (and duke of Cumberland) forced to go into exile in Austria. The 1866 rift between the House of Hanover and the House of Hohenzollern was settled only by the 1913 marriage of Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia to Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, the last king's grandson.


Prince-bishops of Osnabrück

At the end of the Thirty Years' War, the Peace of Westphalia (1648) awarded the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück alternately to a Catholic bishop and to a cadet branch of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Since the treaty gave cadets priority over heirs and reigning princes, Osnabrück became a form of appanage (in alternation) of the House of Hanover. * Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg (r. 1662–1698), fourth son of George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg * Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany (r. 1715–1728), sixth son of Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg * Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (r. 1764–1802), second son of George III of the United Kingdom, George III Osnabrück was German mediatization, mediatized to Hanover in 1803.


Dukes of Brunswick

In 1884, the senior branch of the House of Welf became extinct. By semi-Salic law, the House of Hanover would have acceded to the
Duchy of Brunswick The Duchy of Brunswick (german: Herzogtum Braunschweig) was a historical German state. Its capital city, capital was the city of Braunschweig, Brunswick (''Braunschweig''). It was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick ...
, but there had been strong Prussian pressure against having George V of Hanover or his son, the Ernest Augustus, 3rd Duke of Cumberland, Duke of Cumberland, succeed to a member state of the German Empire, at least without strong conditions, including swearing to the German constitution. By a law of 1879, the Duchy of Brunswick established a temporary council of regency to take over at the Duke's death, and if necessary appoint a regent. The Duke of Cumberland proclaimed himself Duke of Brunswick at the Duke's death, and lengthy negotiations ensued, but were never resolved. Prince Albrecht of Prussia, Prince Albert of Prussia was appointed regent; after his death in 1906, Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg succeeded him. The Duke of Cumberland's eldest son died in a car accident in 1912; the father renounced Brunswick in favor of his younger son Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, Ernest Augustus, who married the Kaiser's daughter Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia, Victoria Louise the same year, swore allegiance to the German Empire, and was allowed to ascend the throne of the Duchy in November 1913. He was a major-general during the First World War; but he was overthrown as Duke of Brunswick in 1918. His father was also deprived of his British titles in 1919, for "bearing arms against Great Britain". After having left Brunswick Palace, the duke and his family moved back to their exile seat ''Cumberland Castle'' at Gmunden, Austria, but in 1924 he received Blankenburg Castle (Harz), Blankenburg Castle and some other estates in a settlement with the Free State of Brunswick, and moved there in 1930. A few days before Blankenburg was handed over to the Red Army by British and US forces in late 1945, to become part of East Germany, the family was able to quickly move to Marienburg Castle (Hanover) with all their furniture, transported by British army trucks, on the order of King George VI. Duke Ernest Augustus died at Marienburg Castle in 1953. His Herrenhausen Palace in Hanover had been completely destroyed during World War II. His eldest son, Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987), Prince Ernest Augustus, sold his remaining property at Herrenhausen Gardens in 1961, but kept the nearby ''Princely House'', a small palace built in 1720 by George I for his daughter Anna Louise. It is now his grandson Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1983), Ernest Augustus's private home, along with Marienburg Castle. File:Braunschweiger Schloss.jpg, Brunswick Palace File:Wolfenbuettel Schloss (2006).jpg, Wolfenbüttel Castle


Claimants

The later heads of the House of Hanover have been: * George V of Hanover, George V (1866–1878) * Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale (1878–1923) * Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick (1923–1953), son of the previous * Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover (1914–1987), Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover (1953–1987) * Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1954), Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover (1987–present) ** Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1983), Ernest Augustus, Hereditary Prince of Hanover (heir apparent) The family has been resident in Austria since 1866 and thus took on Austrian nationality besides their German and British. Since the later king Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Ernest Augustus had been created Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale and Earl of Armagh by his father George III of the United Kingdom, George III in 1799, these British peerages were inherited by his descendants. In 1914 the title of a Prince of Great Britain and Ireland was additionally granted to the members of the house by King George V of the United Kingdom, George V. These peerages and titles however were suspended under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917. However, the title ''Royal Prince of Great Britain and Ireland'' had been entered into the family's German passports, together with the German titles, in 1914. After the German Revolution of 1918–19, with the abolishment of nobility's privileges, titles officially became parts of the last name. So, curiously, the British prince's title is still part of the family's last name in their German passports, while it is no longer mentioned in their British documents. On 29 August 1931, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, as head of the House of Hanover, declared the formal resumption, for himself and his dynastic descendants, of use of his former British princely title as a secondary pretender, title of pretense, which style, "Royal Prince of Great Britain and Ireland", his grandson, the current head of the house, also called Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1954), Ernest Augustus, continues to claim. He has the right to petition under the Titles Deprivation Act 1917 for the restoration of his ancestors' suspended British peerages ''Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale'' and ''Earl of Armagh'', but he has not done so. His father, another Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987), Ernest Augustus, did, however, successfully claim British nationality after World War II by virtue of a hitherto overlooked (and since repealed) provision of the Sophia Naturalization Act 1705.''Attorney-General v HRH Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover'' [1957] 1 All ER 49 According to the decision taken by a court of the House of Lords, all family members bear the last name ''House of Guelph, Guelph'' in the UK and are styled Royal Highnesses in their documents.


List of members


Patrilineal descent

#Oberto I, 912–975 #Otbert II, Margrave of Milan, Oberto Obizzo, 940–1017 #Albert Azzo I, Margrave of Milan, 970–1029 #Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan, d. #Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, 1037–1101 #Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, 1074–1126 #Henry X, Duke of Bavaria, 1108–1139 #Henry the Lion, 1129–1195 #William of Winchester, Lord of Lunenburg, 1184–1213 #Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1204–1252 #Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1236–1279 #Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1268–1318 #Magnus the Pious, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1304–1369 #Magnus II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1328–1373 #Bernard I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1362–1434 #Frederick II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1408–1478 #Otto V, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1439–1471 #Henry the Middle, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Heinrich, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1468–1532 #Ernest I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1497–1546 #William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1535–1592 #George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, 1582–1641 #Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, 1629–1698 #George I of Great Britain, 1660–1727 #George II of Great Britain, 1683–1760 #Frederick, Prince of Wales, 1707–1751 #George III of the United Kingdom, 1738–1820 #Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, 1771–1851 #George V of Hanover, 1819–1878 #Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover, 1845–1923 #Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick, 1887–1953 #Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (1914–1987), Ernest Augustus, Prince of Hanover, 1914–1987 #Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover (born 1954), Ernst August, Prince of Hanover, b. 1954 #Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1983), Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover, b. 1983 File:Landtag Niedersachsen.jpg, The Leineschloss, Leine Palace in Hanover (Former Royal Residence of the Kingdom of Hanover) File:Unbekannt, Maison de Plaisir d'Herrenhausen, c1708..jpg, Herrenhausen Palace and Gardens in Hanover (c. 1708) File:Das Schloss in Celle.jpg, Celle Castle File:Pattensen Marienburg Castle.jpg, Marienburg Castle (Hanover), present seat of the Princes of Hanover


Legacy

Many towns and provinces across the Territorial evolution of the British Empire, British Empire were named after the ruling House of Hanover and its members, among them the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia, U.S. towns Hanover, Massachusetts, Hanover, New Hampshire, Hanover, Pennsylvania, Hanover Township, Jo Daviess County, Illinois, counties Hanover County, Virginia, Caroline County, Virginia, Brunswick County, Virginia, New Hanover County, North Carolina, Brunswick County, North Carolina, King George County, Virginia, places named Georgia (disambiguation)#United States, Georgia in New Jersey, Vermont, Arkansas and South Dakota, seven towns in the U.S. and Canada named after Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Charlotte, furthermore the Canadian province of New Brunswick and towns Hanover, Ontario, Guelph, Ontario, and Victoria, British Columbia, in South Africa the town Hanover, Northern Cape, in Australia the state Victoria (Australia) and the town Adelaide, in the UK six and in the US thirteen towns named Brunswick, furthermore one each in Australia and New Zealand, and worldwide more than fifty towns named Victoria. There are also numerous streets and squares, such as Hanover Square, Westminster, Hanover Square (Manhattan), Hanover Square, Syracuse or Queen Street, Brisbane with its intersections named after members of the House. Georgian architecture gives distinction to the architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830 in most English-speaking countries.


See also

* British monarchs' family tree#House of Hanover, Family tree of the Hanover's British monarchs * Georgian era for kings George I, II, III, IV * History of Hanover


Notes


Further reading

* Black, Jeremy. ''The Hanoverians: The History of a Dynasty'' (2004), 288 pp. * Black, Jeremy. "Georges I & II: Limited monarchs." ''History Today'' 53.2 (2003): 11+ *Fraser, Flora. ''Princesses: The Six Daughters of George III''. Knopf, 2005. *Plumb, J. H. ''The First Four Georges''. Revised ed. Hamlyn, 1974. *Redman, Alvin. ''The House of Hanover''. Coward-McCann, 1960. * Robertson, Charles. ''England under the Hanoverians'' (1911
online
* Schweizer, Karl W., and Jeremy Black, eds. ''Politics and the Press in Hanoverian Britain'' (E. Mellon Press, 1989). * Simms, Brendan and Torsten Riotte, eds. ''The Hanoverian Dimension in British History, 1714–1837'' (2009
online
focus on Hanover *Van der Kiste, John. ''George III’s Children''. Sutton Publishing, 1992.


Historiography

* Bultmann, William A. "Early Hanoverian England (1714–1760): Some Recent Writings," in Elizabeth Chapin Furber, ed. ''Changing views on British history: essays on historical writing since 1939'' (Harvard University Press, 1966), pp 181–205 * O’Gorman, Frank. “The Recent Historiography of the Hanoverian Regime.” ''Historical Journal'' 29#4 (1986): 1005–1020. * Snyder, Henry L. "Early Georgian England," in Richard Schlatter, ed., ''Recent Views on British History: Essays on Historical Writing since 1966'' (Rutgers UP, 1984), pp 167 – 196, historiography


External links

*
Official website of the House of Welf





House of Hanover
Archive.org {{{New Hanover County, North Carolina {{Royal houses of Europe {{Authority control {{DEFAULTSORT:Hanover, House Of House of Hanover, Germany–United Kingdom relations European royal families History of Hanover (region) New Hanover County, North Carolina